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Young Moslem Leaders and Social Accountability

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1 Young Moslem Leaders and Social Accountability
By: Wijayanto Jakarta, June 2010 Youthlab

2 Moslem Nations and the World: A Challenging World

3 GDP Per-capita: Top 30 Source: IMF 2009

4 GDP Per-capita: Moslem Countries
Source: IMF 2009

5 Human Development Index (HDI): 30
Source: UNDP 2007

6 HDI: Moslem Countries Source: UNDP, 2007

7 Corruption Score: Top 30 Source: Corruption Perception Index 2009, Score range: 0 (worst) – 10 (best), Transparency International

8 Corruption: Moslem Countries
Average Moslem Countries Score: 2.8 Average Global Score: 4.0 Source: Corruption Perception Index 2009, Score range: 0 (worst) – 10 (best), Transparency International

9 The Causes of Extreme Poverty....
Being land-locked has made a country rely too much to its neighbor; Conflict in the neighboring country can easily impact a country; Create inefficient resources allocation; Development is directed for the benefit of a certain group only; Corrupt Govern-ment Unstable Land lock countries Prolong Civil war Huge Natural resources Caused huge material and non material loss; Reconciliation is a tough undertaking; Weapon is more important than food and book; It creates dependency; Instead of developing industry, people fighting for access to the resources; Dutch disease; Source: The Bottom One Billion, Paul Collier

10 Some National Issues: The Windy Road Ahead

11 Corruption in Indonesia
Corruption Perception Index , Indonesia (1995 – 2009) Highest Score: 2.80 Average Score: 2.17 Lowest Score: 1.65 Improvement has been made. However, 2.8 is far from enough; The recent development (i.e. KPK issue) has put additional challenge; Source: Corruption Perception Index 2009, Transparency International

12 Corruption in Indonesia
Based on various perception surveys, Indonesia is known as a corrupt country. PERC survey put Indonesia as one of the most corrupt country in Asia (14 countries). Despite a long list of question concerning the validity and accuracy of perception survey, significant improvement is needed. Source: PERC, Political Economic Risk Consultancy, Score: 0 (best) – 10 (worst)

13 Corruption in Indonesia
Most Corrupt Institution in Indonesia Four most important pillars to mitigate corruption are among the most corrupt institutions; Alternatives strategy is needed, the role of civil society and the people is very crucial Source: Global Corruption Barometer, Transparency International

14 Fact and Perception...... Natural Endowment Value
(based on coal, oil & gas proven reserve) The common perception....We are very rich; In fact.....We are not; Based on Coal, Natural Gas and Oil proven reserved, our natural endowment value reach USD 1,121 billion. Rank 22 in term of total value, and rank 56 in term of value per-capita. Long term economic sustainability is in question. Assuming oil price: USD 84/barrel, coal price: USD 80/ton and gas price: USD 3.9 /MMBTU Source: British Petroleum Statistic and Wijayanto Analysis

15 CAFTA: Challenge or Opportunity?
CAFTA is agreat opportunity. It connect us with a market of 1.7 billion people, with combined export of USD 4.3 trillion (13.3% of global trade); Free Trade will increase international trade and will create specialization; The question is, what product we will specialized on? Since tariff reduction began in 2005, Indonesia’s export to China increase by 70%, driven by nearly tripling mineral export. (World Bank); Import of energy efficient lamp from China will reach 136 million in 2010, (68% market share), while domestic industry run at 20% utilization rate. (Tempo, 24 March 2010); Batik from China has market share of close to 50% at Pasar Tanah Abang. (Bisnis Indonesia); Marie Pangestu: “Our product is pretty similar with its of China. Products that have strong competitiveness are CPO, coal, mineral and gas, in which around 80% of our export to China consist of those commodities. (Bisnis Indonesia, April 30, 2010); Source: Various Sources and “The Emerging Market of the ASEAN – Dr. Bernando M. Villegas

