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Young Moslem Leaders and Social Accountability By: Wijayanto Jakarta, June 2010

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Presentation on theme: "Young Moslem Leaders and Social Accountability By: Wijayanto Jakarta, June 2010"— Presentation transcript:

1 Young Moslem Leaders and Social Accountability By: Wijayanto Jakarta, June Youthlab

2 Page 2 Moslem Nations and the World: A Challenging World

3 Page 3 G DP Per-capita: Top 30 Source: IMF 2009

4 Page 4 G DP Per-capita: Moslem Countries Source: IMF 2009

5 Page 5 H uman Development Index (HDI): 30 Source: UNDP 2007

6 Page 6 H DI: Moslem Countries Source: UNDP, 2007

7 Page 7 C orruption Score: Top 30 Source: Corruption Perception Index 2009, Score range: 0 (worst) – 10 (best), Transparency International

8 Page 8 C orruption: Moslem Countries Source: Corruption Perception Index 2009, Score range: 0 (worst) – 10 (best), Transparency International Average Moslem Countries Score: 2.8 Average Global Score: 4.0

9 Page 9 T he Causes of Extreme Poverty.... Corrupt Govern- ment Prolong Civil war Unstable Land lock countries Huge Natural resources It creates dependency; Instead of developing industry, people fighting for access to the resources; Dutch disease; Being land-locked has made a country rely too much to its neighbor; Conflict in the neighboring country can easily impact a country; Caused huge material and non material loss; Reconciliation is a tough undertaking; Weapon is more important than food and book; Create inefficient resources allocation; Development is directed for the benefit of a certain group only; Source: The Bottom One Billion, Paul Collier

10 Page 10 Some National Issues: The Windy Road Ahead

11 Page 11 C orruption in Indonesia Source: Corruption Perception Index 2009, Transparency International Corruption Perception Index, Indonesia (1995 – 2009) Highest Score: 2.80 Average Score: 2.17 Lowest Score: 1.65 Improvement has been made. However, 2.8 is far from enough; The recent development (i.e. KPK issue) has put additional challenge;

12 Page 12 Source: PERC, Political Economic Risk Consultancy, Score: 0 (best) – 10 (worst) Based on various perception surveys, Indonesia is known as a corrupt country. PERC survey put Indonesia as one of the most corrupt country in Asia (14 countries). Despite a long list of question concerning the validity and accuracy of perception survey, significant improvement is needed. C orruption in Indonesia

13 Page 13 C orruption in Indonesia Source: Global Corruption Barometer, Transparency International Most Corrupt Institution in Indonesia Four most important pillars to mitigate corruption are among the most corrupt institutions; Alternatives strategy is needed, the role of civil society and the people is very crucial

14 Page 14 F act and Perception Assuming oil price: USD 84/barrel, coal price: USD 80/ton and gas price: USD 3.9 /MMBTU Source: British Petroleum Statistic and Wijayanto Analysis Natural Endowment Value (based on coal, oil & gas proven reserve) The common perception....We are very rich; In fact.....We are not; Based on Coal, Natural Gas and Oil proven reserved, our natural endowment value reach USD 1,121 billion. Rank 22 in term of total value, and rank 56 in term of value per-capita. Long term economic sustainability is in question.

15 Page 15 C AFTA: Challenge or Opportunity? Source: Various Sources and The Emerging Market of the ASEAN – Dr. Bernando M. Villegas Since tariff reduction began in 2005, Indonesias export to China increase by 70%, driven by nearly tripling mineral export. (World Bank); Import of energy efficient lamp from China will reach 136 million in 2010, (68% market share), while domestic industry run at 20% utilization rate. (Tempo, 24 March 2010); Batik from China has market share of close to 50% at Pasar Tanah Abang. (Bisnis Indonesia); Marie Pangestu: Our product is pretty similar with its of China. Products that have strong competitiveness are CPO, coal, mineral and gas, in which around 80% of our export to China consist of those commodities. (Bisnis Indonesia, April 30, 2010); CAFTA is agreat opportunity. It connect us with a market of 1.7 billion people, with combined export of USD 4.3 trillion (13.3% of global trade); Free Trade will increase international trade and will create specialization; The question is, what product we will specialized on?

