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UKCGE International Annual Conference, Dublin 2014 Institutional Strategies: Developing Research Supervisors of Doctoral Candidates in a Cohort-based Structured.

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Presentation on theme: "UKCGE International Annual Conference, Dublin 2014 Institutional Strategies: Developing Research Supervisors of Doctoral Candidates in a Cohort-based Structured."— Presentation transcript:

1 UKCGE International Annual Conference, Dublin 2014 Institutional Strategies: Developing Research Supervisors of Doctoral Candidates in a Cohort-based Structured Programme Professor Tony Fell, University of Bradford, UK

2 Developing Research Supervisors Context Principles of Research Supervisor development Phases of Doctoral Research & Supervisory Styles The Learning Contract & Managing Expectations Structure & Content Programme Delivery Key issues: Completion and the Viva Future Perspectives

3 Context – 1 Structured Doctorates fulfil needs in STEM areas and Arts – Design – Architecture – Theatre – Music – … Significant growth in UK & Ireland:  Basis of national schemes for doctoral funding  Doctoral Training Partnerships, Structured PhD Programmes  Facilitate development of high quality skills  Embed personal and interactive skills for the world of work  Cohort-structure encourages team-work skills  Strengthen the independent researcher  Consistent with Life-long Learning agenda

4 Context – 2 Drivers for Research Supervisor development  Need to ensure consistency of student experience throughout doctoral research journey  Increasing expectations of doctoral candidates  PRES surveys  Expectation for Internal Supervisors to adopt / develop best supervisory practice – with updates on institutional processes  Applies to External Supervisors and Specialist Advisors  Recommended in National Codes of Practice  QAA, Irish Universities Association  Impact of national QAA Audit processes …

5 Developing Research Supervisors Principles of Research Supervisor Development

6 Dedicated programmes at Faculty/subject domain level ‘Generic’ programmes for all scholastic domains across Institution Mixture of both – with materials (eg Case Studies) focused on specific subject areas Essential pre-requisite: Top Management seen to give strong support for formalised supervisor training

7 Principles of Research Supervisor Development Generic programme facilitates inter-disciplinary learning Programme structured to cover doctoral journey in sequence from recruitment to the Viva voce Key materials selected to ensure minimum of formal presentations Case Studies focus discussion in small groups* Create maximum opportunity for Supervisors to share experiences Encourage Supervisors to develop their OWN model of research supervision from the materials discussed * Group membership should be balanced to represent all areas

8 Developing Research Supervisors Phases of Doctoral Research & Supervisory Styles

9 Phases of Doctoral Research Doctoral research training can be considered to fall into 4 Phases:  Phase 1: Getting started – The Initial Phase  Phase 2: Moving forward – The Productive Phase  Phase 3: Writing-up & submission  Phase 4: Preparation for “Surviving the Viva”

10 Supervisory Styles Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Model* is based on a combination of ‘supportive’ and ‘directive’ behaviour The model suggests that supervisory style should be progressively adapted and individualised for the needs of each student throughout all 4 phases of the programme Each research phase maps onto the 4 quadrants of the Blanchard model *Blanchard & Hersey (1986)

11 - Directing - Phase SUPPORTIVE BEHAVIOUR DIRECTIVE BEHAVIOUR High Low Supervisory Styles – Directive / Supportive behaviour during a typical Doctorate [A.F. Fell, 2011; adapted from Blanchard & Hersey,1986]

12 - Directing - Phase 1 -Mentoring -Phases 1& SUPPORTIVE BEHAVIOUR DIRECTIVE BEHAVIOUR High Low Supervisory Styles – Directive / Supportive behaviour during a typical Doctorate [A.F. Fell, 2011; adapted from Blanchard & Hersey,1986]

13 - Directing - Phase 1 -Mentoring -Phases 1&2 - Coaching - Phase SUPPORTIVE BEHAVIOUR DIRECTIVE BEHAVIOUR High Low Supervisory Styles – Directive / Supportive behaviour during a typical Doctorate [A.F. Fell, 2011; adapted from Blanchard & Hersey,1986]

14 - Directing - Phase 1 -Mentoring -Phases 1&2 - Coaching - Phase 2 - Delegating - Phases 3& SUPPORTIVE BEHAVIOUR DIRECTIVE BEHAVIOUR High Low Supervisory Styles – Directive / Supportive behaviour during a typical Doctorate [A.F. Fell, 2011; adapted from Blanchard & Hersey,1986]

15 Supervisory Styles Every supervisor has their own preferred style An effective supervisor adapts their style interactively for each individual student –  Depending on:  the student’s situation & needs  their innate ability  their stage of academic development  Taking care to maintain equity among other research students

16 Supervisory Styles The Blanchard model clarifies the changing relationship between research candidate and supervisor over time  For talented researchers the supervisory style quickly moves to quadrants 3 & 4  coaching-delegating  Whereas … for some candidates the supervisory style remains in quadrants 1 & 2  strongly directive Issues arising in multidisciplinary teams across HEIs or DTCs should be identified and discussed in mixed groups Bottom line: No supervisory style is always right – “One size doesn’t fit all ”

17 Developing Research Supervisors The Learning Contract & Managing Expectations

18 The Learning Contract & Managing Expectations – 1 Make the ‘Psychological Contract’ explicit Initial meeting with supervisory team is key Assess candidate’s aspirations/motivation for research Identify the expectations Supervisors have of the candidate – and the student’s of the Supervisors Clarify arrangements for meetings: –when, how often & where Explore student’s needs as learners  eg for overseas candidates – EFL Clarify formal review processes & requirements

19 The Learning Contract & Managing Expectations – 2A Clarify training / modular requirements for cohort  Induction at 3 levels  Cohort  Group  Institution  Access to relevant Generic & Transferable Skills mapped onto RDF Planner*  Interactive development activities for Cohort * Researcher Development Framework – Vitae