16 Some Interesting Facts: The Opportunity

17 Messy but Keep Growing...... But... (1) GDP grows at encouraging rate;
(2) Inflation under control; (3) Poverty level decrease continuously; (4) etc.... Corruption The most corrupt in Asia Pacific (PERC) Rank 126 of 180 (TI) 1 2 Human Capital Rank 111 out of 183 countries (UNDP) 3 Ease of Doing Business Rank 122 out of 183 countries (World Bank) Infrastructure Quality Discouraging road/port condition Unreliable electricity supply Source: World Bank 4

18 (Average no of child per-woman)
Demographic Bonus Fertility Rate (Average no of child per-woman) Replacement Rate = 2 Extreme High Growth Demographic Bonus Aging Population

19 At Least....The Glass is Half Full
The ultimate goal of our existence is to be prosperous and happy; As a nation, we are in the middle of our journey to realize that goal; Now...the glass is half-full..... ....we need to work harder to make it full. Source: IMF, New Economics Foundation, Wijayanto’s Analysis

20 The Youth Important Role: Strengthening Social Accountability

21 Why Indonesian Moslem Youth?
85% of Indonesians is Moslem; Demographically, most Indonesia’s are young; Moslem youth is a key component for change; The principle of accountability is embedded in Islam teaching; Leadership principle; public participation; freedom of speech; Islam Size and Influence The face of Islam & Indonesia Future Responsi-bility Indonesia represent the face of Islam in the global arena; Prosperous, democratic and peaceful Indonesia will play an important role; Moslem youth activists are Indonesia’s future leaders; The future is belong to young generation; The old generation is not able to change; Source: Various sources

22 Social Accountability
The Basic Tenet..... To Define To Measure To Manage The Definition.... Accountability The obligation of power-holders to account for or take responsibility for their action; Leadership Character in Islam Shidiq (honest) Amanah (trusted) Tabligh (spread out correct info) Fathanah (intellectual & pro-the people) Social Accountability Approach toward the building of accountability that rely on citizens and/or civil society that participate directly or indirectly; Source: Various sources

23 Public Integrity vs. Accountability
Ideas Ideas Stakeholder or Citizen Government or Agents Policy Implementation Transparency, accountability & integrity is codependent Transparency without accountability is meaningless. Both, without integrity may not end up serving the interest of the public. Four Core Values of Integrity: Justice and equity to promote public interest; Transparency & Openness; Accountability Efficiency; 1 Integrity is beyond honesty. To be honest doesn’t always to be efficient, justice, and accountable. 2 3 4 Source: Component of Integrity: Data and Benchmark of Tracking Trend in the Government, Paper by OECD, May 2009

24 Measurement “There is no specific accountability measurement available; However, Corruption Index could be used as a proxy to measure accountability level...” C D M A Corruption: The breach of public power for personal benefit Discretionary: The flexibility to execute authority or power Monopoly: The lack of competition from other parties Accountability: The obligation of power-holders to account for or take responsibility for their action;

25 Accountability and Corruption
“Indonesia’s high level of corruption, measured by various measurement, indicates the lack of accountability in..” Indonesia’s score is relatively low (average: 35%) measured by various indicators; except for GI Index, which is an INPUT INDICATOR.

26 Social Accountability: The Impact
Improve Governance Improve Development Effectiveness Improve People Empowerment Promote good governance and democracy; Complement the weaknesses of vertical accountability (election) and horizontal accountability (internal mechanism) Improve public service delivery; Reduce information asymmetry and promote transparency; Create well informed policy design; Empower the poor, by enabling the poor to express their concern; Empower various vulnerable and disadvantages group; Source: Social Accountability: An Introduction to the Concept and Emerging Practice, Carmen Malena et al.

27 Social Accountability: Building Blocks
Advocating and negotiating change Negotiate with the govt. create public pressure etc. 5 Rallying support and building coalition Building coalition with relevant parties or institution; 4 Going public Communicate the finding to the public and media or communicate with stakeholder; 3 Building information / evident base Supply side data (data from the government) and Demand side data (data from survey or score-card) 2 Mobilizing around an entry point Identification of problem (i.e. education budget allocation) and development of strategy (i.e. tracking of education budget) 1 Source: Social Accountability: An Introduction to the Concept and Emerging Practice, Carmen Malena et al.

