7Corruption Score: Top 30Source: Corruption Perception Index 2009, Score range: 0 (worst) – 10 (best), Transparency International
8Corruption: Moslem Countries Average Moslem Countries Score: 2.8Average Global Score: 4.0Source: Corruption Perception Index 2009, Score range: 0 (worst) – 10 (best), Transparency International
9The Causes of Extreme Poverty.... Being land-locked has made a country rely too much to its neighbor;Conflict in the neighboring country can easily impact a country;Create inefficient resources allocation;Development is directed for the benefit of a certain group only;Corrupt Govern-mentUnstable Land lockcountriesProlong Civil warHuge Natural resourcesCaused huge material and non material loss;Reconciliation is a tough undertaking;Weapon is more important than food and book;It creates dependency; Instead of developing industry, people fighting for access to the resources;Dutch disease;Source: The Bottom One Billion, Paul Collier
11Corruption in Indonesia Corruption Perception Index ,Indonesia (1995 – 2009)Highest Score: 2.80Average Score: 2.17Lowest Score: 1.65Improvement has been made. However, 2.8 is far from enough;The recent development (i.e. KPK issue) has put additional challenge;Source: Corruption Perception Index 2009, Transparency International
12Corruption in Indonesia Based on various perception surveys, Indonesia is known as a corrupt country.PERC survey put Indonesia as one of the most corrupt country in Asia (14 countries).Despite a long list of question concerning the validity and accuracy of perception survey, significant improvement is needed.Source: PERC, Political Economic Risk Consultancy, Score: 0 (best) – 10 (worst)
13Corruption in Indonesia Most Corrupt Institution in IndonesiaFour most important pillars to mitigate corruption are among the most corrupt institutions;Alternatives strategy is needed, the role of civil society and the people is very crucialSource: Global Corruption Barometer, Transparency International
14Fact and Perception...... Natural Endowment Value (based on coal, oil & gas proven reserve)The common perception....We are very rich;In fact.....We are not;Based on Coal, Natural Gas and Oil proven reserved, our natural endowment value reach USD 1,121 billion.Rank 22 in term of total value, and rank 56 in term of value per-capita.Long term economic sustainability is in question.Assuming oil price: USD 84/barrel, coal price: USD 80/ton and gas price: USD 3.9 /MMBTUSource: British Petroleum Statistic and Wijayanto Analysis
15CAFTA: Challenge or Opportunity? CAFTA is agreat opportunity. It connect us with a market of 1.7 billion people, with combined export of USD 4.3 trillion (13.3% of global trade);Free Trade will increase international trade and will create specialization;The question is, what product we will specialized on?Since tariff reduction began in 2005, Indonesia’s export to China increase by 70%, driven by nearly tripling mineral export. (World Bank);Import of energy efficient lamp from China will reach 136 million in 2010, (68% market share), while domestic industry run at 20% utilization rate. (Tempo, 24 March 2010);Batik from China has market share of close to 50% at Pasar Tanah Abang. (Bisnis Indonesia);Marie Pangestu: “Our product is pretty similar with its of China. Products that have strong competitiveness are CPO, coal, mineral and gas, in which around 80% of our export to China consist of those commodities. (Bisnis Indonesia, April 30, 2010);Source: Various Sources and “The Emerging Market of the ASEAN – Dr. Bernando M. Villegas
17Messy but Keep Growing...... But... (1) GDP grows at encouraging rate; (2) Inflation under control;(3) Poverty level decrease continuously;(4) etc....CorruptionThe most corrupt in Asia Pacific (PERC)Rank 126 of 180 (TI)12Human CapitalRank 111 out of 183 countries (UNDP)3Ease of Doing BusinessRank 122 out of 183 countries (World Bank)InfrastructureQualityDiscouraging road/port conditionUnreliable electricity supplySource: World Bank4
18(Average no of child per-woman) Demographic BonusFertility Rate(Average no of child per-woman)Replacement Rate = 2Extreme HighGrowthDemographicBonusAgingPopulation
19At Least....The Glass is Half Full The ultimate goal of our existence is to be prosperous and happy;As a nation, we are in the middle of our journey to realize that goal;Now...the glass is half-full.........we need to work harder to make it full.Source: IMF, New Economics Foundation, Wijayanto’s Analysis
20The Youth Important Role: Strengthening Social Accountability