20 The Learning Contract & Managing Expectations – 2B Outline the intended research programme  Big picture – locate project in wider programme  Develop initial plans jointly (eg literature background)  Identify milestones and research objectives – short/medium term Key: Support engagement and ownership of research programme by student Revisit the Learning Contract periodically –Where possible/appropriate discuss student’s experience of supervision

21 The Learning Contract & Managing Expectations – 3 Strategic use of Questionnaire* for clarifying the roles, responsibilities and expectations – of the student and of the supervisor –Small groups assess the relative responsibility of Supervisors and Students across 12 categories on a scale of 1 – 5 –Outcomes are compared and discussed in plenary session * Ingrid Moses, 1985, Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australasia. Adapted by Margaret Kiley and Kate Cadman, 1997, Centre for Learning & Teaching, University of Technology, Sydney

22 Developing Research Supervisors Structure & Content

23 Overview PPt presentations on key stages & issues in supervision Small group discussions on a range of issues drawing on experience of participants Development and discussion of Case Studies illustrating best practice in research supervision at key stages – including role play scenarios General principle: Design the programme with emphasis on discussion of key issues among participants – with minimum of formal lecture presentations

24 Structure & Content *Typical Case Studies – 1 Mismatch of expectations  Conflicting advice: Jack & Jill / Ali (Y1)  Arrogance & the 7-day week syndrome: Hamish & Anita (Y1) Neglect – “Itinerant Professor syndrome”  Stella & Amy (Y1) Neglect – ineffective supervision by Work-based supervisor  Percival & Danny (Y2/3) Conflict of Interest  Huw & Jane (Y3) * Developed at University of Bradford and HEIs in UK, Ireland and mainland Europe over the past 15 years

25 Structure & Content *Typical Case Studies – 2 Financial pressures  Jack & Jon / Freddie (Y3) Plagiarism  Inadvertent: Pietro & Li (Y3)  Non-inadvertent: Mary & Bernardo (Y4)  Non-inadvertent: Nic & Jenny (Post-Doc) Problematic PhD Exam  Prof Charles & Dr Eva / Steve (Y3)  Prof Rotblatt (External) & Dr Roberto (Internal) / Rebecca (Y3) * Developed at University of Bradford and HEIs in UK, Ireland and mainland Europe over the past 15 years

26 Developing Research Supervisors Programme Delivery

27 Programme Delivery – 1A Structured doctoral training programmes vary between HEIs across UK and within Ireland: –Balance of generic & transferable skills in programmes –Mode & flexibility of delivery to cohort in a DTC  Role of Supervisory Team in delivering research skills  Role of specialist trainers  ECTS credit rating of modules & transferability between programmes / centres –Inclusion of related mini-project – or not –Continuation of training elements into 2 nd, 3 rd etc years –Mode and impact of modular assessment on PhD outcomes

28 Programme Delivery – 1B Impact of training on research outcomes –Quantum of research output –Efficiency/effectiveness of Researcher –Relevance for employability – EU Transcript for PhD

29 Programme Delivery – 2 The IUA scheme (2012) for training supervisors recommends: –4 linked Workshops covering the 4 ‘Lifecycles’ or phases of a typical PhD –supplemented by discussion covering institutional issues & current issues in supervision Supervision Lifecycle – 1: Initial Phase Supervision Lifecycle – 2: Moving forward Supervision Lifecycle – 3: Progress to completion Supervision Lifecycle – 4: Demystifying the Viva The scheme has been successfully adopted by Universities in Ireland and Institutes of Technology.

30 Example Workshop 3: Supervision Lifecycle – 3 Progress to completion Supervision Lifecycle – 3: Progress to completion –Closure – managing project completion –Developing effective writing skills –Facilitating timely completion of Thesis –Selection of External (and Internal) Examiners –Preparing for the PhD Viva

31 Example Workshop 4: Supervision Lifecycle – 4 Demystifying the Viva – and beyond... Purpose, Process, Preparation  10 Strategies for Survival  Mock or Practice Viva Case Studies: Typical Viva scenarios and outcomes.... And beyond … –Life Post-Viva –Preparing for a Post-Doc Career & Publication –Relationships Moving on to Supervision –In the academic context – and in Industry

32 Developing Research Supervisors Key issues

33 Thesis Completion and Examination Best practice for successful completion –Models of supervisorial support for thesis writing –Develop Generic Thesis Planner Clarify Thesis submission process Clarify selection of Examiners and Viva process –‘Balanced’ team – experience, independence, expertise –Roles of External / Internal Examiners & Chair of Board Clarify the Viva voce process –Value of Practice or ‘Mock’ Viva –Independent pre-Viva Reports (required in UK) –The Viva – How long … ? –Outcomes – joint Report / independent Reports & Approval –Approval of Thesis corrections

34 Generic Thesis Planner – 1

35 Generic Thesis Planner – 2

36 Future Perspectives Trend (in UK) towards academics studying part-time for academic HE teaching qualification – including module on Research Supervision – PGC(HE) Emerging practice (in UK) for Institutional or external accreditation of Supervisors Institutional policies required on: –Retraining/refresher programmes – inc. “Backwoodsmen” –How to extend / develop PGRS / ESR / Post-Doc skills –Management of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) Increasing trend for PGRS appeals & complaints: –‘Age of litigation’ >> UK “Office of Independent Adjudicator” Need for transparency / comparability in doctoral training across and between HEIs

37 Developing Research Supervisors Context Principles of Research Supervisor development Phases of Doctoral Research & Supervisory Styles The Learning Contract & Managing Expectations Structure & Content Programme Delivery Key issues: Completion and the Viva Future Perspectives

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