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Exploring Enterprise: exploiting Enquiry-Based Learning to enhance enterprise education May 2009.

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1 Exploring Enterprise: exploiting Enquiry-Based Learning to enhance enterprise education May 2009

2 Karen O’Rourke Academic Developer and Teacher Fellow Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning Leeds Metropolitan University, UK

3 I have no special talents, I am only passionately curious Me too!


5 Problem-Based Learning research, development and implementation in English Literature with UK National Teaching Fellow Set up and managed the first Pedagogic Research Centre in the Faculty of Arts, The Victoria University of Manchester Managed an externally-funded EBL staff development project delivered across six UK HE institutions Key member of Manchester team developing successful bid for Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning - £4.5M -case studies and publications -student intern programmes and National Student Network -keynotes,workshops and consultancies across the UK and in Ireland, Italy, Spain, Sweden, USA, Canada, Mexico, Peru, Australia, Finland.... Current area of interest is the link between enquiry-based learning and the development of students’ entrepreneurial and intra-preneurial skills, behaviours and attitudes

6 During this workshop, you will: Engage in an EBL activity (or two....or three!) Have opportunities to –Review some key EBL principles and processes –Discuss some of the benefits of EBL –Examine the applicability of EBL as a method to develop entrepreneurial graduates –Identify some opportunities and challenges in relation to enterprise education

7 Our group contract We will work collaboratively and co-operatively Everyone should be encouraged to make a contribution Tasks should be completed by the designated deadline We will relax and enjoy ourselves! Any more….?

8 Your handouts Find others in the room with the same colour paper clip as yours As a group, you have three minutes from the word ‘go’ to come up with as many uses for a paper clip as you can think of Hints -someone should note your ideas – this is a competition! – so you will need a record -use your imagination!

9 Institute for Enterprise

10 My journey to Cheltenham.... walking elevator train TAXI TUBE escalator

11 on separate post it notes, write down all the modes of transport you used to get to this workshop today, e.g. Train walk cycle bus

12 Hang on to those post-its!

13 Exploring ways to work together.... Conduct a team investigation –Pens –flipchart Share information and use it to create an escutcheon that illustrates your team’s –Skills –Interests –Talents –Diversity –USP You have ten minutes to complete the escutcheon followed by two minutes ‘elevator pitch’ for each team Any questions?

14 Assessment, Learning and Teaching Priorities 2008-12 ‘Leeds Met puts students at the heart of everything we do, enabling them to maximise their potential and use all their talents to the full’  Helping students to engage in learning in exciting, flexible, stimulating environments where creativity and individuality of approach are encouraged  Offering an engaging, transformative and rounded experience for our students e.g....through working with industry and our partners  Broadening student perspectives to enable them to develop skills for learning, information literacy and enterprise

15 At Leeds Metropolitan University, enterprise education is recognised as “an inclusive concept which provides both the context in which subject disciplines can be explored as well as an approach to learning which can be taken to the exploration and discovery of a discipline. In this respect, it can provide a challenging environment within which to explore a variety of teaching areas (such as a small business context) as well as providing a new and stimulating dimension to learning – that of being enterprising”.


17 The CETL – Enterprise in the Curriculum  Supporting the development of a positive attitude to innovation, personal change and development  Development, integration and embedding across all subject areas and levels – beyond discrete activities and ‘bolt-on’ models  Underpinned by theory and grounded in practice  Subject knowledge and skills development  Engagement with with experts and professionals, developing relationships and forming partnerships  Experiential learning approach – active, student-centred, reflective

18 The cure for boredom is curiosity. There is no cure for curiosity.... Dorothy Parker

19 Amalgamate your post-its and discard duplicates. Now think of as many OTHER ways you could have got here and write your ideas down on separate post-it notes HINT – break the boundaries and be imaginative! Formula One racing car On the back of an elephant swimming

20 Be mindful of the ground rules....

21 We’re nearly there! Organise your post-it notes according to common characteristics or themes Identify opposites (e.g. fast/slow or fun/boring) and re-sort if necessary Take any two opposing themes and use them to complete a Boston Box

22 Boston Box – an example Fast Slow Expensive Affordable

23 Review/Reflect How did your group approach the task? Who or what helped you? What hindered you? What resources did you need and find? What could you have done differently?