21Why Indonesian Moslem Youth? 85% of Indonesians is Moslem;Demographically, most Indonesia’s are young;Moslem youth is a key component for change;The principle of accountability is embedded in Islam teaching;Leadership principle; public participation; freedom of speech;IslamSize and InfluenceThe face of Islam & IndonesiaFuture Responsi-bilityIndonesia represent the face of Islam in the global arena;Prosperous, democratic and peaceful Indonesia will play an important role;Moslem youth activists are Indonesia’s future leaders;The future is belong to young generation;The old generation is not able to change;Source: Various sources
22Social Accountability The Basic Tenet.....To DefineTo MeasureTo ManageThe Definition....AccountabilityThe obligation of power-holders to account for or take responsibility for their action;Leadership Character in IslamShidiq (honest)Amanah (trusted)Tabligh (spread out correct info)Fathanah (intellectual & pro-the people)Social AccountabilityApproach toward the building of accountability that rely on citizens and/or civil society that participate directly or indirectly;Source: Various sources
23Public Integrity vs. Accountability IdeasIdeasStakeholder or CitizenGovernment orAgentsPolicy ImplementationTransparency, accountability & integrity is codependentTransparency without accountability is meaningless. Both, without integrity may not end up serving the interest of the public.Four Core Values ofIntegrity:Justice and equity to promote public interest;Transparency & Openness;AccountabilityEfficiency;1Integrity is beyond honesty. To be honest doesn’t always to be efficient, justice, and accountable.234Source: Component of Integrity: Data and Benchmark of Tracking Trend in the Government, Paper by OECD, May 2009
24Measurement“There is no specific accountability measurement available; However, Corruption Index could be used as a proxy to measure accountability level...”CDMACorruption:The breach of public power for personal benefitDiscretionary:The flexibility to execute authority or powerMonopoly:The lack of competition from other partiesAccountability:The obligation of power-holders to account for or take responsibility for their action;
25Accountability and Corruption “Indonesia’s high level of corruption, measured by various measurement, indicates the lack of accountability in..”Indonesia’s score is relatively low (average: 35%) measured by various indicators; except for GI Index, which is an INPUT INDICATOR.
26Social Accountability: The Impact Improve GovernanceImprove Development EffectivenessImprove People EmpowermentPromote good governance and democracy;Complement the weaknesses of vertical accountability (election) and horizontal accountability (internal mechanism)Improve public service delivery;Reduce information asymmetry and promote transparency;Create well informed policy design;Empower the poor, by enabling the poor to express their concern;Empower various vulnerable and disadvantages group;Source: Social Accountability: An Introduction to the Concept and Emerging Practice, Carmen Malena et al.
27Social Accountability: Building Blocks Advocating and negotiating changeNegotiate with the govt. create public pressure etc.5Rallying support and building coalitionBuilding coalition with relevant parties or institution;4Going publicCommunicate the finding to the public and media or communicate with stakeholder;3Building information / evident baseSupply side data (data from the government) and Demand side data (data from survey or score-card)2Mobilizing around an entry pointIdentification of problem (i.e. education budget allocation) and development of strategy (i.e. tracking of education budget)1Source: Social Accountability: An Introduction to the Concept and Emerging Practice, Carmen Malena et al.
28Example: Budget Accountability Stages in Policy and Budget CycleSocial Accountability Application and ToolsDirect citizen participation (through CSO, etc) to formulate public policy and budget. (i.e. project proposal and budget allocation); Citizen could also prepare alternative program or budget;Policy/budget preparation1Measuring whether the budget allocation match with government social commitment, this may include to analyze the impact of budget allocation;Policy/budget analysis2Policy/budget implementationAnalyze how the government actually spend the money. Are there any leakage or bottleneck?3Monitor the impact and quality of government program and performance of public service. CSO could create its own measurement, such as citizen score card;Monitoring and evaluation4Source: Social Accountability: An Introduction to the Concept and Emerging Practice, Carmen Malena et al.
