Biologicals – Made up of bacterins and vaccines – A bacterin/vaccine is a suspension of killed or weakened microorganisms Killed Vaccine – Has no self-replicating microorganisms Modified Live Vaccines – Contain microorganisms that have been weakened through culturing and laboratory procedures
Biologicals and Pharmaceuticals Pharmaceuticals: – Are medicinal drugs. – Contain no live or killed microorganisms – Are used to treat a variety of health related conditions – Almost every pharmaceutical has a withdrawal period – Example: Antibiotics such as LA-200
Types of Drug Use Labeled Use: Using the drug EXACTLY as it is specified on this label. Medicated feed may only be used as directed by the label. Labeled use is legal and the type of use most producers use! Off Label: The PRODUCER uses drugs on their own in a manner other than what is stated on the label without veterinarian guidance. This is ILLEGAL!! Extra Label: The VETERINARIAN prescribes a drug to be used in a manner other than whats on the label. This is legal and is used when a good veterinarian-client-patient relationship exists.
Vaccination Vaccination is a good protection tool Active immunity engaged through vaccinations with biologicals Vaccination is for prevention of disease – Prevention of disease is cheaper than treatment of disease
Points to Ponder Best Time to Vaccinate?? When do you need the most protection? Before disease exposure occurs – Takes 5-7 days for protection with most modified-live vaccines – Killed vaccines require a booster within 2-4 weeks of initial vaccination to obtain adequate protection levels Dont expect to vaccinate one day and get protection the next day
Points to Consider? What kind of vaccine? – Killed – Modified-Live – Autogenous Advantages vs. Disadvantages
Killed Vaccines Viruses, bacterins, toxoids – 1 st dose to sensitize – 2 nd dose to produce immunity Two doses required
Killed Vaccine Advantages – Does not replicate in the animal – Safer to use in pregnant animals Disadvantages – Most require boosters – Tissue irritation at vaccination site
Modified-Live Vaccines Advantages – Usu. requires one injection – Lower $$$, smaller dose – Less irritation at injection site – Longer immunity Disadvantages – May cause abortion in pregnant animals – Shouldnt use on calves nursing preg. cows – Stress from mild form of disease
Reasons for Vaccine Failure Human Error: – Not following directions on the label! – Disinfectant used on syringes – Mixing several products together – Vaccinating at the wrong time – interval
More Reasons for Vaccine Failure Vaccine Factors: – Improper storage of vaccine – Use and restore
More Reasons for Vaccine Failure Host Factors: – Some animals dont respond
More Reasons for Vaccine Failure Host Factors: – Severe challenge
Why Precondition? Opportunity to profits Benefits Both Buyer and Seller – Seller will receive additional value on calves – Buyer realizes improved health and gain performance Improve the welfare of our cattle
Pre-Con Protocol Requirements differ between sales – Wean Vac vs. VAC 45 Process 2-4 wks before wean or at wean 5-way: IBR, BVD Types 1&2, PI-3, BRSV Blackleg – 7 way or 8 way Past./H.somnus Dewormer Castrating, dehorn Revac. in 2-6 wks.
Economics of Preconditioning Outcome of AR Precon Calf sales Cost & ReturnsValue/calf Gross Return$88.99 Death Loss- $0 Labor- $6.87 Veterinary Costs- $17.83 Other costs- $10.19 Hay/Feed/Mineral/Pasture- $33.10 Total Net Return$21.00