28 Example: Budget Accountability
Stages in Policy and Budget Cycle Social Accountability Application and Tools Direct citizen participation (through CSO, etc) to formulate public policy and budget. (i.e. project proposal and budget allocation); Citizen could also prepare alternative program or budget; Policy/budget preparation 1 Measuring whether the budget allocation match with government social commitment, this may include to analyze the impact of budget allocation; Policy/budget analysis 2 Policy/budget implementation Analyze how the government actually spend the money. Are there any leakage or bottleneck? 3 Monitor the impact and quality of government program and performance of public service. CSO could create its own measurement, such as citizen score card; Monitoring and evaluation 4 Source: Social Accountability: An Introduction to the Concept and Emerging Practice, Carmen Malena et al.

29 Success Factors of Social Accountability
Strong Social Accountability Policy context & culture State capacity Access to information State-civil society synergy The role of media Institutionalization Civil society capacity Source: Social Accountability: An Introduction to the Concept and Emerging Practice, Carmen Malena et al.

30 Alternative Relevant Topics....
Certain corruption case; Investigative report competition; KPK chairman selection process; Building anti-corruption awareness among the youth; Education for the poor; Program design and fund tracking; Government scholarship program; Government research grants; Education Corrup-tion Health Politic Fund tracking; Health services in the remote areas; Access of health service for the poor; Jamsostek services; Drug availability; Political and campaign financing; Regional election; Policy making process; etc;

31 Thank You Thank You

32 Attachment

33 Anti-Corruption Course: The Indonesia’s Experience
Tiri Workshop on Legal Integrity Education Anti-Corruption Course: The Indonesia’s Experience By: Wijayanto Kampala, Uganda, May 2010 Youthlab

34 Legal Integrity Education - Uganda
The Background Based on various perception surveys, Indonesia is known as a corrupt country. PERC survey put Indonesia as one of the most corrupt country in Asia. Despite a long list of question concerning the validity and accuracy of perception survey, significant improvement is needed. Source: PERC, Political Economic Risk Consultancy

35 Legal Integrity Education - Uganda
The Background Four most important institutions to fight corruption are among the most corrupt. New Approach is needed to address this national issues. Source: Global Corruption Barometer, TI

36 Why Anti-Corruption Course?
Legal Integrity Education - Uganda Why Anti-Corruption Course? Paramadina aiming for creating layers of Indonesia’s future leaders and entrepreneurs who put ethic at a very high place. The most crucial ethical problem in Indonesia is the prevalent corruption. This is the basis for Paramadina to teach Anti-corruption as an obligatory course for all students Leadership Entrepreneurship Ethics Our Tagline Source: Paramadina’s Corporate Profile

37 Corruption: The Economics Model
Legal Integrity Education - Uganda Corruption: The Economics Model Supply Demand Corruption 1 Officer who willing to provide “services” People who need “service” from corrupt officer Willingness Opportunity Corruption 2 Willingness of the people to corrupt (character issue) System that enable corruption to take place Cost* Benefit* Corruption 3 Social and monetary cost of corruption act Social and monetary benefit of corruption act *) for corruptors

38 Approaches to Strengthen Integrity
Legal Integrity Education - Uganda Approaches to Strengthen Integrity Rule Based Values Based Lawyer Approach Businessman Approach Economist Approach Cultural Approach Stick approach for all; Creating law and enforce it; No incentive for good man, punishment for the bad man Carrot approach for all; Incentive for those who pass the test; Incentive for good man, neutral for bad man; Carrot approach for winner; Creating competitive environment; Incentive for the winner, neutral for the loser; Building awareness among the people; Stick and Carrot approach for all; The stick and carrot come from the society Quick impact, high cost, challenge is on the implementation Moderate cost, challenge is on determining the incentive for the good man. Often, the benefit of being selfish is too huge; Low cost, take a long time to materialize, self sustain; Source: Korupsi Mengorupsi Indonesia and Various sources

39 Cultural Approach: The Impact
Legal Integrity Education - Uganda Cultural Approach: The Impact Demand Supply Corruption Willingness Opportunity Corruption Anti-Corruption Course would be able to reduce the demand of corrupt behavior since it create awareness on the risk & impact of corruption both to the corruptor as well as to the society. The moral aspect of the course would also minimize the willingness to corrupt. Cost Benefit Corruption Public awareness could also increase the cost of doing corruption for corruptor; it reduces the marginal cost of fighting corruption by the society.