24 Developing intellectual skills Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge Bloom’s Taxonomy

25 Knowledge – repeat, record, recall, list, relate Comprehension – restate, discuss, explain, identify, tell Application – interpret, apply, use, illustrate, demonstrate Analysis – compare, contrast, question, debate, categorise Synthesis – arrange, assemble, construct, create, organise Evaluation – rate, compare, revise, judge, appraise

26 Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge Hypothesis Creativity and Innovation Instinct Intuition ‘safe’ environment Challenging landscape new territory to explore Based on Beard, C. Sheffield Hallam University

27 Getting down to it You are an interdisciplinary team working in Local Government, Town Planning department. You have been asked to develop a transport strategy for getting the public from London to the University of Sussex. You have 3 weeks to produce an outline strategy. What’s your action plan? (15 minutes) Present your initial action plan to colleagues (3 minutes) Feedback to refine your ideas (5 minutes)

28 NCGE and NESTA Report September 2008 ‘Developing Entrepreneurial Graduates’ The executive summary: More UK students need to engage in entrepreneurial activity Vice-Chancellors should provide visible leadership Academics are the enablers of change in the curriculum Entrepreneurship education can enrich students’ university experience Business and social entrepreneurs must be fully involved Students should seize opportunities that enterprise education offers to enable them to prepare for their futures

29 Developing Entrepreneurial Graduates Engaging stakeholders -academic faculty -student clubs and societies -entrepreneurs and businesses -social entrepreneurs Enabling environments -capacity building -cross-campus reach -visible leadership -institutional culture -embeddedness Entrepreneurial Practices -multidisciplinary -innovative educators -experiential approaches -experimentation and discovery

30 What is EBL? A natural form of learning, borne out of our innate sense of curiosity and desire to investigate and understand It is widely applicable, and has grown across a number of subjects and covers a broad spectrum of approaches and learning activities

31 A definition.... EBL represents a shift away from passive methods, which involve the transmission of knowledge to students, to more facilitative teaching methods through which students are expected to construct their own knowledge and understanding by engaging in supported processes of enquiry Kahn and O’Rourke, Guide to Enquiry-Based Learning,

32 EBL provides two broad models of learning through enquiry: a)Engagement with problems that present difficulties but are capable of solution when subject to appropriate enquiry b)Engagement with problems whose outcomes are inherently uncertain, open to question, unsettled, and thus a matter for continuing, perhaps irresolvable, enquiry CEEBL, 2006

33 Pursuing (information-active) Students explore a knowledge-base by pursuing their own closed questions and lines of enquiry (“what is the existing answer to my question?”) Authoring (discovery-active) Students pursue their own open-ended questions and lines of enquiry in interaction with the knowledge-base of the discipline (“how can I answer my question”) Identifying (information-responsive) Students explore the knowledge-base of the discipline in response to closed questions or lines of enquiry framed by staff (“what is the existing answer to this question?”) Producing (discovery-responsive) Students pursue open questions or lines of inquiry framed by tutors, in interaction with the knowledge-base of the discipline (“how can I answer this question?”) EXPLORING AND ACQUIRING EXISTING KNOWLEDGE PARTICIPATING IN BUILDING KNOWLEDGE STUDENT LED STAFF LED LEVY (2009), CILASS

34 Active, student-centred, authentic, supported Learning driven by a process of enquiry or investigation Starting point - complex, intriguing, ‘real world’ stimulus Student-centred Requires action Connects theory and practice Values process and product Develops skills Social Enjoyable

35 Transition –Practice in a safe environment –Opportunities for reflection and review –Accommodates different learning styles –Socialises the learning and the learner Integration – knowledge, social, cultural Lifelong learning – information explosion Inter-professional and interdisciplinary approaches Links teaching, learning and research Employability/professional body requirements Develops entrepreneurial mindset Why introduce EBL?

36 ‘….leaving behind the dusty lecture halls, to find out about our subject….done through interaction with other students and academics, and evidence found in places – books, the internet, and the big wide world itself’

37 Group Task Background: a group of academic staff have decided to make the university’s stance on enterprise education explicit to the first-year intake. They have asked your team to design a poster that explains (sells?) enterprise to the students. The poster will be displayed in the student common-room during the first three weeks of term. Task: design an outline poster (a draft) –Present your ideas to a panel of students (3 minutes maximum)

38 Enterprise skills are defined as: Creation of new ideas, innovation Recognising strengths (individual and collective) Effective communication Undertaking research (demand, competitors, trends etc) Networking Leadership, managing others Seizing opportunities and managing risk Project management Organisation and planning Successful negotiation........persuasion Societal responsibility, ‘making a difference’ Familiar?....EBL?

