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The New Deal and Its Critics. Franklin Roosevelt’s First Inaugural Address Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1882 –1945) served as the 32nd President of the.

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Presentation on theme: "The New Deal and Its Critics. Franklin Roosevelt’s First Inaugural Address Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1882 –1945) served as the 32nd President of the."— Presentation transcript:

1 The New Deal and Its Critics

2 Franklin Roosevelt’s First Inaugural Address Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1882 –1945) served as the 32nd President of the United States and was elected to four terms in office. Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1882 –1945) served as the 32nd President of the United States and was elected to four terms in office. He served from , and is the only President to serve more than two terms. He served from , and is the only President to serve more than two terms. During the Great Depression of the 1930s, Roosevelt created the New Deal to provide relief for the unemployed, recovery of the economy, and reform of the economic system. During the Great Depression of the 1930s, Roosevelt created the New Deal to provide relief for the unemployed, recovery of the economy, and reform of the economic system. His most famous legacies include the Social Security system and the regulation of Wall Street. His most famous legacies include the Social Security system and the regulation of Wall Street. His aggressive use of an active federal government reenergized the Democratic party. Roosevelt built the New Deal coalition that dominated politics into the 1960s. His aggressive use of an active federal government reenergized the Democratic party. Roosevelt built the New Deal coalition that dominated politics into the 1960s. Roosevelt's administration redefined liberalism for subsequent generations and realigned the Democratic Party based his the New Deal Roosevelt's administration redefined liberalism for subsequent generations and realigned the Democratic Party based his the New Deal

3 "On the Banking Crisis" When Roosevelt was inaugurated in March 1933, the U.S. was at the depths of the worst depression in its history. When Roosevelt was inaugurated in March 1933, the U.S. was at the depths of the worst depression in its history. A quarter of the workforce was unemployed. Farmers were in deep trouble as prices fell by 60%. Industrial production had fallen by more than half since A quarter of the workforce was unemployed. Farmers were in deep trouble as prices fell by 60%. Industrial production had fallen by more than half since The most pressing issue was the nation- wide run on the banks. The banking system had collapsed completely. The most pressing issue was the nation- wide run on the banks. The banking system had collapsed completely. After his inauguration on March 4, 1933, Roosevelt faced the bank panic, and declared that "the only thing we have to fear is fear itself." After his inauguration on March 4, 1933, Roosevelt faced the bank panic, and declared that "the only thing we have to fear is fear itself." The very next day he announced a plan to allow banks to reopen, which they largely did by the end of the month. The very next day he announced a plan to allow banks to reopen, which they largely did by the end of the month. He presented his first proposed step to recovery during his first fireside chat. He presented his first proposed step to recovery during his first fireside chat. Lines inside a Savings & Loan during the Banking Crisis.

4 "The First Hundred Days" Roosevelt's "First 100 Days" concentrated on the first part of his strategy: immediate relief. Roosevelt's "First 100 Days" concentrated on the first part of his strategy: immediate relief. From March 9 to June 16, 1933, Franklin D. Roosevelt sent Congress a record number of bills, all of which passed easily. From March 9 to June 16, 1933, Franklin D. Roosevelt sent Congress a record number of bills, all of which passed easily. Like Hoover, he saw the Depression as partly a matter of confidence, caused in part by people no longer spending or investing because they were afraid to do so. Like Hoover, he saw the Depression as partly a matter of confidence, caused in part by people no longer spending or investing because they were afraid to do so. He therefore set out to restore confidence through a series of dramatic gestures. He therefore set out to restore confidence through a series of dramatic gestures. Roosevelt detailed his plan for his first 100 days in office to the American people during his second fireside chat. Roosevelt detailed his plan for his first 100 days in office to the American people during his second fireside chat.

5 National Recovery Administration The National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) of June 16, 1933 was a set of United States federal laws and codes that authorized the President to: regulate businesses in the interests of promoting "fair" competition supporting prices and wages creating jobs for unemployed workers stimulating the United States economy to recover from the Great Depression The law created a National Recovery Administration (NRA), an executive agency exercising powers which Congress had delegated to it, to promote compliance on the part of corporations. Firms which voluntarily complied could display the Blue Eagle.

6 Dust Bowl “Dust Bowl" was a term born in the hard times from the people who lived in the drought-stricken regions during the great depression. In 1932, 14 dust storms were reported in farming areas. In 1933, 38 dust storms were reported. Crops were dying, the over plowed fields were full of dust in the drought ravaged country, and people were starving.