40 Optimal Level of Corruption
Legal Integrity Education - Uganda Optimal Level of Corruption Corruption mitigation will be done by the society .....until the level of marginal cost and marginal benefit of eradicating corruption reach the same level, end up corruption quantity been reduced at Q1; Cultural approach can reduce the marginal cost of fighting corruption, line MC1 shift to MC2... ....increasing corruption quantity been mitigated from Q1 to Q2; Additional Cost or Benefit Marginal Cost (MC1) Marginal Cost (MC2) E1 E2 Marginal Benefit (MB) Q1 Q2 Quantity of Corruption been Reduced MB>MC1 MB<MC1 MB>MC2

41 Education on Anti-Corruption
Legal Integrity Education - Uganda Education on Anti-Corruption Level Component Main Goals Creating Anti-corruption experts Post- graduate Under- graduate Elementary to High School Reduce the Supply of Corruptors Research, Theory & Case Study Practice, Applied, Case Study

42 The Options Available.... Obligatory or Elective Course?
Legal Integrity Education - Uganda The Options Available.... Obligatory or Elective Course? 1 Obligatory is more effective to create generation with anti-corruption attitude, while elective is better to create expert on anti-corruption Independent or Integrated Course? For All Students or Selected Department? 2 3 Program for all department is more effective to reduce the supply of corruptor, since corruptor come from various background Even though integrated course is more practical, independent course provide content flexibility for more impact. Paramadina Implements a Full-blown approach. OBLIGATORY & INDEPENDENT COURSE FOR ALL STUDENTS

43 Internal campus & Lecturer
Legal Integrity Education - Uganda The Main Challenge.... Support and harsh criticism; Permissiveness; PR activities and involves more stakeholders; Lack of references with Indonesia focus; Publishing book on corruption in Indonesia (1,100 pages); The Public 1 2 Teaching Material Lack of knowledge on corruption issue; The importance of credibility; Training for lecturer; Engaging external parties to teach; Creating internal integrity climate; Lack of awareness, corruption is normal; Permissiveness; Making it obligatory for all students and implement innovative and enjoyable teaching approach; Internal campus & Lecturer 3 The students 4

44 Content & Approach Course’s Building Blocks
Legal Integrity Education - Uganda Content & Approach Course’s Building Blocks Students, in groups, create investigative report on various corruption in the society; They use recorder and handy-cam; Book consist of best report will be published...... collaboration with “Benny” and “Mice” a famous cartoonist; Theory, Discussion & Case Study 1 2 Investigative Report 3 Stadium General 4 Corruption Court (TIPIKOR) Visit Students attend corruption prosecution process and are required to write comprehensive report on the corruption case; Based on our survey, “Investigative Report” and “TIPIKOR Visit” were their favorite activates

45 Studium General Legal Integrity Education - Uganda 1 3 2 4 1 3 4 2
Well-known figure is important, not only because of the knowledge they could share, but they also attract media to come and cover the program 1 3 2 4 1 Antazari Azhar (Corruption Eradication Commision, Chairman) Jimly Asidiqie (Constitution Court Chairman) Waluyo (Director of National Oil Company) Sandi Uno (Vice Chairman of Indonesia Busiiness Chamber - KADIN) 3 4 2

46 Investigative Reports: The Theme
Legal Integrity Education - Uganda Investigative Reports: The Theme Each Semester, ~400 students took “Anti-Corruption” course at Paramadina University. Around 80 investigative reports were created each year; Students used voice recorder and handy-cam to support the investigation; Example of Investigative Report’s Theme Fake Diploma and Transcript; Corruption in Police Department; Corruption at the Cemetery; Corruption at Traditional Market: Corrupted Scale; Mobile Phone Black Market; Bribery in the Train; Corruption in the hospital; Corruption by University Security Guard; Lack of Transparency in University Endowment Fund Management; Some student conduct the investigative in the campus, it helped the university to maintain internal integrity system