29Success Factors of Social Accountability Strong Social AccountabilityPolicy context & cultureState capacityAccess to informationState-civil society synergyThe role of mediaInstitutionalizationCivil society capacitySource: Social Accountability: An Introduction to the Concept and Emerging Practice, Carmen Malena et al.
30Alternative Relevant Topics.... Certain corruption case;Investigative report competition;KPK chairman selection process;Building anti-corruption awareness among the youth;Education for the poor;Program design and fund tracking;Government scholarship program;Government research grants;EducationCorrup-tionHealthPoliticFund tracking;Health services in the remote areas;Access of health service for the poor;Jamsostek services;Drug availability;Political and campaign financing;Regional election;Policy making process;etc;
33Anti-Corruption Course: The Indonesia’s Experience Tiri Workshop on Legal Integrity EducationAnti-Corruption Course: The Indonesia’s ExperienceBy: WijayantoKampala, Uganda, May 2010Youthlab
34Legal Integrity Education - Uganda The BackgroundBased on various perception surveys, Indonesia is known as a corrupt country.PERC survey put Indonesia as one of the most corrupt country in Asia.Despite a long list of question concerning the validity and accuracy of perception survey, significant improvement is needed.Source: PERC, Political Economic Risk Consultancy
35Legal Integrity Education - Uganda The BackgroundFour most important institutions to fight corruption are among the most corrupt.New Approach is needed to address this national issues.Source: Global Corruption Barometer, TI
36Why Anti-Corruption Course? Legal Integrity Education - UgandaWhy Anti-Corruption Course?Paramadina aiming for creating layers of Indonesia’s future leaders and entrepreneurs who put ethic at a very high place.The most crucial ethical problem in Indonesia is the prevalent corruption. This is the basis for Paramadina to teach Anti-corruption as an obligatory course for all studentsLeadershipEntrepreneurshipEthicsOur TaglineSource: Paramadina’s Corporate Profile
37Corruption: The Economics Model Legal Integrity Education - UgandaCorruption: The Economics ModelSupplyDemandCorruption1Officer who willing to provide “services”People who need “service” from corrupt officerWillingnessOpportunityCorruption2Willingness of the people to corrupt (character issue)System that enable corruption to take placeCost*Benefit*Corruption3Social and monetary cost of corruption actSocial and monetary benefit of corruption act*) for corruptors
38Approaches to Strengthen Integrity Legal Integrity Education - UgandaApproaches to Strengthen IntegrityRule BasedValues BasedLawyer ApproachBusinessman ApproachEconomist ApproachCulturalApproachStick approach for all;Creating law and enforce it;No incentive for good man, punishment for the bad manCarrot approach for all;Incentive for those who pass the test;Incentive for good man, neutral for bad man;Carrot approach for winner;Creating competitive environment;Incentive for the winner, neutral for the loser;Building awareness among the people;Stick and Carrot approach for all;The stick and carrot come from the societyQuick impact, high cost, challenge is on the implementationModerate cost, challenge is on determining the incentive for the good man. Often, the benefit of being selfish is too huge;Low cost, take a long time to materialize, self sustain;Source: Korupsi Mengorupsi Indonesia and Various sources
39Cultural Approach: The Impact Legal Integrity Education - UgandaCultural Approach: The ImpactDemandSupplyCorruptionWillingnessOpportunityCorruptionAnti-Corruption Course would be able to reduce the demand of corrupt behavior since it create awareness on the risk & impact of corruption both to the corruptor as well as to the society. The moral aspect of the course would also minimize the willingness to corrupt.CostBenefitCorruptionPublic awareness could also increase the cost of doing corruption for corruptor; it reduces the marginal cost of fighting corruption by the society.
