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Presentation on theme: "WEEK 6: THE MANAGER AS A PERSON – II MANAGING DIVERSITY BUSN 107 – 31.10.2012."— Presentation transcript:


2 Values  Values => The conscious, affective desires or wants of people that guide their behavior  Guiding principles in an individual’s life, shaping their view of the world  Linked to attitudes in that a value serves as a way of organizing attitudes.

3 Values

4  Value System => a hierarchy based on a ranking of an individual’s values in terms of their intensity I. Terminal Values:  A lifelong goal or objective that an individual seeks to achieve; desirable end-states of existence II. Instrumental Values:  A mode of conduct that an individual seeks to follow; means of achieving one’s terminal goals


6 Attitudes  Attitudes => A collection of feelings and mental state of readiness  Evaluative statements or judgements concerning objects, people or events.  Implications for managers:  Define predispositions toward the world  Provide emotional basis of interpersonal relations and identifications with others  Some are persistent and some are subject to change

7 Attitudes isn’t everything, but it’s close. New York Times headline, August 6, 2006

8 Why Should Managers Be Interested in Employees’ Attitudes?  Attitudes give warnings of potential problems and they influence behavior  Employees with positive attitudes towards work perform better on the job

9 The Components of Attitudes Cognitive = evaluation My supervisor gave a promotion to a coworker who deserved it less than me. My supervisor is unfair Affective = feeling I dislike my supervisor! Behavioral = action I am looking for another work; I’ve complained about my supervisor who would listen Negative attitude towards supervisor

10 Important Job Attitudes:  Job satisfaction  Organizational commitment  Perceived organizational support  Job involvement  Employee engagement

11 Important Job Attitudes  Job Satisfaction  A collection of feelings and beliefs that managers and employees have about their jobs  It results from the perception of the job based on following factors: Pay, job, promotion opportunities, work environment and conditions, organizational policies and procedures, supervisors, co-workers

12 How to create satisfied employees?  Management is able to control each of these:  Mentally challenging work Opportunities to use their skills and abilities; varieties of tasks, freedom and feedback  Equitable rewards Pay systems employees perceive as just, unambigious and in line with their expectations

13 How to create satisfied employees?  Management is able to control each of these:  Supportive working conditions Safe and comfortable working environment  Supportive coworkers Social interaction, friendly and supportive managers and coworkes

14 Job Satisfaction In Close  US workers job satisfaction relatively high (Gallup Poll, 2008):  satisfaction-relatively-high.aspx satisfaction-relatively-high.aspx  US job satisfaction struggles to recover to 2008 levels (Gallup Poll, 2011):  struggles-recover-2008-levels.aspx struggles-recover-2008-levels.aspx

15 Important Job Attitudes  Organizational Commitment  The degree to which a manager/employee identifies with the organization and its goals and wishes to maintain membership there –loyalty to the org.  Committed managers are loyal to their firms and less likely to quit  Leads to a strong organizational culture  Helps managers perform their figurehead and spokesperson roles

16 Attitudes - Performance Relationship: Job Satisfaction Org. Commitment Job Performance

17 Organizational Culture  Organizational Culture  Shared set of beliefs, expectations, values, norms, and work routines that influence how members of an organization relate to one another and work together to achieve organizational goals

18 Organizational Culture  In strong organizational cultures, the majority of people within the organization agree on organizational goals  In weak organizational cultures, the majority of people within the organization disagree on organizational goals

19 Factors that Maintain and Transmit Organizational Culture:

20 Diversity of the Workforce and the Environment  Diversity  Differences among people in age, gender, race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, socioeconomic background, and capabilities/disabilities

21 Diversity of the Workforce and the Environment Reasons why diversity is an important concern:  The ethical imperative for equal opportunity and fair and just treatment  Effectively managing diversity can improve organizational effectiveness  The continuing unfair treatment toward diverse individuals as a result of biases, stereotypes and overt discrimination

22 Sources of Diversity in the Workplace:

23 Workforce Diversity: Gender  Women in the Work Place in US:  U.S. workforce is 46.5 % percent female  Women’s weekly median earnings are $572 compared to $714 for men.  Women hold only 16% of corporate officer positions

24 Workforce Diversity: Gender  World Economic Forum: The Global Gender Gap Report 2012  gap gap

25 Workforce Diversity: Gender  Turkey in Gender Gap Report:

26 Workforce Diversity: Gender  Turkey in Gender Gap Report:

27 Solving Diversity-Related Problems Think about the last time:  (1) you were treated unfairly because you differed from a decision maker on a particular dimension of diversity, or  (2) observed someone else being treated like this

28 Managing Diversity Effectively  Critical Managerial Roles:  Conveying it as a valued goal and objective  Enabling diverse employees to coordinate and cooperate in the organization  Using authority and status to influence and persuade others  Commitment and reward for the support of diversity  Showing confidence in the abilities and talents of diverse employees

29 Managing Diversity Effectively  Two Moral Principles for Managing Diversity:  Distributive Justice => Fair distribution of pay, promotions and other organizational resources based on meaningful contributions  Procedural Justice => Use of fair procedures to determine how to distribute outcomes to organizational members

30 Perceptions as a Determinant of Unfair Treatment  Perception  The process through which people select, organize and interpret what they see, hear, touch, smell and taste to give meaning and order to the world around them  Inaccurate perception leads managers to bad decisions and inapproporiate actions; unfair treatment towards diverse employees

31 Perceptions as a Determinant of Unfair Treatment  Managers’ perceptions likely to differ because of their differences in:  Personality, values, attitudes and moods  Past experiences: acquired knowledge about people, events and situations  Pre-existing schemas => abstract knowledge structures  Gender schemas  Race and ethnicity schemas


33 Perceptions as a Determinant of Unfair Treatment  Stereotype: Simplistic and often inaccurate beliefs about the typical characteristics of particular groups of people  Biases: Systematic tendency to use information about others in ways that result in inaccurate perceptions  Similar-to-me effect, social status effect, salience effect  Overt Discrimination: Knowingly and willingly denying individuals access to opportunities and outcomes in an organization

34 Steps in Managing Diversity Effectively  Secure top management commitment  Increase the accuracy of perceptions  Increase diversity awareness  Encourage flexibility  Pay close attention to how employees evaluated  Consider the numbers in terms of diversity  Empower employees to challenge discriminatory behaviors  Reward employees for effectively managing diversity  Provide training and mentoring on diversity

35 Next Week  Read from your course book: Chapter 4: Ethics and Social Responsibility


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