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Do Now: 1. Certain acquired characteristics, such as mechanical or mathematical skill may be inherited. 1. Certain acquired characteristics, such as mechanical.

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Presentation on theme: "Do Now: 1. Certain acquired characteristics, such as mechanical or mathematical skill may be inherited. 1. Certain acquired characteristics, such as mechanical."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Do Now: 1. Certain acquired characteristics, such as mechanical or mathematical skill may be inherited. 1. Certain acquired characteristics, such as mechanical or mathematical skill may be inherited. 2. Certain thoughts or experiences of a mother mark or alter the hereditary makeup of an unborn child. 2. Certain thoughts or experiences of a mother mark or alter the hereditary makeup of an unborn child. 3. Color blindness is more common in males than in females. 3. Color blindness is more common in males than in females. 4. A person may transmit characteristics to offspring which he/she does not show. 4. A person may transmit characteristics to offspring which he/she does not show. 5. Certain inherited traits may be altered by the stars, planets or moon early in development. 5. Certain inherited traits may be altered by the stars, planets or moon early in development. 6. The total number of male births exceeds female births each year. 6. The total number of male births exceeds female births each year.

3 Objectives: To distinguish between heredity and inheritance To distinguish between heredity and inheritance To describe Mendel’s experiments in heredity To describe Mendel’s experiments in heredity To compare heterozygous vs. homozygous and dominant vs. recessive. To compare heterozygous vs. homozygous and dominant vs. recessive.

4 Genetics Chapter 4

5 Basic Genetics Gregor Mendel The Father of Genetics

6 1866- Gregor Mendel Austrian Monk Worked with Pea Plants Pure breeds Self-fertilization Discovered how traits were inherited in a population

7 Heredity – transmission of traits from parents to their offspring Inheritance passing of traits by heredity

8 Mendel’s experiments used pea plants

9 Pollination – transfer of pollen from anthers to stigma in flowers 1) self pollination occurs within the same flower or same plant 2) cross pollination occurs between different plants

10 Mendel’s Crosses with Pea Plants Pure tall plants X Pure short plants P1P1 parental generation Cross Pollination All Tall plants F1F1 first filial generation Self Pollination 787 tall plants, 277 short plants F2F2 second filial generation 3 to 1 ratio

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13 Definitions Genetics – study of heredity

14 Gene – segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a particular protein genes occur in pairs genes occur in pairs

15 Allele – alternative form of a gene g = yellow pods G = green pods t = short T = tall Dominant capital letter (shields recessive trait) Recessive Lowercase letter (usually hidden)

16 (Ex: Blue eyes or Brown Eyes) Phenotype – physical characteristics of an organism

17 Genotype – genetic makeup of an organism (genes) (internal information Ex: BB, Bb, bb)

18 Where do Phenotypes come from?

19 Example of Genotype and Phenotype TT genotype Tall phenotype

20 DO NOW A man with a widow’s peak marries a woman with no widow’s peak. Widow’s peak is a dominant trait. Identify the following: 1.Man’s geneotype: 2.Woman’s genotype: 3.Man’s phenotype: 4.Woman’s phenotype: Use the letter W or w.

21 Homozygous – when both alleles of a pair are the same homozygous dominant homozygous recessive TT tt

22 Heterozygous – when both alleles of a pair are not the same heterozygous (tall) Tt

23 In rabbits, black fur color is dominant over brown fur color B = black fur b = brown fur bb BBorBb

24 Think – Pair - Share If Fred Flintstone is heterozygous for black hair. If Fred Flintstone is heterozygous for black hair. (B=Black, b=blonde) (B=Black, b=blonde) What is Fred’s genotype? What is Fred’s genotype? What is Fred’s phenotype? What is Fred’s phenotype? Tweety bird is YY. (Y= yellow feathers, y=brown feathers) Tweety bird is YY. (Y= yellow feathers, y=brown feathers) 1. What is his genotype? 1. What is his genotype? 2. What is his phenotype? 2. What is his phenotype? 3. Is he heterozygous or homozygous? Explain. 3. Is he heterozygous or homozygous? Explain.

