Presentation on theme: "10-10 Viscosity Internal friction of a fluid is called viscosity. Grease is more viscous than oil which is more viscous than gasoline…different fluids."— Presentation transcript:
10-10 Viscosity Internal friction of a fluid is called viscosity. Grease is more viscous than oil which is more viscous than gasoline…different fluids posess an intrinsic viscosity indicated by their coefficient of viscosity ( ) …or eta. See pg 295. F= A(v/l) A=area…v=velocity…l = length or linear location from 0 end. v/l is called the velocity gradient. (See p294) The SI unit for is Pa. s…cgs unit is poise (P) which is dyne * s/cm 2. Temperature is also stated, because it effects viscosity.
10-11 Flow in Tubes: Poiseuille’s Equation If a fluid had no viscosity, it would flow through a tube without force. The flow through a tube requires force. J.L. Poiseuille (1799-1869) …unit poise… Determined how flow occurred in round tubes and pro’poised’ the equation …. Q= r 4 (P1-P2)/(8 L) …where L=length …P=pressure …r = radius… =coeff. of vis. …Q=volume rate of flow….which in SI units is m 3 /s. This equation is used when flow is laminar. Q is directly proportional to (P1-P2)…&directly prop to r 4.
10-12 Surface Tension and Capillarity Surface tension is the behavior of the surface layer of a fluid in a way that simulates a cohesive layer …sort of like a layer of plastic around water. Surface tension = …or gamma. F/L …where F is force applied on a line of any fluid’s surface of length L. W/ A …work is done resulting in surface energy. See sample problem 10-14 p298. Surfactants can reduce surface tension. Adhesion…sticking to other objects…cohesion…sticking to other molecules of the same type…. Why do molecules stick together? …intermolecular forces such as hydrogen bonding.
Capillarity See diagram 10-35 & 10-36. Whether a liquid rises or falls, in a small tube, depends on the surface tension. Water forms a meniscus and mercury does not wet the sides and forms in inverted meniscus.
10-13 Pumps; the Heart and Blood Pressure Vacuum pump Force pump Systolic pressure is the highest pressure in your blood system and diastolic pressure is the low, or resting, phase of blood pressure.