16 Page 16 Some Interesting Facts: The Opportunity

17 Page 17 M essy but Keep Growing Corruption The most corrupt in Asia Pacific (PERC) Rank 126 of 180 (TI) Human Capital Rank 111 out of 183 countries (UNDP) Ease of Doing Business Rank 122 out of 183 countries (World Bank) Infrastructure Quality Discouraging road/port condition Unreliable electricity supply 4 But... (1) GDP grows at encouraging rate; (2) Inflation under control; (3) Poverty level decrease continuously; (4) etc.... Source: World Bank

18 Page 18 D emographic Bonus Fertility Rate (Average no of child per-woman) Replacement Rate = 2 Aging Population Demographic Bonus Extreme High Growth

19 Page 19 A t Least....The Glass is Half Full Source: IMF, New Economics Foundation, Wijayantos Analysis The ultimate goal of our existence is to be prosperous and happy; As a nation, we are in the middle of our journey to realize that goal; Now...the glass is half-full we need to work harder to make it full.

20 Page 20 The Youth Important Role: Strengthening Social Accountability

21 Page 21 W hy Indonesian Moslem Youth? Source: Various sources Islam The face of Islam & Indonesia Size and Influence Future Responsi- bility Moslem youth activists are Indonesias future leaders; The future is belong to young generation; The old generation is not able to change; 85% of Indonesians is Moslem; Demographically, most Indonesias are young; Moslem youth is a key component for change; Indonesia represent the face of Islam in the global arena; Prosperous, democratic and peaceful Indonesia will play an important role; The principle of accountability is embedded in Islam teaching; Leadership principle; public participation; freedom of speech;

22 Page 22 S ocial Accountability Source: Various sources To DefineTo MeasureTo Manage The obligation of power- holders to account for or take responsibility for their action; The Basic Tenet..... The Definition.... Accountability Approach toward the building of accountability that rely on citizens and/or civil society that participate directly or indirectly; Social Accountability o Shidiq (honest) o Amanah (trusted) o Tabligh (spread out correct info) o Fathanah (intellectual & pro- the people) Leadership Character in Islam

23 Page 23 P ublic Integrity vs. Accountability Stakeholder or Citizen Government or Agents Policy Implementation Ideas Justice and equity to promote public interest; Transparency & Openness; Accountability Efficiency; Four Core Values of Integrity: Integrity is beyond honesty. To be honest doesnt always to be efficient, justice, and accountable Source: Component of Integrity: Data and Benchmark of Tracking Trend in the Government, Paper by OECD, May 2009 Transparency, accountability & integrity is codependent Transparency without accountability is meaningless. Both, without integrity may not end up serving the interest of the public.

24 Page 24 M easurement There is no specific accountability measurement available; However, Corruption Index could be used as a proxy to measure accountability level... CDM Accountability: The obligation of power- holders to account for or take responsibility for their action; A Corruption: The breach of public power for personal benefit Discretionary: The flexibility to execute authority or power Monopoly: The lack of competition from other parties

25 Page 25 A ccountability and Corruption Indonesias high level of corruption, measured by various measurement, indicates the lack of accountability in.. Indonesias score is relatively low (average: 35%) measured by various indicators; except for GI Index, which is an INPUT INDICATOR.

26 Page 26 S ocial Accountability: The Impact Source: Social Accountability: An Introduction to the Concept and Emerging Practice, Carmen Malena et al. Social Accountability Improve Governance Improve Development Effectiveness Improve People Empowerment Promote good governance and democracy; Complement the weaknesses of vertical accountability (election) and horizontal accountability (internal mechanism) Improve public service delivery; Reduce information asymmetry and promote transparency; Create well informed policy design; Empower the poor, by enabling the poor to express their concern; Empower various vulnerable and disadvantages group;

27 Page 27 S ocial Accountability: Building Blocks Source: Social Accountability: An Introduction to the Concept and Emerging Practice, Carmen Malena et al. Mobilizing around an entry point Building information / evident base Going public Rallying support and building coalition Advocating and negotiating change Identification of problem (i.e. education budget allocation) and development of strategy (i.e. tracking of education budget) Supply side data (data from the government) and Demand side data (data from survey or score-card) Communicate the finding to the public and media or communicate with stakeholder; Building coalition with relevant parties or institution; Negotiate with the govt. create public pressure etc.

