# Rates and Rate Laws.

## Presentation on theme: "Rates and Rate Laws."— Presentation transcript:

Rates and Rate Laws

Reaction Rate The change in concentration of a reactant or product per unit of time

Reaction Rates: 1. Can measure disappearance of reactants
2NO2(g)  2NO(g) + O2(g) Reaction Rates: 1. Can measure disappearance of reactants 2. Can measure appearance of products 3. Are proportional stoichiometrically

Reaction Rates: 4. Are equal to the slope tangent to that point
2NO2(g)  2NO(g) + O2(g) Reaction Rates: 4. Are equal to the slope tangent to that point 5. Change as the reaction proceeds, if the rate is dependent upon concentration [NO2] t

Rate Laws Differential rate laws express (reveal) the relationship between the concentration of reactants and the rate of the reaction. The differential rate law is usually just called “the rate law.” Integrated rate laws express (reveal) the relationship between concentration of reactants and time

Writing a (differential) Rate Law
Problem - Write the rate law, determine the value of the rate constant, k, and the overall order for the following reaction: 2 NO(g) + Cl2(g)  2 NOCl(g) Experiment [NO] (mol/L) [Cl2] Rate Mol/L·s 1 0.250 1.43 x 10-6 2 0.500 5.72 x 10-6 3 2.86 x 10-6 4 11.4 x 10-6

Writing a Rate Law Part 1 – Determine the values for the exponents in the rate law: R = k[NO]x[Cl2]y Experiment [NO] (mol/L) [Cl2] Rate Mol/L·s 1 0.250 1.43 x 10-6 2 0.500 5.72 x 10-6 3 2.86 x 10-6 4 1.14 x 10-5 In experiment 1 and 2, [Cl2] is constant while [NO] doubles. The rate quadruples, so the reaction is second order with respect to [NO]  R = k[NO]2[Cl2]y

Writing a Rate Law Part 1 – Determine the values for the exponents in the rate law: R = k[NO]2[Cl2]y Experiment [NO] (mol/L) [Cl2] Rate Mol/L·s 1 0.250 1.43 x 10-6 2 0.500 5.72 x 10-6 3 2.86 x 10-6 4 1.14 x 10-5 In experiment 2 and 4, [NO] is constant while [Cl2] doubles. The rate doubles, so the reaction is first order with respect to [Cl2]  R = k[NO]2[Cl2]

Writing a Rate Law Part 2 – Determine the value for k, the rate constant, by using any set of experimental data: R = k[NO]2[Cl2] Experiment [NO] (mol/L) [Cl2] Rate Mol/L·s 1 0.250 1.43 x 10-6

Writing a Rate Law Part 3 – Determine the overall order for the reaction. R = k[NO]2[Cl2] 2 + 1 = 3  The reaction is 3rd order Overall order is the sum of the exponents, or orders, of the reactants

Determining Order with Concentration vs. Time data
(the Integrated Rate Law) Zero Order: First Order: Second Order:

Solving an Integrated Rate Law
Time (s) [H2O2] (mol/L) 1.00 120 0.91 300 0.78 600 0.59 1200 0.37 1800 0.22 2400 0.13 3000 0.082 3600 0.050 Problem: Find the integrated rate law and the value for the rate constant, k A graphing calculator with linear regression analysis greatly simplifies this process!! (Click here to download my Rate Laws program for theTi-83 and Ti-84)

Time vs. [H2O2] Regression results: y = ax + b a = -2.64 x 10-4
Time (s) [H2O2] 1.00 120 0.91 300 0.78 600 0.59 1200 0.37 1800 0.22 2400 0.13 3000 0.082 3600 0.050 Regression results: y = ax + b a = x 10-4 b = 0.841 r2 = r =

Time vs. ln[H2O2] Regression results: y = ax + b a = -8.35 x 10-4
Time (s) ln[H2O2] 120 300 600 1200 1800 -1.514 2400 -2.04 3000 -2.501 3600 -2.996 Regression results: y = ax + b a = x 10-4 b = -.005 r2 = r =

Time vs. 1/[H2O2] Regression results: y = ax + b a = 0.00460
Time (s) 1/[H2O2] 1.00 120 1.0989 300 1.2821 600 1.6949 1200 2.7027 1800 4.5455 2400 7.6923 3000 12.195 3600 20.000 Regression results: y = ax + b a = b = r2 = r =

And the winner is… Time vs. ln[H2O2]
1. As a result, the reaction is 1st order 2. The (differential) rate law is: 3. The integrated rate law is: 4. But…what is the rate constant, k ?

Finding the Rate Constant, k
Method #1: Calculate the slope from the Time vs. ln[H2O2] table. Time (s) ln[H2O2] 120 300 600 1200 1800 -1.514 2400 -2.04 3000 -2.501 3600 -2.996 Now remember:  k = -slope k = 8.32 x 10-4s-1

Finding the Rate Constant, k
Method #2: Obtain k from the linear regresssion analysis. Regression results: y = ax + b a = x 10-4 b = -.005 r2 = r = Now remember:  k = -slope k = 8.35 x 10-4s-1

Rate Laws Summary Rate = k Rate = k[A] Rate = k[A]2 [A] = -kt + [A]0
Zero Order First Order Second Order Rate Law Rate = k Rate = k[A] Rate = k[A]2 Integrated Rate Law [A] = -kt + [A]0 ln[A] = -kt + ln[A]0 Plot the produces a straight line [A] versus t ln[A] versus t Relationship of rate constant to slope of straight line Slope = -k Slope = k Half-Life