Presentation on theme: "Risk Management in Physical Education and School Sport Peter Whitlam"— Presentation transcript:
1 Risk Management in Physical Education and School Sport Peter Whitlam
2 What the session is about. Purpose:To provide an update on current and key risk management issues in physical education and school sport.Outcomes:An understanding of:the key principles in managing risk in PESS;the format and application of the “triangle” model for risk assessment;current hot topics and concerns about safe practice in physical education;Essentially – what school staff need to be aware of in H&S.
3 TDA Professional Standards for Teachers This risk management course contributes towards the following standards:Core standards:Frameworks: C3Professional skills: C29 and C30Learning environment: C37 and C38Post threshold standards:Frameworks: P1Health and well being: P6Professional Skills: P7 and P8
4 What do school staff need to know/ understand/ be able to do? Basic legal framework in which we operateKnow and apply employer’s policies and procedures relating to safe practiceWhat “risk management” means and why it is importantRisk-benefit assessment – balancing taking risks without undue danger of serious harmManaging not minimising risk (risk aversion)Importance of regularly reviewing policies, procedures, routines and standards in H&SThe risk assessment processStandard of risk (safety) awareness expectedRelationship between good practice and safe practiceDemonstrate forethought, anticipation, forward planning for what may happen and plan accordinglyBe confident in their practice - eliminate any mystique and fear about H&S
6 The risk continuumTotally Range of Increasingly high Danger safe acceptable levels of risk riskMinimising risk(apathy, paranoia, incompetence)Best practice?(challenge v risk)Incompetence, unfortunatePrinciples:Risk–benefit assessment – weighing protection from harm against the provision of stimulating experiences.Events to be as safe as necessary not as safe as possible (RoSPA)ii. Exposure to well-managed challenge (opportunity) and risk (safety):a. educates about riskb. opens up exciting learning opportunitiesc. develops high quality PESS
7 The key messages!“Risk management is about enabling good things to happen, not just preventing the bad”.Dr Lynne Drennan, CEO ALARM (Zurich Municipal News & Views, Autumn 2008).“Risk management should be routine, embedded and well documented”.Tom Shewry, Head of Education, Zurich Municipal, (News and Views, Autumn 2008).
8 Risk Management: Why it is important? empower pupils to manage their own safety(risk education/NCPE PoS requirement/ECM – being safe)entitlement to be taught in a safe and healthy environmenthigh quality PESS involves challengeschool staff have a legal duty to be proactive not reactiveavoid allegations of negligence:“careless conduct which injures another and whichthe law deems liable for compensation” (Frederick Place Chambers 1995)duty of care (responsibility)breach of duty (careless)damage (injury)foreseeability (but for……)
9 What is risk management? good practice/safe practicereasonable forethought to a suitable and sufficient level3 purposes:ensure potential safety problems are understoodcheck whether existing precautions are adequateimplement any FURTHER precautions necessary3 levels of risk assessment:generic - provided, writtenfacility/activity/event specific – to do, writtenon-going - dynamic – expertise, unwrittenlegal requirement – HaSaW Act 1974; MHS Regs 1999 and common law
10 To comply with the law we must… show we have carried out a risk (safety) assessment;identify the significant risks (red traffic light)identify who could be harmed;identify what needs to be done to control/ reduce the risk to make it sufficiently safe.
