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Sharing stories for a resilient society Hiroshi Tsutomi University of Shizuoka

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1 Sharing stories for a resilient society Hiroshi Tsutomi University of Shizuoka

2 Second Chance! as a turning point I was a juvenile correctional officer and joined university 10 years ago. In Japan, correctional officers have not been supposed to associate with former inmates. However, we, Second Chance! broke up the barrier first time in our correctional history between “them” and “us”. Now, we can share our stories like today.

3 3 Backgrounds for Second Chance! Positive Shift For example, positive psychology, interest in resilience in developmental studies, solution-focused brief therapy, and appreciative Inquiry in organizational development A paradigm shift has occurred in human service sciences from a problem solution approach focusing on negative aspects of clients to a change- oriented approach focusing on their positive aspects. Especially, I have been influenced by The strength-based model in mental health services. Specifically, IPS and Bethel no Ie.

4 4 IPS (Individual Placement and Support) Supported employment for people with a severe mental illness

5 5 Core Principles 1. Every person with severe mental illness who wants to work is eligible for IPS supported employment. 2. Employment services are integrated with mental health treatment services. 3. Competitive employment is the goal. 4. Personalized benefits counseling is provided. 5. The job search starts soon after a person expresses interest in working. 6. Employment specialists systematically develop relationships with employers based upon their client's preferences. 7. Job supports are continuous. 8. Client preferences are honored.

6 6 Bethel no Ie (House of Bethel) Group homes of mentally ill persons discharged from Urakawa Red Cross Hospital in Hokkaido Unique slogans/mottos – We sell sea weeds and stories of our diseases, as well. – We welcome prejudice and discrimination. – At work, use your tongue rather than your hands. – Meetings first, meals second. – Disclose your weakness. – Take back the burden of your life. – Get together through our weakness. – Do not cure diseases. – Bethel is always filled with problems. They started selling their video series in 1995 when prejudice against psychiatric patients was harsh.

7 7 Bethel no Ie (House of Bethel) com/watch?v=Rv- 31CgLGE4 Now the largest enterprise in Urakawa town. “Using mental disorders for the community development” Illusion and delusion festival to celebrate the coolest Illusion and delusion of its members.

8 With these backgrounds, the idea of Second Chance! was initiated in June 2008 after my trip to Sweden

9 Simply, I believe in resilience …process of, capacity for, or outcome of successful adaptation despite challenging or threatening circumstances (Masten et al., 1990) …patterns of positive adaptation or development manifested in the context of adverse experiences (Masten et al., 1996)

10 People can be resilient by sharing their recovery stories.

11 We know from these stories that the adversity is not necessarily bad. Posttraumatic growth (Tedeschi and Calhoun, 2004) Stress-related growth (Park et al., 1996) Benefit-finding (Helgeson et al., 2006) Altruism born of suffering (Staub and Vollhardt, 2008; Vollhardt, 2009; Andoh, 2010) Sense of coherence (Antonovsky, 1987)

12 12 Paradigm Shift in Offender Treatment NegativeNeutralPositive Punitive model Medical model Risk management model Strength-based model ObjectObject/subjectSubject/peer Offender Expert ( Authority) Manager ( technical advisor ) Peer/advocate or even unnecessary? Agency Model

13 Today’s topic What bothers me right now is future disasters.

14 New Zealand and Japan are a land of earthquakes. Christchurch earthquake of 22 February 2011 Tohoku earthquake of 11 March 2011

15 Nankai megathrust earthquake Another larger earthquake we expect. In Shizuoka, 1) the probability of an earthquake of magnitude 6.0 or larger with 30 years is 89.6%; 2) 109,000 deaths are expected; and 3) we also have a nuclear power- plant.

16 We need resilient communities and social capital can make a community more resilient.

17 Some prior studies using social capital as a key variable (Aldrich, 2012)

18 civic engagement Dependent Variable: population growth Aldrich (2012) Recovery of 39 neighborhoods in Tokyo from 1923 Great Kantō earthquake


20 Aldrich (2012) Recovery of 9 wards in Kobe from 1995 Great Hanshin Earthquake civic engagement

21 Aldrich (2012) Recovery of 9 wards in Kobe from Great Hanshin Earthquake

22 What can I do as a criminologist studying desistance to make a community more resilient ?

23 Veysey (2008) Summary findings from Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration’s (SAMHSA) Women, Co-occurring Disorders and Violence Study and Moments of Transformation study How they changed and what they needed to sustain their change: hope, people who believed in them, and meaningful things to do. Profound change occurred when women adopted valued social roles. – They learned new, or organized existing, skills to support the new role, – surrounded themselves with people who reinforced the new role, and – rewrote their life narrative to tell a story of strength and resilience instead of hopeless victimization. Veysey et al. (2009)

24 Maruna (2001) Liverpool desistance study A qualitative investigation of desistance that involved long-term field observations and hundreds of casual and in-depth interviews with British ex-convicts between 1996 and 1998.

25 25 Redemption script (Maruna, 2001) Difference in narratives between desisting and persisting offenders 1) “Real Me”: an establishment of the core beliefs that characterize the person’s “true self” 2 ) Optimism: an optimistic perception (some might say useful “illusion”) of personal control over one’s destiny 3) Generativity: the desire to be productive and give something back to society, particularly the next generation Self Future Purpose

26 Based on desistance studies, I propose narrative capital in addition to social capital to make a community more resilient.

27 Narrative capital From desistance studies, criminologists have found the core of resilience consists of recovery narratives. Sharing recovery stories/narratives within a community can be a strength of a community. The narratives can have such components as – Hope, outside empowerment, and meaningful challenges to do (Veysey, 2008) and; – “Real Us”, optimism, and generativity (Maruna, 2001)

28 We can overcome what we will face by creating and sharing our stories.

29 One example: public narrative (Ganz, 2007) from community organizing Leaders learn to draw on narrative to inspire action across cultures, faiths, professions, classes, and eras…, A story of self communicates who I am – my values, my experience, why I do what I do. A story of us, and we are – our shared values, our shared experience, and why we do what we do. And a story of now transforms the present into a moment of challenge, hope, and choice.

30 Shizuoka 2.0 Local organization for dialogue and creating/sharing stories

31 Sono Machi no Kodomo (Children of the City) A TV drama broadcast on 17 Jan 2010 after 15 years of the Great Hanshin Earthquake

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