39 Motivation Authentic Realistic challenge Positive attitude towards discipline - passion Supportive Detailed, timely feedback Shared learning –Successes –Mistakes and risks Social learning Builds confidence

40 Personal (Iife) skills Taking and accepting responsibility - autonomy Ethics, empathy, tolerance, honesty Reliability Creative problem-solving Balancing creativity with resilience Balancing work with life Adaptability Entrpreneurial mindset

41 Employability Team working/building and leadership Inter-personal skills –Negotiation –Decision making –Handling conflict –Sharing Communication skills –Presentation, explaining, questioning –Networking Managing projects and meetings Evaluation, judgement, appraisal Entrepreneurship, ‘intrapreneurship’ and social enterprise

42 attitudes are also important to employers…. Interested, enthusiastic and flexible graduate….and….keen, motivated and ambitious individuals…. are frequently encountered phrases and the words dedicatedpassionate self-starter energetic systematic committed BioSciences Subject Centre Newsletter 2007

43 The centre of the teaching and learning process must become the student. In the words of Heidegger, “the teacher is ahead of his apprentices in this alone, that he has still far more to learn than they....he has to learn to let them learn”. (Prof Lewis Elton, THES, 21 July 2000)

44 Education is not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire W B Yeats

45 Research I originally thought research was a big thing to do, it required lots of people and money. I thought it was scientists and stuff. I know it’s not now. I know I can do it. It’s about being critical, looking at what other people have done, then finding a methodology and asking questions. First Year Student, Early Childhood Studies, Northumbria University, UK

46 Research I soon learned that it did not require a great brain to do original research. One must be highly motivated, exercise good judgement, have intelligence, imagination, determination and a little luck. One of the most important qualities in doing research, I found, was to ask the right questions at the right time. Julius Axelrod (Nobel prize winning scientist)

47 You go out of a PBL with your head buzzing, rather than feeling you’ve just passively sat there The’s amazing! Hearing all the different viewpoints....seeing how things develop When you see someone else is on the same track and you’re all learning the same thing, that can give you a big confidence boost, it pushes you a bit more because you want your work to be just as good as theirs You have responsibility to the whole group, not just yourself, everyone has to pull together

48 I have developed my skills, it has given me confidence to put my ideas forward I am more confident working with people Who I am not familiar with and I found out I’m more creative than I thought! This has given me experience and confidence to take into my final year at university and my professional life. This module has had a huge impact on me I feel more confident in my own ideas and having the ability to lead a group and create a concept that others buy into Students talking about enterprise education

49 My current area of EBL activity ‘Transforming Enterprise Education’  Supporting the development of a positive attitude to innovation, personal growth and professional development  Development, integration and embedding across all subject areas and levels – beyond discrete activities and ‘bolt-on’ models  Engagement with experts and professionals, developing relationships and forming partnerships  Enquiry-based learning approach – active, student-centred, reflective

50 The Institute for Enterprise – a familiar approach....? Core Team of ‘experts’ Enterprise Pioneers – specific areas of expertise Small-scale teaching and learning projects Entrepreneur in Residence Engagement with external partners CETL alliance Student Pioneers and interns A FAVOURABLE CLIMATE – the ‘enterprising university’ - but there are risks and challenges

51 An Enquiry-Based Approach to Enterprise Collaborative, co-operative learning environment Experiential Challenging - uses real-life scenarios and problems Investigative - stimulates deep exploration of the subject Multi-disciplinary as well as subject-specific Facilitated - guided by experts and supported by peer group Utilises existing knowledge and develops new knowledge Develops a range of skills, attitudes, values

52 Developing and embedding enterprise in the curriculum.... Working as individuals and in teams, developing networks and communities Recognising individual and collective talents, capabilities, strengths, limitations Excitement of discovery, generating new ideas, passion, creativity Understanding business and organisational processes Opportunities to develop, practice and apply skills Reward and recognition for hard work Celebrating successes and learning from failure, developing resilience and self-reliance Facilitation, inspiration, competition CONFIDENCE to take the key, unlock potential

53 Enterprise….it’s what we do every day!


55 The important thing is not to stop questioning. Curiosity has its own reason for existing. Albert Einstein

56 Using student reflections in response: Encourages us to ask questions that we both know we want the answers to........stimulates the innate curiosity to compare home cultures and diversity between methods of daily living to opposing world views on current affairs.... As a group, the understanding becomes clear.... Each person brings to the table a different world view, and different world knowledge, thus compelling explorations of unfamiliar cultures....

57 ‘….leaving behind the dusty lecture halls, to find out about our subject….done through interaction with other students and academics, and evidence found in places – books, the internet, and the big wide world itself’

58 ‘The world is but a school of inquiry’ (Michel de Montaigne)

59 Exploring a new learning landscape….volunteering in Peru 2009 My home for six weeks in September- October 2009 Zapallal shanty town, near Lima, Peru


61 Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning Leeds Metropolitan University, UK Publications, case-studies and resources May 2009

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