7 "The Search for Social Justice" Father Charles Coughlin was politically radical, a passionate democrat, but also a bigot who freely vented angry, irrational charges and assertions. Father Charles Coughlin was politically radical, a passionate democrat, but also a bigot who freely vented angry, irrational charges and assertions. A Catholic priest, he broadcast weekly radio sermons that by 1930 drew as many as forty- five million listeners. A Catholic priest, he broadcast weekly radio sermons that by 1930 drew as many as forty- five million listeners. By the mid-1930s, his talks took on a nasty edge as he combined harsh attacks on Roosevelt as the tool of international Jewish bankers with praise for the fascist leaders Benito Mussolini and Adolph Hitler. By the mid-1930s, his talks took on a nasty edge as he combined harsh attacks on Roosevelt as the tool of international Jewish bankers with praise for the fascist leaders Benito Mussolini and Adolph Hitler. He began as an early Roosevelt supporter, coining a famous expression, that the nation's choice was between "Roosevelt or ruin." He began as an early Roosevelt supporter, coining a famous expression, that the nation's choice was between "Roosevelt or ruin." Later in the 1930s he turned against FDR and became one of the president's harshest critics. Later in the 1930s he turned against FDR and became one of the president's harshest critics. His program of "social justice" was a very radical challenge to unbridled capitalism and to many of the political institutions of his day. His program of "social justice" was a very radical challenge to unbridled capitalism and to many of the political institutions of his day.

8 Huey Long During his three brief years in the U.S. Senate, Huey Long became one of the most flamboyant and provocative Senators in the nation's history. During his three brief years in the U.S. Senate, Huey Long became one of the most flamboyant and provocative Senators in the nation's history. He earned the enmity of his fellow Senators due to his frequent use of the filibuster to make some "point of principle" about which he was especially passionate. He earned the enmity of his fellow Senators due to his frequent use of the filibuster to make some "point of principle" about which he was especially passionate. He used the floor of the Senate to the fullest--taking the Senate floor to place in the official record his arguments for his Share The Wealth program, and to proselytize for his general world-view. He used the floor of the Senate to the fullest--taking the Senate floor to place in the official record his arguments for his Share The Wealth program, and to proselytize for his general world-view.

9 Social Security The Social Security Act was passed by Congress in 1935 as part of the New Deal. The Social Security Act was passed by Congress in 1935 as part of the New Deal. Initially, the term Social Security covered unemployment insurance. Initially, the term Social Security covered unemployment insurance. FDR promised that participation in the program would be completely voluntary and that participants would only have to pay 1% of the first $1,400 of their annual incomes into the Program. FDR promised that participation in the program would be completely voluntary and that participants would only have to pay 1% of the first $1,400 of their annual incomes into the Program. The money the participants put into the independent "Trust Fund" rather than into the General operating fund were to be used to fund the Social Security Retirement Program and no other Government program. The money the participants put into the independent "Trust Fund" rather than into the General operating fund were to be used to fund the Social Security Retirement Program and no other Government program. The annuity payments to the retirees were never to be taxed as income. In the calendar year 2004, it paid out almost $500 billion in benefits. The annuity payments to the retirees were never to be taxed as income. In the calendar year 2004, it paid out almost $500 billion in benefits.

10 “Challenge to Liberty” Hoover was badly defeated in the 1932 presidential election. Hoover was badly defeated in the 1932 presidential election. After Roosevelt assumed the presidency, Hoover became a critic of the New Deal, warning against tendencies toward statesism. After Roosevelt assumed the presidency, Hoover became a critic of the New Deal, warning against tendencies toward statesism. His misgivings are in the book, "The Challenge to Liberty," where he talked of fascism, communism, and socialism as enemies of traditional American liberties. His misgivings are in the book, "The Challenge to Liberty," where he talked of fascism, communism, and socialism as enemies of traditional American liberties.

11 Multimedia Citations Multimedia Citations Slide 2: Slide 2: Slide 3: Slide 3: Slide 4: Slide 4: Slide 5: 933.jpg Slide 5: 933.jpg 933.jpg 933.jpg Slide 6: 651.jpg Slide 6: 651.jpg 651.jpg 651.jpg Slide 7: mic.jpg Slide 7: mic.jpg mic.jpg mic.jpg Slide 8: Long.jpg Slide 8: Long.jpg Long.jpg Long.jpg Slide 9: Slide 9: Slide 10: Slide 10:


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