47 Course Syllabi No Topic/Activity* Lecturer 1
Legal Integrity Education - Uganda Course Syllabi No Topic/Activity* Lecturer 1 Overview of the Course, Syllabi, Material, etc. Internal 2 Stadium General 1: Corruption in Indonesia and The Region External 3 Definition and Type of Corruption, Corruption Measurement 4 Cause of Corruption & Mitigation Approach 5 Investigative Technique KPK 6 Stadium General 2: Religion and Corruption 7 Negative Effect of Corruption 8 The History of Corruption in Indonesia 9 The Prospect of Corruption Eradication in Indonesia

48 Course Syllabi (cont’d)
Legal Integrity Education - Uganda Course Syllabi (cont’d) No Topic/Activity* Lecturer 10 Stadium General 3: Corruption in Indonesia’s Business and Politic External 11 Global War Against Corruption Internal 12 Class Presentation & Discussion (Investigative Report) 13 14 Corruption Court (TIPIKOR) Visit TIPIKOR 15 Best Investigative Report Selection. 16 Final Exam

49 Legal Integrity Education - Uganda
attachment book and poster

50 The Main Text Book Publish Date: January 2010;
Legal Integrity Education - Uganda The Main Text Book Publish Date: January 2010; Editor: Wijayanto & R. Zachrie; Authors: 30 experts from various background, including some expert from TIRI; Sponsor: TIRI and Recapital; No of pages: 1,100 pages; In addition comprehensive theory and various corruption measurement, the book covers various aspect of corruption in Indonesia, using various angle, including economic, politic, social and culture, religion, law, and international aspect.

51 Poster on Investigative Report
Legal Integrity Education - Uganda Poster on Investigative Report We distribute this poster in our the campus; encouraging students to write their best report. “....The best report will be published, in collaboration with Benny and Mice (a famous Indonesia’s cartoonists)....” “Come us your best report!!”

52 Integrity for Youth [integrity 4Uth]
Jakarta, March, 2010

53 Executive Summary integrity 4Uth
Youth, defined as those with age between 12 – 25, is a dominant component of world population; In Indonesia, the number of youth reaches around 70 million, represents a third of total population; If we intent to change the world....change the youth; If we intent to create a new world in which integrity becomes part of people daily integrity among the youth; However, dealing with youth is a tough undertaking .....since we don’t speak their language; Integrity for Youth [integrity 4Uth] envisage to build awareness and attitude of integrity among the youth, using a new approach; Paramadina Public Policy Institute, Youth Lab and Recapital Amanah Foundation hope that this program could outlay a sound base for anti- corruption awareness among the youth.

54 Interesting Fact: Friends
integrity 4Uth Interesting Fact: Friends In average, Asian youth has: 96 number in his/her mobile phone; 87 instant message buddies; 100 friends in social networks; 4 social networking sites; Source: MTV Music Mailers Research, 2008 (12 countries)

55 Interesting Fact: Friends
integrity 4Uth Interesting Fact: Friends Number of Friends In average Indonesian youth has 33 online friends, 39 offline friends and 14 close friends; Friends tend to have more influence than teachers, parents and siblings; Source: MTV Music Mailers Research, 2008 (12 countries)

56 Interesting Fact: Social Networks
integrity 4Uth Interesting Fact: Social Networks Number of Online Social Networks Online Social Network becomes a lifestyle; In Indonesia, six largest networks are: Twitter; Facebook; Friendster; Flixter; Myspace; and Flicker; Source: MTV Music Mailers Research, 2008 (12 countries)

57 The Project: 20,000 Feet View integrity 4Uth
The Objective Promoting awareness on anticorruption and integrity among youth; Create a tested and an efficient model to engage youth in the war against corruption...... ..... which could be multiplied in various places; The Challenge Communication gaps between the youth and a killing handicap; The vast number of youth and the fact that peers are their main influencer has made traditional approaches to build integrity ineffective and too expensive; The Strategy Riding the wave of youth new lifestyle or social networks; Let the youth do the job for us;