40Optimal Level of Corruption Legal Integrity Education - UgandaOptimal Level of CorruptionCorruption mitigation will be done by the society.....until the level of marginal cost and marginal benefit of eradicating corruption reach the same level, end up corruption quantity been reduced at Q1;Cultural approach can reduce the marginal cost of fighting corruption, line MC1 shift to MC2.......increasing corruption quantity been mitigated from Q1 to Q2;Additional Cost or BenefitMarginalCost (MC1)MarginalCost (MC2)E1E2MarginalBenefit (MB)Q1Q2Quantityof Corruptionbeen ReducedMB>MC1MB<MC1MB>MC2
41Education on Anti-Corruption Legal Integrity Education - UgandaEducation on Anti-CorruptionLevelComponentMain GoalsCreatingAnti-corruptionexpertsPost-graduateUnder-graduateElementary to High SchoolReduce the Supplyof CorruptorsResearch,Theory & Case StudyPractice, Applied,Case Study
42The Options Available.... Obligatory or Elective Course? Legal Integrity Education - UgandaThe Options Available....Obligatoryor ElectiveCourse?1Obligatory is more effective to create generation with anti-corruption attitude, while elective is better to create expert on anti-corruptionIndependentor IntegratedCourse?For AllStudentsor SelectedDepartment?23Program for all department is more effective to reduce the supply of corruptor, since corruptor come from various backgroundEven though integrated course is more practical, independent course provide content flexibility for more impact.Paramadina Implements a Full-blown approach. OBLIGATORY & INDEPENDENT COURSE FOR ALL STUDENTS
43Internal campus & Lecturer Legal Integrity Education - UgandaThe Main Challenge....Support and harsh criticism;Permissiveness;PR activities and involves more stakeholders;Lack of references with Indonesia focus;Publishing book on corruption in Indonesia (1,100 pages);The Public12Teaching MaterialLack of knowledge on corruption issue;The importance of credibility;Training for lecturer;Engaging external parties to teach;Creating internal integrity climate;Lack of awareness, corruption is normal;Permissiveness;Making it obligatory for all students and implement innovative and enjoyable teaching approach;Internal campus & Lecturer3The students4
44Content & Approach Course’s Building Blocks Legal Integrity Education - UgandaContent & ApproachCourse’s Building BlocksStudents, in groups, create investigative report on various corruption in the society;They use recorder and handy-cam;Book consist of best report will be published............in collaboration with “Benny” and “Mice” a famous cartoonist;Theory, Discussion & Case Study12Investigative Report3Stadium General4Corruption Court (TIPIKOR) VisitStudents attend corruption prosecution process and are required to write comprehensive report on the corruption case;Based on our survey, “Investigative Report” and “TIPIKOR Visit” were their favorite activates
45Studium General Legal Integrity Education - Uganda 1 3 2 4 1 3 4 2 Well-known figure isimportant, not only because of the knowledge they could share, but they also attract media to come and cover the program13241Antazari Azhar (Corruption Eradication Commision, Chairman)Jimly Asidiqie (Constitution Court Chairman)Waluyo (Director of National Oil Company)Sandi Uno (Vice Chairman of Indonesia Busiiness Chamber - KADIN)342
46Investigative Reports: The Theme Legal Integrity Education - UgandaInvestigative Reports: The ThemeEach Semester, ~400 students took “Anti-Corruption” course at Paramadina University. Around 80 investigative reports were created each year;Students used voice recorder and handy-cam to support the investigation;Example of Investigative Report’s ThemeFake Diploma and Transcript;Corruption in Police Department;Corruption at the Cemetery;Corruption at Traditional Market: Corrupted Scale;Mobile Phone Black Market;Bribery in the Train;Corruption in the hospital;Corruption by University Security Guard;Lack of Transparency in University Endowment Fund Management;Some student conduct the investigative in the campus, it helped the university to maintain internal integrity system
47Course Syllabi No Topic/Activity* Lecturer 1 Legal Integrity Education - UgandaCourse SyllabiNoTopic/Activity*Lecturer1Overview of the Course, Syllabi, Material, etc.Internal2Stadium General 1: Corruption in Indonesia and The RegionExternal3Definition and Type of Corruption, Corruption Measurement4Cause of Corruption & Mitigation Approach5Investigative TechniqueKPK6Stadium General 2: Religion and Corruption7Negative Effect of Corruption8The History of Corruption in Indonesia9The Prospect of Corruption Eradication in Indonesia