25 Think – Pair - Share Worksheet on homozygous/heterozygous and dominant and recessive. Due Tomorrow (or next time I see you!)

26 Homework Create flashcards with the definition and an example Create flashcards with the definition and an example Heterozygous Heterozygous Homozygous Homozygous Genotype Genotype Phenotype Phenotype Dominant Dominant Recessive Recessive Allele Allele Gene Gene Genetics Genetics

27 Do Now Sponge Bob Square pants is heterozygous for brown eyes. Sandy is also heterozygous for brown eyes. Create a punnett square to determine the possible outcomes of their children. Sponge Bob Square pants is heterozygous for brown eyes. Sandy is also heterozygous for brown eyes. Create a punnett square to determine the possible outcomes of their children. Show phenotype and genotype ratios. Show phenotype and genotype ratios.

28 Objective: To describe Mendel’s 3 laws of inheritance To describe Mendel’s 3 laws of inheritance Complete a Monohybrid cross Complete a Monohybrid cross **Take Out your Homework!!!

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32 1) Law of Dominance Each trait is controlled by 2 factors, one factor (dominant ) may mask the other factor (recessive ) preventing it from having an effect. P1P1 F1F1 F2F2

33 2) Law of Segregation Each allele a person has separates into different gametes Each allele a person has separates into different gametes Ex. Ww – one W goes in one sperm and the other w goes into another sperm Ex. Ww – one W goes in one sperm and the other w goes into another sperm w W Sperm w W hill.com/sites/ /student_view0/ chapter28/animation__random_orientation _of_chromosomes_during_meiosis.html

34 3) Law of Independent Assortment Gene pairs (homologous) will separate randomly into gametes (metaphase I of meiosis) Gene pairs (homologous) will separate randomly into gametes (metaphase I of meiosis)

35 Monohybrid Cross R= Can roll your tongue R= Can roll your tongue r= Can’t roll your tongue r= Can’t roll your tongue Genotype Ratio: Genotype Ratio: Phenotype Ratio: Phenotype Ratio: Rr R r

36 Genotypic vs. Phenotypic Ratios Phenotype Ratio: Phenotype Ratio: Ratio of different physical traits Ratio of different physical traits Ex) Brown eyes ¼ or 25% Ex) Brown eyes ¼ or 25% Genotype Ratio: Genotype Ratio: Ratio of the different possible alleles Ratio of the different possible alleles Ex) Tt = ¼ or 25% Ex) Tt = ¼ or 25%

37 Lets Try a Monohybrid together! 1)Daffy Duck is heterozygous for black feathers. Daisy Duck is homozygous for yellow feathers. Set up a punnett square and determine probabilities of their potential offspring. (Both genotype and phenotype ratios!) 2)B = Black b = yellow

38 Practice! Get with a partner and work on the sample problems! Get with a partner and work on the sample problems!

39 DO NOW: Sleeping Beauty has freckles. Her prince charming is heterozygous for no freckles. What are the chances of her children having freckles? Please show your work.

40 Do Now Being able to roll your tongue is a dominant trait. Being able to roll your tongue is a dominant trait. 1. Write down your phenotype and genotype. 1. Write down your phenotype and genotype. 2. Are you positive that’s your genotype? 2. Are you positive that’s your genotype?

41 Test cross – an individual with unknown genotype is crossed with a homozygous recessive individual used to determine the genotype of any individual whose phenotype is dominant used to determine the genotype of any individual whose phenotype is dominant

42 Lets Try a Test Cross Spongebob squarepants doesn’t know whether or not he is Homozygous Dominant or Heterozygous for his yellow color. The recessive trait is a white sponge. Let’s say that we perform a “test cross” on spongebob (spongebob + a white female sponge) and all of the baby sponges are yellow. What would spongebob’s genotype be? Spongebob squarepants doesn’t know whether or not he is Homozygous Dominant or Heterozygous for his yellow color. The recessive trait is a white sponge. Let’s say that we perform a “test cross” on spongebob (spongebob + a white female sponge) and all of the baby sponges are yellow. What would spongebob’s genotype be?

