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More Kinetics

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Rate Laws A rate law shows the relationship between the reaction rate and the concentrations of reactants. For gas-phase reactants use PA instead of [A]. k is a constant that has a specific value for each reaction. The value of k is determined experimentally. “Constant” is relative here- k is unique for each rxn k changes with T (section 14.5)

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Rate Laws Exponents tell the order of the reaction with respect to each reactant. This reaction is First-order in [NH4+] First-order in [NO2−] The overall reaction order can be found by adding the exponents on the reactants in the rate law. This reaction is second-order overall.

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**Integrated Rate Laws Differential form:**

Consider a simple 1st order rxn: A B Differential form: How much A is left after time t? Integrate:

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**Integrated Rate Laws The integrated form of first order rate law:**

Can be rearranged to give: [A]0 is the initial concentration of A (t=0). [A]t is the concentration of A at some time, t, during the course of the reaction.

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**Integrated Rate Laws Manipulating this equation produces… y = mx + b**

…which is in the form y = mx + b

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**First-Order Processes**

If a reaction is first-order, a plot of ln [A]t vs. t will yield a straight line with a slope of -k. So, use graphs to determine rxn order.

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**First-Order Processes**

Consider the process in which methyl isonitrile is converted to acetonitrile. CH3NC CH3CN How do we know this is a first order rxn?

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**First-Order Processes**

CH3NC CH3CN This data was collected for this reaction at 198.9°C. Does rate=k[CH3NC] for all time intervals?

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**First-Order Processes**

When ln P is plotted as a function of time, a straight line results. The process is first-order. k is the negative slope: 5.1 10-5 s-1.

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**Second-Order Processes**

Similarly, integrating the rate law for a process that is second-order in reactant A: Rearrange, integrate: y = mx + b also in the form

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**Second-Order Processes**

So if a process is second-order in A, a plot of 1/[A] vs. t will yield a straight line with a slope of k. First order: If a reaction is first-order, a plot of ln [A]t vs. t will yield a straight line with a slope of -k.

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Determining rxn order The decomposition of NO2 at 300°C is described by the equation NO2 (g) NO (g) + 1/2 O2 (g) and yields these data: Time (s) [NO2], M 0.0 50.0 100.0 200.0 300.0

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**Determining rxn order Graphing ln [NO2] vs. t yields:**

The plot is not a straight line, so the process is not first-order in [A]. Time (s) [NO2], M ln [NO2] 0.0 -4.610 50.0 -4.845 100.0 -5.038 200.0 -5.337 300.0 -5.573 Does not fit:

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**Second-Order Processes**

A graph of 1/[NO2] vs. t gives this plot. This is a straight line. Therefore, the process is second-order in [NO2]. Time (s) [NO2], M 1/[NO2] 0.0 100 50.0 127 100.0 154 200.0 208 300.0 263

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Half-Life Half-life is defined as the time required for one-half of a reactant to react. Because [A] at t1/2 is one-half of the original [A], [A]t = 0.5 [A]0.

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Half-Life For a first-order process, set [A]t=0.5 [A]0 in integrated rate equation: NOTE: For a first-order process, the half-life does not depend on [A]0.

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**Half-Life- 2nd order For a second-order process, set**

[A]t=0.5 [A]0 in 2nd order equation.

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**Outline: Kinetics First order Second order complicated Rate Laws**

Integrated Rate Laws complicated Half-life

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Questions 1) What quantity when graphed versus time, will yield a straight line for a first order reaction? 2) What quantity when graphed versus time, will yield a straight line for a second order reaction? 3) How do the half-lives of first order and second order reactions differ?

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Practice Problems Molecular iodine dissociates into iodine atoms at 625 K with a first order rate constant of /s. a) What is the half-life for this reaction? b) If you start with M iodine at this temperature, how much will remain after 5.12 seconds assuming that none of the iodine atoms recombine to form molecules of iodine?

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Practice Problems 2. At 300 Celsius, the decomposition of nitrogen dioxide is a second-order reaction with a rate constant of /M-s. What is the molarity of a Molar nitrogen dioxide solution after 5.00 minutes?

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NOTES 14-3 obj 14.4. 1.) Using calculus to integrate the rate law for a first-order process gives us A.) INTEGRATED RATE LAWS ln [A] t [A] 0 = −kt Where.

NOTES 14-3 obj 14.4. 1.) Using calculus to integrate the rate law for a first-order process gives us A.) INTEGRATED RATE LAWS ln [A] t [A] 0 = −kt Where.

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