11 Controlling risk: “traffic lights” SEVERITYLIKELI-HOODHIGH(concerns/MEDIUMunsafe)LOW(safe)Action requiredimmediatelyAction required when practicableAction – be aware - monitor
12 Context – we are good at what we do….. HSE 1995: Schools: young people – 3 deaths/5000 major injuries:3+ days off work/school or visit to hospital for 24 hours111Minor first aid only441Non-injury accidents/near misses2.25 million reported injuries/year billion pupil days/year.PESS – c. 1/2-2/3 of total school injuries = 0.001% v total pupil days.Games 42% Gymnastics 27% Swimming 1%Principle: Termly analysis of incident report forms informs about safe practice policy and procedures – pattern and number
13 Statutory requirements (HaSaWA and Management Regs) The employer must:be ultimately responsible for health and safety though tasks may be delegated HaSaWA 1974have a health and safety policy HaSaWA 1974initiate procedures to ensure satisfactory implementation of the policy HaSaWA 1974assess the risks of all activities, manage the risks,inform employees of measures to make situationssafe, provide training and supervision where appropriate and monitor implementation of the proceduresMHSRegs 1999accept responsibility for corporate manslaughter if poor management systems lead to death Corp Mansl Act 2007
14 The legal responsibilities of school staff (HaSaWA and Management Regs) MAKE ALL ADULTS WORKING WITH PUPILS AWARE OF THEIR LEGAL RESPONSIBILITIES:Know and apply employer’s policy for H&S(SP 2008 ch 2 pp 18-19)(local requirements take precedence over national guidance)Pass on guilty knowledgeDo what is within their power to prevent further injuryNot to interfere or misuse items for H&SParticipate in inspections (risk assessments) AS A TEAMAnd the common law duty of care…… show reasonable forethought (common sense) (SP 2008 ch 2 pp 13-17)
15 Safe practice – a summary Two key criteria for managing risk:Quality of teaching(good teaching is safe teaching)Quality of leadership and management(good organisation is safe organisation)(includes key aspect of written risk assessments)
16 Reducing risk in PESS: 1. Quality of teaching A safe “teacher” of physical education considers:whether s/he has the personal expertise, competence and/orqualifications in the activity/ies and at the level being taught;a session format to include warm up, technical development and cool down;checking work space, equipment and personal effects before and during use;teaching position to maximise observation of class;using regular and approved practice (QCA/ LA/ NGB schemes);progression according to ability;matching comparable size, experience, confidence where weightbearing, physical contact or “accelerating projectiles” are applied;strict officiating in games – applying the rules consistently;involving pupils in their own safety – checking understanding andproviding clear instructions;10. thinking logically through a lesson – what could cause harm? – have I covered the likelihood?
17 1. Quality of teaching: Personalised learning, inclusion, or safe practice/ risk education principles? (S.T.E.P.S.)Directed to open ended tasksSingle to linking to combined/multiple tasksSimple to complex tasks ( more or less space/time/options/ equipment/ constraints/ requirements)Familiar tasks/environments/groupings to unfamiliar onesVariety in movement to quality/ technical demandSet to negotiated to self-determined tasksWorking individually, with a partner, into group work involving cooperation/ competition/ leadershipDifferent tasks for different pupilsDifferent levels of information/support/ intervention for pupils working on the same taskAdditional teacher time for some pupils(acknowledgement to Dudley CS: “Policy into Practice” Section 1: Planning Principles)
18 2. Quality of management and leadership Do you have a H&S policy for PESS/ off-site sports visits?Are required procedures and standards known, understood and applied consistently by all adults who teach PESS/ manage teams/ lead groups?Are your policies and procedures reviewed regularly (annually)?Do all staff understand the limits and requirements of their roles and responsibilities in H&S?Are all adults teaching PESS/ managing teams/ leading visits competent and confident in the areas they teach/ coach/ officiate/ lead?Are all non-QTS staff managed effectively?Is there induction, continuing development and monitoring of all staff?Do PE programmes/ fixture lists/ visit objectives match ability and confidence of team/ group?Are attendance, participation and assessment records maintained?Do you have written risk assessments for PE/ sports events/ visits?Are risk assessments evaluated after the event and updated periodically?Do off-site risk assessments consider critical incident plans?Are incident report forms completed regularly and analysed periodically to monitor number and pattern of causes of injury?Is H&S a standing item on department/school meeting agendas?Is good teaching, coaching and leadership developed and monitored?