43 Objectives: To set up and complete a dihybrid cross. To set up and complete a dihybrid cross.

44 What is a dihybrid Cross? A dihybrid cross allows us to predict possible outcomes of offspring that will have 2 traits simultaneously. A dihybrid cross allows us to predict possible outcomes of offspring that will have 2 traits simultaneously. Ex: what would you get if you crossed a Brown-haired brown-eyed male with a blonde- haired blue-eyed female? How many of the children would have brown hair and brown eyes? Brown hair and blue eyes? Blonde hair and brown eyes? Blonde hair and blue eyes? Ex: what would you get if you crossed a Brown-haired brown-eyed male with a blonde- haired blue-eyed female? How many of the children would have brown hair and brown eyes? Brown hair and blue eyes? Blonde hair and brown eyes? Blonde hair and blue eyes?

45 Example

46 Setting up Dihybrid Crosses 1. Determine parent genotypes 1. Determine parent genotypes 2. Determine alleles to be passed down 2. Determine alleles to be passed down 3. Set up punnet square 3. Set up punnet square 4. Determine outcome 4. Determine outcome Phenotype Ratio Phenotype Ratio Genotype Ratio Genotype Ratio

47 More Practice Mickey Mouse is heterozygous for Round ears and homozygous for Black eyes. Minnie Mouse also is homozygous for Floppy ears and heterozygous for Black eyes. Determine genotype and phenotype ratios. (B=black, b=brown, R=round, r= floppy.) Mickey Mouse is heterozygous for Round ears and homozygous for Black eyes. Minnie Mouse also is homozygous for Floppy ears and heterozygous for Black eyes. Determine genotype and phenotype ratios. (B=black, b=brown, R=round, r= floppy.)

48 Dihybrid Crosses Looking at two different traits Looking at two different traits Ex. Hair color and eye color Ex. Hair color and eye color B=brown eyes B=brown eyes b=blue eyes b=blue eyes R=Brown hair R=Brown hair r=blonde hair r=blonde hair Mother is heterozygous for both traits Mother is heterozygous for both traits Father is heterozygous for eye color and homozygous dominant for hair color Father is heterozygous for eye color and homozygous dominant for hair color

49 What could the phenotypes and genotypes be of their children?

50 Objectives: To define gene linkage and polypoidy. To define gene linkage and polypoidy. To understand pedigrees and figure out how to use one. To understand pedigrees and figure out how to use one.

51 Pedigree Shows history of a trait in a family Shows history of a trait in a family Allows researchers to analyze traits within a family Allows researchers to analyze traits within a family

52 Symbols for Pedigree

53 Lets try to figure out their genotypes!

54 Dominant or Recessive Pedigrees can depict both dominant and recessive traits… Pedigrees can depict both dominant and recessive traits…

55 Homework Pedigree Lab! Due next lab day! Pedigree Lab! Due next lab day!

56 Do Now Fill in the genotypes for the following pedigree Fill in the genotypes for the following pedigree B=brown eyes B=brown eyes b = blue eyes b = blue eyes

57 Objectives To be able to solve for the genotypes of pedigrees. To be able to solve for the genotypes of pedigrees. To be able to practice monohybrid and dihybrid crosses. To be able to practice monohybrid and dihybrid crosses.

58 Practice! It’s Harry Potter time!! Get with a partner and work on the sample problems involving some of my favorite fictional characters! It’s Harry Potter time!! Get with a partner and work on the sample problems involving some of my favorite fictional characters!

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62 Do Now Dominant or Recessive Trait?

63 Objectives To understand incomplete dominance and be able to do incomplete dominance monohybrid crosses. To understand incomplete dominance and be able to do incomplete dominance monohybrid crosses. To explain codominance, multiple alleles, sex-linked traits, and polygenic inheritence. To explain codominance, multiple alleles, sex-linked traits, and polygenic inheritence.