48Course Syllabi (cont’d) Legal Integrity Education - UgandaCourse Syllabi (cont’d)NoTopic/Activity*Lecturer10Stadium General 3: Corruption in Indonesia’s Business and PoliticExternal11Global War Against CorruptionInternal12Class Presentation & Discussion (Investigative Report)1314Corruption Court (TIPIKOR) VisitTIPIKOR15Best Investigative Report Selection.16Final Exam
49Legal Integrity Education - Uganda attachmentbook and poster
50The Main Text Book Publish Date: January 2010; Legal Integrity Education - UgandaThe Main Text BookPublish Date: January 2010;Editor: Wijayanto & R. Zachrie;Authors: 30 experts from various background, including some expert from TIRI;Sponsor: TIRI and Recapital;No of pages: 1,100 pages;In addition comprehensive theory and various corruption measurement, the book covers various aspect of corruption in Indonesia, using various angle, including economic, politic, social and culture, religion, law, and international aspect.
51Poster on Investigative Report Legal Integrity Education - UgandaPoster on Investigative ReportWe distribute this poster in our the campus; encouraging students to write their best report.“....The best report will be published, in collaboration with Benny and Mice (a famous Indonesia’s cartoonists)....”“Come on......show us your best report!!”
52Integrity for Youth [integrity 4Uth] Jakarta, March, 2010
53Executive Summary integrity 4Uth Youth, defined as those with age between 12 – 25, is a dominant component of world population;In Indonesia, the number of youth reaches around 70 million, represents a third of total population;If we intent to change the world....change the youth;If we intent to create a new world in which integrity becomes part of people daily live....build integrity among the youth;However, dealing with youth is a tough undertaking.....since we don’t speak their language;Integrity for Youth [integrity 4Uth] envisage to build awareness and attitude of integrity among the youth, using a new approach;Paramadina Public Policy Institute, Youth Lab and Recapital Amanah Foundation hope that this program could outlay a sound base for anti- corruption awareness among the youth.
54Interesting Fact: Friends integrity 4UthInteresting Fact: FriendsIn average, Asian youth has:96 number in his/her mobile phone;87 instant message buddies;100 friends in social networks;4 social networking sites;Source: MTV Music Mailers Research, 2008 (12 countries)
55Interesting Fact: Friends integrity 4UthInteresting Fact: FriendsNumber of FriendsIn average Indonesian youth has 33 online friends, 39 offline friends and 14 close friends;Friends tend to have more influence than teachers, parents and siblings;Source: MTV Music Mailers Research, 2008 (12 countries)
56Interesting Fact: Social Networks integrity 4UthInteresting Fact: Social NetworksNumber of Online Social NetworksOnline Social Network becomes a lifestyle;In Indonesia, six largest networks are:Twitter;Facebook;Friendster;Flixter;Myspace; andFlicker;Source: MTV Music Mailers Research, 2008 (12 countries)
57The Project: 20,000 Feet View integrity 4Uth The ObjectivePromoting awareness on anticorruption and integrity among youth;Create a tested and an efficient model to engage youth in the war against corruption........... which could be multiplied in various places;The ChallengeCommunication gaps between the youth and adult.....is a killing handicap;The vast number of youth and the fact that peers are their main influencer has made traditional approaches to build integrity ineffective and too expensive;The StrategyRiding the wave of youth new lifestyle or trend......online social networks;Let the youth do the job for us;
58The Plan..... integrity 4Uth Recruiting Agents Determine the parameter of integrity agents;Select 30 agents form 30 high schools and universities representing Jakarta area;1Kit design & productionCreate T-Shirt and bags with unique design;Agents wear the T-Shirt and bag for 30 days;2Training forintegrity agentProvide agents with basic understanding on integrity and anticorruption;3Monitoring(on line & off line)Randomly monitor agents’ activities;Periodic coordination meeting with integrity agents;4Reportpreparation & disseminationPrepare comprehensive report, including video of integrity agents in action;Publish result to maximize impact;5