28 Page 28 E xample: Budget Accountability Source: Social Accountability: An Introduction to the Concept and Emerging Practice, Carmen Malena et al. Monitoring and evaluation Policy/budget implementation Policy/budget analysis Policy/budget preparation Stages in Policy and Budget Cycle Social Accountability Application and Tools Direct citizen participation (through CSO, etc) to formulate public policy and budget. (i.e. project proposal and budget allocation); Citizen could also prepare alternative program or budget; Measuring whether the budget allocation match with government social commitment, this may include to analyze the impact of budget allocation; Analyze how the government actually spend the money. Are there any leakage or bottleneck? Monitor the impact and quality of government program and performance of public service. CSO could create its own measurement, such as citizen score card;

29 Page 29 S uccess Factors of Social Accountability Strong Social Accountability Policy context & culture Access to information The role of media Civil society capacity State capacity State-civil society synergy Institutionalization Source: Social Accountability: An Introduction to the Concept and Emerging Practice, Carmen Malena et al.

30 Page 30 A lternative Relevant Topics.... Education Health Corrup- tion Politic Political and campaign financing; Regional election; Policy making process; etc; Certain corruption case; Investigative report competition; KPK chairman selection process; Building anti- corruption awareness among the youth; Fund tracking; Health services in the remote areas; Access of health service for the poor; Jamsostek services; Drug availability; Education for the poor; Program design and fund tracking; Government scholarship program; Government research grants;

31 Page 31 Thank You Thank You

32 Page 32 Attachment

33 Tiri Workshop on Legal Integrity Education Anti-Corruption Course: The Indonesias Experience By: Wijayanto Kampala, Uganda, May Youthlab

34 Page 34 Legal Integrity Education - Uganda Source: PERC, Political Economic Risk Consultancy Based on various perception surveys, Indonesia is known as a corrupt country. PERC survey put Indonesia as one of the most corrupt country in Asia. Despite a long list of question concerning the validity and accuracy of perception survey, significant improvement is needed. T he Background

35 Page 35 T he Background Legal Integrity Education - Uganda Source: Global Corruption Barometer, TI Four most important institutions to fight corruption are among the most corrupt. New Approach is needed to address this national issues.

36 Page 36 W hy Anti-Corruption Course? Legal Integrity Education - Uganda Source: Paramadinas Corporate Profile Paramadina aiming for creating layers of Indonesias future leaders and entrepreneurs who put ethic at a very high place. The most crucial ethical problem in Indonesia is the prevalent corruption. This is the basis for Paramadina to teach Anti-corruption as an obligatory course for all students Leadership Entrepreneurship Ethics Our Tagline

37 Page 37 C orruption: The Economics Model SupplyDemandCorruption 1 WillingnessOpportunityCorruption 2 People who need service from corrupt officer Officer who willing to provide services Willingness of the people to corrupt (character issue) System that enable corruption to take place Cost*Benefit*Corruption 3 Social and monetary cost of corruption act Social and monetary benefit of corruption act Legal Integrity Education - Uganda *) for corruptors

38 Page 38 A pproaches to Strengthen Integrity Legal Integrity Education - Uganda Source: Korupsi Mengorupsi Indonesia and Various sources Carrot approach for all; Incentive for those who pass the test; Incentive for good man, neutral for bad man; Building awareness among the people; Stick and Carrot approach for all; The stick and carrot come from the society Stick approach for all; Creating law and enforce it; No incentive for good man, punishment for the bad man Carrot approach for winner; Creating competitive environment; Incentive for the winner, neutral for the loser; Lawyer Approach Businessman Approach Economist Approach Cultural Approach Quick impact, high cost, challenge is on the implementation Moderate cost, challenge is on determining the incentive for the good man. Often, the benefit of being selfish is too huge; Low cost, take a long time to materialize, self sustain; Rule Based Values Based

