Self- determination Independence, Interdependence, Opportunities to Act -e.g., Goal setting, choice- making, self-management Assistive Technology Operational Competence Multi-modal expression e.g., How to use devices, low & hi tech options Personal Relevance Related to individual needs e.g., social skills, daily living, vocational Pivotal Skills Important to learning across content areas e.g., selecting from a field of 4, using asking /answering “Wh” questions, sequencing events, using graphic organizers Grade Level Content Standards Qualities of a Well-Designed Standards-Based IEP (modified from Wakeman et al., 2010)
A ASK: What am I requiring students to do? D DETERMINE the prerequisite skills of the task. A ANALYZE the student’s strengths and needs. P PROPOSE and implement adaptations T TEST to determine if adaptations helped the student Standards/ Lesson Plan Observe steps ALL students are doing to achieve the standard Observe what TARGET student is doing— what steps can do. Identify TARGET STUDENT outcomes and adaptations needed based on observation Create a DATA collection plan. Bryant, D.P., Smith, D. D., & Bryant, B. R. (2008). Teaching students with special needs in inclusive classrooms. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
SETT- similar to ecological inventory Student S Environment E Task T Tools T What are the student’s current abilities? What are the student’s special needs? What are the functional areas of concern? What activities take place in the environment? What activities do other students do that this student cannot currently participate in? What assistive technology does the student have access to or currently use? What specific tasks occur in the environment? What activities is the student expected to do? What does success look like? Are the tools being considered on a continuum from no/low to high- tech? Are the tools student centered and task oriented and reflect the student’s current needs? What are the training requirements for the student, family and staff?
Jordan 4 th grader- Case Example Strong receptive language skills understands most words spoken to him. Limited verbal expressive language – Uses low-tech communication board (PODD) – Identifies all letters of alphabet Recognizes 40 high frequency words Uses pictures with text and modified text to understand reading content Passages are read aloud to him to provide access to content Poor phonemic awareness (IEP goal to blend sounds) Poor gross & fine motor skills (IEP goal to use adapted keyboard to write) Uses wheel chair for mobility
Infused Skills Grid Focus on Goals. Increase Participation
IEP Objectives Blend sounds to read CVC words ID content related words Answer comprehens- ion questions using communica- tion board or adapted keyboard Compose simple content related phrases and sentences using an adapted keyboard Assist in wheelchair transfers to alternative seating PrepareX Reading modified informational passage X Using picture symbols w/ text XXX Sit in alternate chair to work with partner OrganizeXXXX WritexXXXX Transfer to stander to use computer EditXXX ReviseXXXX Use stander
Practice Activity On the back of your entry activity there is a step in the POWER writing process. Get together with at least 2 other people that have the same step in the process – (e.g. “EDIT”). Identify a learner OR you can use Jordan from today’s lesson. Complete the barriers AND supports sections for this learner.
For Students with Physical or Intellectual Disabilities
Adaptive Positioning and Equipment Evaluate child and prescribe positions and equipment Adjust equipment for growth over time Train school team on body mechanics and proper use of equipment Role of TherapistRole of teacher Implement use of adaptive equipment and positioning throughout ACTIVE learning Monitor child’s function and status Monitor for growth Consult with therapist(s) regularly
What is “Good” Positioning? Child can see activity/people Child is supported but can move freely Hips at approx. 90˚ angle (sitting) or slightly less (forward) Feet supported flat on a surface (sitting and standing) Tray or work surface at elbow height or slightly higher For more info…consult with a therapist
Positioning Devices Shoulder straps Lateral trunk supports Chest harness/vest Adjustable table Lap tray Slant board Grasp bar or dowel Dycem or other non-skid material Seat cushion/wedge Footrests Headrests Armrests Seatbelt
When a student is positioned properly….. the affects of abnormal tone and reflexes are minimized visual ability is optimal range of motion and functional hand skills are increased student feels secure and stable