64 11.2 Incomplete Dominance: Heterozygous phenotype is an intermediate phenotype between the two homozygous phenotypes. Heterozygous phenotype is an intermediate phenotype between the two homozygous phenotypes. Two alleles are blended Two alleles are blended Ex) Four O’clock Flowers Ex) Four O’clock Flowers Red + White = Pink Red + White = Pink

65 Incomplete Dominance

66 Codominance Neither trait is dominant instead, both traits are shown (No Blending) Neither trait is dominant instead, both traits are shown (No Blending) Ex) Roan Cows Ex) Roan Cows Red + White = RED AND WHITE Red + White = RED AND WHITE

67 Roan Coat

68 Sickle Cell Disease Affects red blood cells and ability to transport oxygen. Affects red blood cells and ability to transport oxygen. Homozygous recessive alleles= Homozygous recessive alleles= Heterozygous= Heterozygous= Homozygous dominant alleles= Homozygous dominant alleles=

69 Sickle Cell and Malaria People who are heterozygous for sickle cell, have a higher resistance to malaria. People who are heterozygous for sickle cell, have a higher resistance to malaria.

70 Do Now A man who is a breeder of roan cows wants to cross two roan cows to produce more roan cows. After the two cows mate, the offspring are one red cow and one white cow. He is very disappointed. Explain why this happened. Provide a punnet square. A man who is a breeder of roan cows wants to cross two roan cows to produce more roan cows. After the two cows mate, the offspring are one red cow and one white cow. He is very disappointed. Explain why this happened. Provide a punnet square.

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73 Multiple alleles – 3 or more alleles that control a trait Example – blood type (I A,I B,i o ) Example – blood type (I A,I B,i o ) GENOTYPES I A I A I A i o RESULTING PHENOTYPES Type A Type A IBIBIBioIBIBIBioIBIBIBioIBIBIBio Type B Type B IAIBIAIBIAIBIAIB Type AB ioioioioioioioio Type O

74 Universal Donor?

75 Sample Problem Determine the possible offspring of the following crosses Determine the possible offspring of the following crosses 1. AB and O 1. AB and O 2. AA and BO 2. AA and BO 3. AB and AB 3. AB and AB

76 Coat Color of Rabbits Rabbits have a hierarchy of coat color Rabbits have a hierarchy of coat color 4 alleles (C, c ch, c h, and c) 4 alleles (C, c ch, c h, and c) Dominant C > c ch > c h > c Recessive Dominant C > c ch > c h > c Recessive C Full color C Full color c ch Chinchilla c ch Chinchilla c h Himalayan c h Himalayan c albino c albino

77 Coat Color of Rabbits Full Color Himalayan Albino Chinchilla

78 Let’s try a sample problem cc x Cc ch cc x Cc ch Genotype and phenotype ratios Genotype and phenotype ratios

79 What do you see?

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81 Sex Linked Traits Traits located on the sex chromosomes (X or Y) Traits located on the sex chromosomes (X or Y) X linked: gene is located on the X chromosomes X linked: gene is located on the X chromosomes Y linked: gene is located on the Y chromosome Y linked: gene is located on the Y chromosome

82 What are the chances of having a girl? How would you go about solving it? How would you go about solving it?

83 Sex-Linked Traits A woman who is color blind marries a man that does NOT have color blindness. What is the chance of having a color blind boy? A woman who is color blind marries a man that does NOT have color blindness. What is the chance of having a color blind boy?

84 Polygenic Traits  Polygenic traits arise from the interaction of multiple pairs of genes.

85 Objectives: To define test cross To define test cross To define incomplete dominance To define incomplete dominance To define codominance To define codominance

86 Objectives: To predict the results of dihybrid crosses by using a Punnett square To predict the results of dihybrid crosses by using a Punnett square

87 Do Now: Matching

88 Quiz Review Question 1  A man that is a carrier for albinism marries a woman what is also a carrier. Set up a punnet square to determine the chance of having a child with albinism.

89 Quiz Review Question 2  A heterozygous man with achondroplasia marries a woman that is the normal. Set up a punnet square to determine the chance of having a child with achondroplasia.

90 Quiz Review Question 3 **CHALLENGE**  A man who has hemophilia marries a woman who is normal and not a carrier. What is the chance of having a child with hemophilia?


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