39 Page 39 C ultural Approach: The Impact DemandSupplyCorruption WillingnessOpportunityCorruption CostBenefitCorruption Anti-Corruption Course would be able to reduce the demand of corrupt behavior since it create awareness on the risk & impact of corruption both to the corruptor as well as to the society. The moral aspect of the course would also minimize the willingness to corrupt. Public awareness could also increase the cost of doing corruption for corruptor; it reduces the marginal cost of fighting corruption by the society. Legal Integrity Education - Uganda

40 Page 40 O ptimal Level of Corruption Marginal Benefit (MB) Marginal Cost (MC2) Additional Cost or Benefit Quantity of Corruption been Reduced Q2 Marginal Cost (MC1) Q1 E1 E2 Corruption mitigation will be done by the society until the level of marginal cost and marginal benefit of eradicating corruption reach the same level, end up corruption quantity been reduced at Q1; Cultural approach can reduce the marginal cost of fighting corruption, line MC1 shift to MC increasing corruption quantity been mitigated from Q1 to Q2; MB>MC1MBMC2

41 Page 41 E ducation on Anti-Corruption Research, Theory & Case Study Practice, Applied, Case Study Creating Anti-corruption experts Reduce the Supply of Corruptors LevelComponentMain Goals Elementary to High School Under- graduate Post- graduate Legal Integrity Education - Uganda

42 Page 42 T he Options Available.... Obligatory or Elective Course? Independent or Integrated Course? For All Students or Selected Department? Obligatory is more effective to create generation with anti- corruption attitude, while elective is better to create expert on anti- corruption Program for all department is more effective to reduce the supply of corruptor, since corruptor come from various background Even though integrated course is more practical, independent course provide content flexibility for more impact Paramadina Implements a Full-blown approach. OBLIGATORY & INDEPENDENT COURSE FOR ALL STUDENTS Legal Integrity Education - Uganda

43 Page 43 T he Main Challenge.... The Public Internal campus & Lecturer Teaching Material 12 3 The students 4 Lack of awareness, corruption is normal; Permissiveness; Making it obligatory for all students and implement innovative and enjoyable teaching approach; Lack of references with Indonesia focus; Publishing book on corruption in Indonesia (1,100 pages); Lack of knowledge on corruption issue; The importance of credibility; Training for lecturer; Engaging external parties to teach; Creating internal integrity climate; Support and harsh criticism; Permissiveness; PR activities and involves more stakeholders; Legal Integrity Education - Uganda

44 Page 44 C ontent & Approach Theory, Discussion & Case Study Stadium General Investigative Report 12 3 Corruption Court (TIPIKOR) Visit 4 Courses Building Blocks Students, in groups, create investigative report on various corruption in the society; They use recorder and handy-cam; Book consist of best report will be published in collaboration with Benny and Mice a famous cartoonist; Students attend corruption prosecution process and are required to write comprehensive report on the corruption case; Based on our survey, Investigative Report and TIPIKOR Visit were their favorite activates Legal Integrity Education - Uganda

45 Page 45 S tudium General Well-known figure is important, not only because of the knowledge they could share, but they also attract media to come and cover the program Antazari Azhar (Corruption Eradication Commision, Chairman) Jimly Asidiqie (Constitution Court Chairman) Waluyo (Director of National Oil Company) Sandi Uno (Vice Chairman of Indonesia Busiiness Chamber - KADIN) Legal Integrity Education - Uganda

46 Page 46 I nvestigative Reports: The Theme Each Semester, ~400 students took Anti-Corruption course at Paramadina University. Around 80 investigative reports were created each year; Students used voice recorder and handy-cam to support the investigation; Fake Diploma and Transcript; Corruption in Police Department; Corruption at the Cemetery; Corruption at Traditional Market: Corrupted Scale; Mobile Phone Black Market; Bribery in the Train; Corruption in the hospital; Corruption by University Security Guard; Lack of Transparency in University Endowment Fund Management; Example of Investigative Reports Theme Some student conduct the investigative in the campus, it helped the university to maintain internal integrity system Legal Integrity Education - Uganda

