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Philip Dutton University of Windsor, Canada N9B 3P4 Prentice-Hall © 2002 General Chemistry Principles and Modern Applications Petrucci Harwood Herring.

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Presentation on theme: "Philip Dutton University of Windsor, Canada N9B 3P4 Prentice-Hall © 2002 General Chemistry Principles and Modern Applications Petrucci Harwood Herring."— Presentation transcript:

1 Philip Dutton University of Windsor, Canada N9B 3P4 Prentice-Hall © 2002 General Chemistry Principles and Modern Applications Petrucci Harwood Herring 8 th Edition Chapter 12: Liquids, Solids and Intermolecular Forces

2 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 13Slide 2 of 35 Contents 12-1Intermolecular Forces and some Properties of Liquids 12-2Vaporization of Liquids: Vapor Pressure 12-3Some Properties of Solids 12-4Phase Diagrams 12-5Van der Waals Forces 12-6Hydrogen Bonding 12-7Chemical Bonds as Intermolecular Forces 12-8Crystal structures 12-8Energy Changes in the Formation of Ionic Crystals Focus on Liquid Crystals

3 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 13Slide 3 of 35 12-1 Intermolecular Forces and Some Properties of Liquids Cohesive Forces –Intermolecular forces between like molecules. Adhesive Forces –Intermolecular forces between unlike molecules. Surface Tension –Energy or work required to increase the surface area of a liquid. Viscosity –A liquids resistance to flow

4 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 13Slide 4 of 35 Intermolecular Forces

5 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 13Slide 5 of 35 Intermolecular Forces

6 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 13Slide 6 of 35 12-2 Vaporization of Liquids: Vapor Pressure

7 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 13Slide 7 of 35 Enthalpy of Vaporization ΔH vap = H vapor – H liquid = - ΔH condensation

8 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 13Slide 8 of 35 Boiling Point Mercury manometer Vapor pressure of liquid P vap independent of V liq P vap independent of V gas P vap dependent on T

9 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 13Slide 9 of 35 Vapor Pressure and Boiling Point (e) (d) (c) (b) (a) Ln P = -A ( ) + B 1 T A = ΔH vap R

10 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 13Slide 10 of 35 Clausius-Clapeyron Equation Ln P = -A ( ) + B 1 T Ln = - ( - ) P2P2 P1P1 1 T2T2 1 T1T1 ΔH vap R Example 12-1: The vapor pressure is 5.08 kPa at 18.1 °C, the vaporization enthalpy is 41.9 kJ/mol. What is the vapor pressure at 61.1 °C? Example 12-2: A compound has a 5.258 kPa vapor pressure at 15.80 °C. At 40.35 °C it has 45.61 kPa vapor pressure. What is the molar enthalpy of vaporization in J mol -1 of this compound?

11 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 13Slide 11 of 35 12-3 Some Properties of Solids Freezing PointMelting Point ΔH fus (H 2 O) = +6.01 kJ/mol

12 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 13Slide 12 of 35 Sublimation ΔH sub = ΔH fus + ΔH vap = -ΔH deposition

13 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 13Slide 13 of 35 12-4 Phase Diagrams Iodine

14 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 13Slide 14 of 35 Phase Diagrams Carbon dioxide

15 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 13Slide 15 of 35 Supercritical Fluids

16 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 13Slide 16 of 35 Phase Diagram of Water

17 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 13Slide 17 of 35 The Critical Point

18 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 13Slide 18 of 35 Critical Temperatures and Pressures

19 3 dimension p-V-T surface Csonka Gábor © 2008Általános kémia: 3. fejezetDia:19

20 Water 3 dimension p-V-T surface

21 Van der Waals Constants The Van der Waals constants can be obtained from the critical data: a = 3p c V c 3 and b = V c /3 Csonka Gábor © 2008Általános kémia: 3. fejezetDia:21

22 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 13Slide 22 of 35 12-5 Van der Waals Forces Instantaneous dipoles. –Electrons move in an orbital to cause a polarization. Induced dipoles. –Electrons move in response to an outside force. Dispersion or London forces. –Instaneous dipole – induced dipole attraction. –Related to polarizability.

23 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 13Slide 23 of 35 Phenomenon of Induction

24 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 13Slide 24 of 35 Instantaneous and Induced Dipoles

25 London dispersion in hydrocarbons Slide 25 of 35 C 5 H 12 C 15 H 32 C 18 H 38

26 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 13Slide 26 of 35 Dipole Dipole Interactions

27 The water molecule (dipole moment) General Chemistry: Chapter 13Slide 27 of 35 Dipole moment:  = 1.85 Debye Polarizability: α = 1.48 x 10 -24 cm 3 δ-δ- δ+δ+

28 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 13Slide 28 of 35 12-6 Hydrogen Bonding

29 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 13Slide 29 of 35 Hydrogen Bonding in HF(g)

30 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 13Slide 30 of 35 Hydrogen Bonding in Water around a molecule in the solid in the liquid

31 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 13Slide 31 of 35 Other examples of H-Bonds Viscosity

32 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 13Slide 32 of 35 12-7 Chemical Bonds as Intermolecular Forces

33 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 13Slide 33 of 35 Other Carbon Allotropes

34 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 13Slide 34 of 35 Interionic Forces

35 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 13Slide 35 of 35 12-8 Crystal Structures

36 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 13Slide 36 of 35 Unit Cells in the Cubic Crystal System

37 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 13Slide 37 of 35 Holes in Crystals

38 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 13Slide 38 of 35 Hexagonal Close Packed (hcp)

39 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 13Slide 39 of 35 Coordination Number

40 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 13Slide 40 of 35 Counting Cell Occupancy

41 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 13Slide 41 of 35 X-Ray Diffraction

42 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 13Slide 42 of 35 X-Ray Diffraction

43 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 13Slide 43 of 35 Cesium Chloride

44 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 13Slide 44 of 35 Atomic Radii from Crystal Structures

45 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 13Slide 45 of 35 Sodium Chloride

46 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 13Slide 46 of 35 Holes in Crystals

47 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 13Slide 47 of 35

48 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 13Slide 48 of 35 12-9 Energy Changes in the Formation of Ionic Crystals

49 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 13Slide 49 of 35 Chapter 13 Questions 1, 3, 4, 13, 24, 26, 31, 45, 52, 61, 94, 107


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