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An era of prosperity, Republican power, and conflict

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1 An era of prosperity, Republican power, and conflict
The Roaring 20’s An era of prosperity, Republican power, and conflict

2 1920's collectively known as the "Roaring 20's", or the "Jazz Age"
in sum, a period of great change in American Society - modern America is born at this time for first time the census reflected an urban society - people had moved into cities to enjoy a higher standard of living

3 Age of Prosperity Economic expansion Mass Production Assembly Line
Age of the Automobile Ailing Agriculture…

4 an agri. depression in early 1920's contributed to this urban migration
U.S. farmers lost agri. markets in postwar Europe at same time agri. efficiency increased so more food produced (more food = lower prices) and fewer labourers needed so farming was no longer as prosperous, and bankers called in their loans (farms repossessed) so American farmers enter the Depression in advance of the rest of society

5 Black Americans in this period continued to live in poverty
sharecropping kept them in de facto slavery boll weevil wiped out the cotton crop white landowners went bankrupt & forced blacks off their land

6 Blacks moved north to take advantage of booming wartime industry (= Great Migration) - Black ghettoes began to form, i.e. Harlem within these ghettoes a distinct Black culture flourished But both blacks and whites wanted cultural interchange restricted

7 Marcus Garvey (Jamaican born immigrant) established the Universal Negro Improvement Association
believed in Black pride advocated racial segregation b/c of Black superiority Garvey believed Blacks should return to Africa he purchased a ship to start the Black Star line attracted many investments: gov't charged him with w/fraud he was found guilty and eventually deported to Jamaica, but his organization continued to exist

8 Republican Power President Harding Elected 1920 Legacy of Scandals
“Teapot Dome” Died in office

9 President Coolidge “The business of America is business.”
Fordney-McCumber Tariff Smoot-Hawley Tariff No help for farmers Foreign Policy

10 Consumer Economy

11 Culture of the Roaring 20’s
Radio KDKA Pittsburgh GE, Westinghouse,& RCA form NBC Silent Movies Charlie Chaplin “Talkies” The Jazz Singer Starring Al Jolson Mary Pickford “America’s Sweetheart”

12 Celebrities Babe Ruth &Ty Cobb Charles Lindbergh
The Spirit of St. Louis Jack Dempsey

13 The 20’s is The Jazz Age The Flappers Writers Musicians make up
cigarettes short skirts Writers F. Scott Fitzgerald Ernest Hemingway Musicians Louis Armstrong Duke Ellington

14 1920's also brought about great changes for women...
th Amendment gave them the federal vote after 1920, social circumstances changed too as more women worked outside the home and more women went to college and clamoured to join the professions women didn't want to sacrifice wartime gains - amounted to a social revolt characterized by the FLAPPER/ "new woman" (bobbed hair, short dresses, smoked in public...)

15 A Society in Conflict Anti-immigrant Sacco-Vanzetti Trial
National Origins Act Discrimination Sacco-Vanzetti Trial Italian immigrants Unfair trial

16 for immigrants – the point of origin had shifted to S & E Europe and new religions appeared: Jewish, Orthodox, Catholic N. European immigrants of early 19c. feared this shift and felt it would undermine Protestant values this fear was known as NATIVISM many wanted Congress to restrict immigration, leading to a quota system that favoured n. areas of Europe fear of immigrants (from SE Europe) led to a sentiment known as the Red Scare (fear of comm. post-Bolshevik Rev.) basic comm. advocates a int'l revolution by the proletariat/workers - fears that this ideology could find its way into the U.S.

17 at this time, W. Wilson was gravely ill following a stroke
his Attorney General, A. Mitchell Palmer, wanted to take a shot at the presidency - he used fears of both immigrants and communism to his advantage he had J. Edgar Hoover round up suspected radicals, many of which were deported (Palmer Raids)

18 The Ku Klux Klan In power Great increase Anti-black Anti-immigrant
Anti-Semitic Anti-Catholic Anti-women’s suffrage Anti-bootleggers

19 High School Biology teacher
Scopes “Monkey” Trial Evolution vs. Creationism Science vs. Religion Famous Lawyers Dayton, Tennessee John Scopes High School Biology teacher

20 Prohibition Volstead Act untouchables Gangsters 18th Amendment
Al Capone

21 PROHIBITION - on manuf. and sale of alcohol
adopted in th AMENDMENT an outgrowth of the long-time temperance movement in WWI, temperance became a patriotic mvmt. - drunkenness caused low productivity & inefficiency, and alcohol needed to treat the wounded a difficult law to enforce... organized crime, speakeasies, bootleggers were on the rise Al Capone virtually controlled Chicago in this period - capitalism at its zenith… Prohibition finally ended in 1933 w/ the 21st Amendment forced organized crime to pursue other interests…

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