47 Page 47 C ourse Syllabi NoTopic/Activity*Lecturer 1Overview of the Course, Syllabi, Material, etc.Internal 2 Stadium General 1: Corruption in Indonesia and The Region External 3Definition and Type of Corruption, Corruption Measurement Internal 4Cause of Corruption & Mitigation ApproachInternal 5Investigative TechniqueKPK 6Stadium General 2: Religion and CorruptionExternal 7Negative Effect of CorruptionInternal 8The History of Corruption in IndonesiaInternal 9The Prospect of Corruption Eradication in IndonesiaInternal Legal Integrity Education - Uganda

48 Page 48 C ourse Syllabi (contd) NoTopic/Activity*Lecturer 10Stadium General 3: Corruption in Indonesias Business and Politic External 11 Global War Against CorruptionInternal 12Class Presentation & Discussion (Investigative Report)Internal 13Class Presentation & Discussion (Investigative Report)Internal 14Corruption Court (TIPIKOR) VisitTIPIKOR 15Best Investigative Report Selection.Internal 16Final ExamInternal Legal Integrity Education - Uganda

49 Page 49 attachment book and poster Legal Integrity Education - Uganda

50 Page 50 T he Main Text Book Publish Date: January 2010; Editor: Wijayanto & R. Zachrie; Authors: 30 experts from various background, including some expert from TIRI; Sponsor: TIRI and Recapital; No of pages: 1,100 pages; In addition comprehensive theory and various corruption measurement, the book covers various aspect of corruption in Indonesia, using various angle, including economic, politic, social and culture, religion, law, and international aspect. Legal Integrity Education - Uganda

51 Page 51 P oster on Investigative Report Come us your best report!! We distribute this poster in our the campus; encouraging students to write their best report.....The best report will be published, in collaboration with Benny and Mice (a famous Indonesias cartoonists).... Legal Integrity Education - Uganda

52 Integrity for Youth [integrity 4Uth] Jakarta, March, 2010

53 Page 53 E xecutive Summary Youth, defined as those with age between 12 – 25, is a dominant component of world population; In Indonesia, the number of youth reaches around 70 million, represents a third of total population; If we intent to change the world....change the youth; If we intent to create a new world in which integrity becomes part of people daily integrity among the youth; However, dealing with youth is a tough undertaking since we dont speak their language; Integrity for Youth [integrity 4Uth] envisage to build awareness and attitude of integrity among the youth, using a new approach; Paramadina Public Policy Institute, Youth Lab and Recapital Amanah Foundation hope that this program could outlay a sound base for anti- corruption awareness among the youth. integrity 4Uth

54 Page 54 I nteresting Fact: Friends In average, Asian youth has: 96 number in his/her mobile phone; 87 instant message buddies; 100 friends in social networks; 4 social networking sites; Source: MTV Music Mailers Research, 2008 (12 countries) integrity 4Uth

55 Page 55 I nteresting Fact: Friends Source: MTV Music Mailers Research, 2008 (12 countries) In average Indonesian youth has 33 online friends, 39 offline friends and 14 close friends; Friends tend to have more influence than teachers, parents and siblings; Number of Friends integrity 4Uth

56 Page 56 I nteresting Fact: Social Networks Source: MTV Music Mailers Research, 2008 (12 countries) Online Social Network becomes a lifestyle; In Indonesia, six largest networks are: Twitter; Facebook; Friendster; Flixter; Myspace; and Flicker; Number of Online Social Networks integrity 4Uth

57 Page 57 T he Project: 20,000 Feet View Promoting awareness on anticorruption and integrity among youth; Create a tested and an efficient model to engage youth in the war against corruption which could be multiplied in various places; The Objective Communication gaps between the youth and a killing handicap; The vast number of youth and the fact that peers are their main influencer has made traditional approaches to build integrity ineffective and too expensive; The Challenge The Strategy Riding the wave of youth new lifestyle or social networks; Let the youth do the job for us; integrity 4Uth

