Presentation on theme: "WEEK 6: The manager as a person – II Managing dIversIty"— Presentation transcript:
1WEEK 6: The manager as a person – II Managing dIversIty BUSN 107 –
2ValuesValues => The conscious, affective desires or wants of people that guide their behaviorGuiding principles in an individual’s life, shaping their view of the worldLinked to attitudes in that a value serves as a way of organizing attitudes.
4ValuesValue System => a hierarchy based on a ranking of an individual’s values in terms of their intensityI. Terminal Values:A lifelong goal or objective that an individual seeks to achieve; desirable end-states of existenceII. Instrumental Values:A mode of conduct that an individual seeks to follow; means of achieving one’s terminal goals
5Terminal and Instrumental Values in the Rokeach Value Survey
6AttitudesAttitudes => A collection of feelings and mental state of readinessEvaluative statements or judgements concerning objects, people or events.Implications for managers:Define predispositions toward the worldProvide emotional basis of interpersonal relations and identifications with othersSome are persistent and some are subject to changeEach of us has attitudes on numerous topics – friendship, love, sports, dieting, career goals, laws... Attitudes have many sources: family, friends, society, school/teachers, previous experiences, cultureSome attitudes are persistent and enduring; yet some are subject to change.
7Attitudes isn’t everything, but it’s close Attitudes isn’t everything, but it’s close. New York Times headline, August 6, 2006
8Why Should Managers Be Interested in Employees’ Attitudes? Attitudes give warnings of potential problems and they influence behaviorEmployees with positive attitudes towards work perform better on the jobManagers often face the task of changing employees’ attitudes because existing attitudes hinder organizational –job performance. For this to happen: employees should trust the manager and convinced in his message.
9The Components of Attitudes Cognitive = evaluationMy supervisor gave apromotion to a coworker whodeserved it less than me. Mysupervisor is unfairNegative attitude towards supervisorAffective = feelingI dislike my supervisor!Behavioral = actionI am looking for another work;I’ve complained about mysupervisor who would listen
11Important Job Attitudes Job SatisfactionA collection of feelings and beliefs that managers and employees have about their jobsIt results from the perception of the job based on following factors:Pay, job, promotion opportunities, work environment and conditions, organizational policies and procedures, supervisors, co-workersEmployees high on job satisfaction like their jobs, feel that they are being fairly treated, and believe that their jobs have many desirable features“Happy workers are productive workers”
12How to create satisfied employees? Management is able to control each of these:Mentally challenging workOpportunities to use their skills and abilities; varieties of tasks, freedom and feedbackEquitable rewardsPay systems employees perceive as just, unambigious and in line with their expectations
13How to create satisfied employees? Management is able to control each of these:Supportive working conditionsSafe and comfortable working environmentSupportive coworkersSocial interaction, friendly and supportive managers and coworkes
14Job Satisfaction In Close US workers job satisfaction relatively high (Gallup Poll, 2008):satisfaction-relatively-high.aspxUS job satisfaction struggles to recover to levels (Gallup Poll, 2011):struggles-recover-2008-levels.aspx
15Important Job Attitudes Organizational CommitmentThe degree to which a manager/employee identifies with the organization and its goals and wishes to maintain membership there –loyalty to the org.Committed managers are loyal to their firms and less likely to quitLeads to a strong organizational cultureHelps managers perform their figurehead and spokesperson roles
17Organizational Culture Shared set of beliefs, expectations, values, norms, and work routines that influence how members of an organization relate to one another and work together to achieve organizational goalsThe set of important assumptions about the organization and its goals and practices that members of the company share
18Organizational Culture In strong organizational cultures, the majority of people within the organization agree on organizational goalsIn weak organizational cultures, the majority of people within the organization disagree on organizational goals
19Factors that Maintain and Transmit Organizational Culture:
20Diversity of the Workforce and the Environment Differences among people in age, gender, race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, socioeconomic background, and capabilities/disabilities
21Diversity of the Workforce and the Environment Reasons why diversity is an important concern:The ethical imperative for equal opportunity and fair and just treatmentEffectively managing diversity can improve organizational effectivenessThe continuing unfair treatment toward diverse individuals as a result of biases, stereotypes and overt discrimination
23Workforce Diversity: Gender Women in the Work Place in US:U.S. workforce is 46.5 % percent femaleWomen’s weekly median earnings are $572 compared to $714 for men.Women hold only 16% of corporate officer positions
24Workforce Diversity: Gender World Economic Forum: The Global Gender Gap Report 2012gap
25Workforce Diversity: Gender Turkey in Gender Gap Report:
26Workforce Diversity: Gender Turkey in Gender Gap Report:
27Solving Diversity-Related Problems Think about the last time:(1) you were treated unfairly because you differed from a decision maker on a particular dimension of diversity, or(2) observed someone else being treated like thisWhy do you think the decison maker acted unfairly in this situation?In what ways if any were biases, stereotypes or overt discrimination involved in the situation?Was the decision maker aware that he or she was acting unfairly?What could you or the person have done to improve matters and rectify the injustice on the spot?If you had authority over the decision maker, what steps would you take to ensure that the decision maker no longer treated diverse individuals fairly?
28Managing Diversity Effectively Critical Managerial Roles:Conveying it as a valued goal and objectiveEnabling diverse employees to coordinate and cooperate in the organizationUsing authority and status to influence and persuade othersCommitment and reward for the support of diversityShowing confidence in the abilities and talents of diverse employees
29Managing Diversity Effectively Two Moral Principles for Managing Diversity:Distributive Justice => Fair distribution of pay, promotions and other organizational resources based on meaningful contributionsProcedural Justice => Use of fair procedures to determine how to distribute outcomes to organizational members
30Perceptions as a Determinant of Unfair Treatment The process through which people select, organize and interpret what they see, hear, touch, smell and taste to give meaning and order to the world around themInaccurate perception leads managers to bad decisions and inapproporiate actions; unfair treatment towards diverse employees
31Perceptions as a Determinant of Unfair Treatment Managers’ perceptions likely to differ because of their differences in:Personality, values, attitudes and moodsPast experiences: acquired knowledge about people, events and situationsPre-existing schemas => abstract knowledge structuresGender schemasRace and ethnicity schemas
33Perceptions as a Determinant of Unfair Treatment Stereotype: Simplistic and often inaccurate beliefs about the typical characteristics of particular groups of peopleBiases: Systematic tendency to use information about others in ways that result in inaccurate perceptionsSimilar-to-me effect, social status effect, salience effectOvert Discrimination: Knowingly and willingly denying individuals access to opportunities and outcomes in an organization
34Steps in Managing Diversity Effectively Secure top management commitmentIncrease the accuracy of perceptionsIncrease diversity awarenessEncourage flexibilityPay close attention to how employees evaluatedConsider the numbers in terms of diversityEmpower employees to challenge discriminatory behaviorsReward employees for effectively managing diversityProvide training and mentoring on diversity
35Next Week Read from your course book: Chapter 4: Ethics and Social Responsibility