59The Integrity Agents integrity 4Uth Their criteria.......... Cool....very outgoing!!Active on online/offline Social Network (min: 4 days posting on facebook & twitter);Persuasive & Engaging;Min: 500 friends on facebook;Min: 300 followers on Twitter;Active on Kaskus & Kafe gaul;Talk about our message through online/offline media for 30 days ;
60The Places to Visit..... integrity 4Uth Wearing specially design T-Shirt, integrity agents visit these places, to socialize and to spread out integrity virus in their community, using their own approach
61The Costume..... sample only integrity 4Uth Integrity agents are required to wear “Integrity T-Shirt” for 30 consecutive days.........no mater where they are: at campus, at shopping mall, at cafe, at mosque, at church, at home, even during dating;Logo of Recapital, Paramadina & Youth Lab will be printed on the T-Shirt............together with eye-catching anticorruption or pro-integrity slogan.sample only
62The Three Fold Impact integrity 4Uth We expect that integrity agents could spread out our message to, at least, 420 close friends;Awareness building among online friends is the main power of this project;We expect that agents could create awareness among at least 15,000 youth,.....maximum number is difficult to predict.However, considering the trend, this number could be enormousOn lineFriendsCloseFriendsOff lineFriendsThrough the off-line interaction, integrity agents would build awareness among, at least, 990 peers they meet at various places;
63Impact : to Close Friends integrity 4UthImpact : to Close Friends13014*420No of agentsNo of close friends per agentNo of youth persuadedPrimary Impact5,880Secondary Impactno of close friends persuadedno of close friends per youthNo of youth persuadedThis situation can potentially create a kind ofspiral effect, which will end up with moreyouth being aware of our message*) we believe that the integrity agents we recruit have more than 14 close friends.
64Impact : to Offline Friends integrity 4UthImpact : to Offline Friends23033*990No of agentsNo of off line friends per agentNo of youth persuadedPrimary Impact32,670Secondary ImpactNo of off line friends persuadedNo of off line friends per youthNo of youth persuadedThis situation can potentially create a kind ofspiral effect, which will end up with moreyouth being aware of our message*) we believe that the integrity agents we recruit have more than 33 off line friends.
65Impact : to Online Friends integrity 4UthImpact : to Online Friends3305100*15,000PrimaryImpactNo of agentsSocial Networks per -agentsSocial friends per-agents, per social networksNo of youth persuaded[15,000][????][???]SecondaryImpactNo of youth persuadedSocial networks per youthNo of social friends/ youth/ social networksNo of youth persuaded*) we recruit youth with more than 100 friends (our expectation is 500 or more) in each social networks they participateThis situation can potentially create a kind ofchain reaction, which will end up with moreyouth being aware of the message we deliver
66Including Secondary Impact integrity 4UthThe Projected OutcomeImpact toWorse CasePrimary ImpactBest CaseIncluding Secondary ImpactIntegrity Agents30Close Friends420??Off Line Friends990On Line Friends15,000Total :16,440**) double counting may occurIntegrity 4Uth will build awareness to at least 15,000 youth.........with potential enormous secondary impact;Indonesia’s recent history has shown that social online network is a powerful tool to build awareness and to mobilize support;
67integrity 4UthThe TeamParamadina Public Policy Institute (“the Institute”) is an independent, non-profit and non-partisan think-thank under the umbrella of Paramadina University.The Institute envisage becoming a fountain of ideas for Indonesia, and have positioned ourselves as a critical but supportive partner of the government.Website:Youthlab is a think-thank, managed and established by students of Psychology Department, Univ. of Indonesia, who focus its research and activities on youth behavior.Website:One of Indonesia’s leading investment firm. Through Recapital Amanah Foundation, Recapital would like to spread out it altruistic spirit all over Indonesia;