58 Page 58 T he Plan..... Recruiting Agents Kit design & production Training for integrity agent Monitoring (on line & off line) Report preparation & dissemination Determine the parameter of integrity agents; Select 30 agents form 30 high schools and universities representing Jakarta area; Create T-Shirt and bags with unique design; Agents wear the T-Shirt and bag for 30 days; Provide agents with basic understanding on integrity and anticorruption; Randomly monitor agents activities; Periodic coordination meeting with integrity agents; Prepare comprehensive report, including video of integrity agents in action; Publish result to maximize impact; integrity 4Uth

59 Page 59 T he Integrity Agents Cool....very outgoing!! Active on online/offline Social Network (min: 4 days posting on facebook & twitter); Persuasive & Engaging; Min: 500 friends on facebook; Min: 300 followers on Twitter; Active on Kaskus & Kafe gaul; Talk about our message through online/offline media for 30 days ; Their criteria integrity 4Uth

60 Page 60 T he Places to Visit..... Wearing specially design T-Shirt, integrity agents visit these places, to socialize and to spread out integrity virus in their community, using their own approach integrity 4Uth

61 Page 61 T he Costume..... sample only Integrity agents are required to wear Integrity T-Shirt for 30 consecutive days no mater where they are: at campus, at shopping mall, at cafe, at mosque, at church, at home, even during dating; Logo of Recapital, Paramadina & Youth Lab will be printed on the T-Shirt together with eye- catching anticorruption or pro-integrity slogan. integrity 4Uth

62 Page 62 T he Three Fold Impact On line Friends Close Friends Off line Friends We expect that integrity agents could spread out our message to, at least, 420 close friends; Through the off- line interaction, integrity agents would build awareness among, at least, 990 peers they meet at various places; Awareness building among online friends is the main power of this project; We expect that agents could create awareness among at least 15,000 youth,.....maximum number is difficult to predict. However, considering the trend, this number could be enormous integrity 4Uth

63 Page 63 I mpact : to Close Friends No of agents No of close friends per agent No of youth persuaded 3014*420 no of close friends persuaded [420] no of close friends per youth [14] No of youth persuaded 5,880 Primary Impact Secondary Impact This situation can potentially create a kind of spiral effect, which will end up with more youth being aware of our message integrity 4Uth *) we believe that the integrity agents we recruit have more than 14 close friends. 1

64 Page 64 I mpact : to Offline Friends No of agents No of off line friends per agent No of youth persuaded 3033*990 No of off line friends persuaded [990] No of off line friends per youth [33] No of youth persuaded 32,670 Primary Impact Secondary Impact This situation can potentially create a kind of spiral effect, which will end up with more youth being aware of our message integrity 4Uth *) we believe that the integrity agents we recruit have more than 33 off line friends. 2

65 Page 65 I mpact : to Online Friends No of agents Social Networks per -agents Social friends per-agents, per social networks * No of youth persuaded [15,000] Social networks per youth [5] No of social friends/ youth/ social networks [????] Primary Impact Secondary Impact This situation can potentially create a kind of chain reaction, which will end up with more youth being aware of the message we deliver No of youth persuaded 15,000 No of youth persuaded [???] integrity 4Uth *) we recruit youth with more than 100 friends (our expectation is 500 or more) in each social networks they participate 3

66 Page 66 T he Projected Outcome integrity 4Uth Impact toWorse Case Primary Impact Best Case Including Secondary Impact Integrity Agents30 Close Friends420?? Off Line Friends990?? On Line Friends15,000?? Total :16,440*?? Integrity 4Uth will build awareness to at least 15,000 youth with potential enormous secondary impact; Indonesias recent history has shown that social online network is a powerful tool to build awareness and to mobilize support; *) double counting may occur

67 Page 67 T he Team Paramadina Public Policy Institute (the Institute) is an independent, non-profit and non-partisan think-thank under the umbrella of Paramadina University. The Institute envisage becoming a fountain of ideas for Indonesia, and have positioned ourselves as a critical but supportive partner of the government. Website: Youthlab is a think-thank, managed and established by students of Psychology Department, Univ. of Indonesia, who focus its research and activities on youth behavior. Website: One of Indonesias leading investment firm. Through Recapital Amanah Foundation, Recapital would like to spread out it altruistic spirit all over Indonesia; integrity 4Uth

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