58 The Plan..... integrity 4Uth Recruiting Agents
Determine the parameter of integrity agents; Select 30 agents form 30 high schools and universities representing Jakarta area; 1 Kit design & production Create T-Shirt and bags with unique design; Agents wear the T-Shirt and bag for 30 days; 2 Training for integrity agent Provide agents with basic understanding on integrity and anticorruption; 3 Monitoring (on line & off line) Randomly monitor agents’ activities; Periodic coordination meeting with integrity agents; 4 Report preparation & dissemination Prepare comprehensive report, including video of integrity agents in action; Publish result to maximize impact; 5

59 The Integrity Agents integrity 4Uth Their criteria..........
Cool....very outgoing!! Active on online/offline Social Network (min: 4 days posting on facebook & twitter); Persuasive & Engaging; Min: 500 friends on facebook; Min: 300 followers on Twitter; Active on Kaskus & Kafe gaul; Talk about our message through online/offline media for 30 days ;

60 The Places to Visit..... integrity 4Uth
Wearing specially design T-Shirt, integrity agents visit these places, to socialize and to spread out integrity virus in their community, using their own approach

61 The Costume..... sample only integrity 4Uth
Integrity agents are required to wear “Integrity T-Shirt” for 30 consecutive days.... mater where they are: at campus, at shopping mall, at cafe, at mosque, at church, at home, even during dating; Logo of Recapital, Paramadina & Youth Lab will be printed on the T-Shirt...... ......together with eye-catching anticorruption or pro-integrity slogan. sample only

62 The Three Fold Impact integrity 4Uth
We expect that integrity agents could spread out our message to, at least, 420 close friends; Awareness building among online friends is the main power of this project; We expect that agents could create awareness among at least 15,000 youth, .....maximum number is difficult to predict. However, considering the trend, this number could be enormous On line Friends Close Friends Off line Friends Through the off-line interaction, integrity agents would build awareness among, at least, 990 peers they meet at various places;

63 Impact : to Close Friends
integrity 4Uth Impact : to Close Friends 1 30 14* 420 No of agents No of close friends per agent No of youth persuaded Primary Impact [420] [14] 5,880 Secondary Impact no of close friends persuaded no of close friends per youth No of youth persuaded This situation can potentially create a kind of spiral effect, which will end up with more youth being aware of our message *) we believe that the integrity agents we recruit have more than 14 close friends.

64 Impact : to Offline Friends
integrity 4Uth Impact : to Offline Friends 2 30 33* 990 No of agents No of off line friends per agent No of youth persuaded Primary Impact [990] [33] 32,670 Secondary Impact No of off line friends persuaded No of off line friends per youth No of youth persuaded This situation can potentially create a kind of spiral effect, which will end up with more youth being aware of our message *) we believe that the integrity agents we recruit have more than 33 off line friends.

65 Impact : to Online Friends
integrity 4Uth Impact : to Online Friends 3 30 5 100* 15,000 Primary Impact No of agents Social Networks per -agents Social friends per-agents, per social networks No of youth persuaded [15,000] [5] [????] [???] Secondary Impact No of youth persuaded Social networks per youth No of social friends/ youth/ social networks No of youth persuaded *) we recruit youth with more than 100 friends (our expectation is 500 or more) in each social networks they participate This situation can potentially create a kind of chain reaction, which will end up with more youth being aware of the message we deliver

66 Including Secondary Impact
integrity 4Uth The Projected Outcome Impact to Worse Case Primary Impact Best Case Including Secondary Impact Integrity Agents 30 Close Friends 420 ?? Off Line Friends 990 On Line Friends 15,000 Total : 16,440* *) double counting may occur Integrity 4Uth will build awareness to at least 15,000 youth..... ....with potential enormous secondary impact; Indonesia’s recent history has shown that social online network is a powerful tool to build awareness and to mobilize support;

67 integrity 4Uth The Team Paramadina Public Policy Institute (“the Institute”) is an independent, non-profit and non-partisan think-thank under the umbrella of Paramadina University. The Institute envisage becoming a fountain of ideas for Indonesia, and have positioned ourselves as a critical but supportive partner of the government. Website: Youthlab is a think-thank, managed and established by students of Psychology Department, Univ. of Indonesia, who focus its research and activities on youth behavior. Website: One of Indonesia’s leading investment firm. Through Recapital Amanah Foundation, Recapital would like to spread out it altruistic spirit all over Indonesia;

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