19 Reducing risk in PESS: Criteria for written risk assessments Suitable and sufficientReasonable anticipation/forward planningSignificant risks (red traffic light) identified and recordedIdentify those possibly harmedList any additional controls/precautions needed– “supervision – protection – training”Annual or if circumstances changeProbable / likelySafe as necessary not as safe as possibleTrust your professional judgementMinimal number of written assessmentsQuick, easy, “MOT” (SP 2008 – chapter 3 and Appendix 2)
20 Risk Management: A model “Behaviour is the cause or a contributory factor in more than 80% of accidents”.Helen Sully(Kier Group for HSE) 2007.PupilsStaffPEOPLECONTEXT ORGANISATIONFacility Class organisationEquipment TeachingProcedures/routines PreparationProgressionBeaumont, Eve, Kirkby, Whitlam 1998Acceptable riskPE/SPORTAppropriate challenge
21 Written risk assessment: How do we do it? team activityin situ - in the facilitiesthink of the people/context/organisation trianglebased on existing documentation, procedures and practicelook for FURTHER precautions necessaryreasonable anticipation/observation as subject teachers/specialistsNOT about writing everything down again.
22 Written risk assessments: The portfolio Scheme of workLesson plansAttendance registersAssessment recordsHandbook – roles, responsibilities, policies, procedures, routinesMedical recordsEmergency action proceduresSEN registerOut of hours club registersAnnual inspection reports (PUWER 1998)CPD and other professional recordsAccident management and reporting systems – and analysisMinutes of meetingsHealth and safety auditsAND risk assessment records
23 Written risk assessments: The process Decide what requires a risk assessmentIdentify the hazardsDecide who is at riskEvaluate the risksRecord the findingsDevise an action plan to reduce significant risksInform those affectedReview periodically
24 Support staff (Workforce Reform Regulations 2003) “Specified work (i.e. teaching) may not be carried out by a person in a school unless s/he holds QTS or satisfy the specific requirements…” (Education Act 2003, s133).HLTAs, sports coaches and other suitable adults may teach classes or groups in timetabled physical education.Provided they:only assist or support the work of a nominated teacher in school;are subject to the direction and supervision of a nominated teacher;have satisfied the head teacher, through a risk assessment, that they have the skills,experience and expertise required to carryout the specified work.(SP 2008 – chapter 4 and Appendix 3)
25 “Supervision and direction” – the implications for schools. Management!safer recruitment,initial assessment,induction,information about pupils, procedures, routines and standards,regular communication,risk assessments,shared/monitored planning,monitoring competence,professional development.(SP 2008 – Appendix 3b pp Also see pages in the handout)
26 Competence? expertise in the range of activities to be taught – i.e. technical knowledgeknowledge of progression safety issues rules, (case law)delivery of national curriculum process model (Education Acts) knowledge of the particular needs of the group(case law/NCPE PoS)observation and analysis skills to ensure thatwhat is going on is safe (HaSaWA s.7) good class control and group management (case law/STPC s.37)appropriate relationships – teaching childrennot coaching a sport(Common Core Skills/HLTA standards, DfES 2006 & afPE/ukSport ASLs 2006)Targeted CPD? (SP 2008 paragraph )
27 Policy and guidelines: “the handbook” See pages in the handout.This item appears in SP 2008 as Appendix 9.By law these need to be reviewed regularly and staff monitored to ensure that a common and safe standard is applied.
28 Summary “Routine, embedded and well-documented” Look at H&S from position of “opportunity” not “danger”Keep it simple – good teaching; good organisationRecognise, respect, support and develop those lacking confidence and competenceWork at a level of common sense – as trained professionalsImportance of forethought, anticipation, forward planning for what may happen and plan accordinglyApply the triangle modelThink about the “what if”s as well as the eventWritten risk assessments as soon as possiblePolicy and procedures to be developed over timeWe are good at what we do!