Presentation on theme: "Bell Ringer 3/1/06 “ We return. We return from fighting. We return fighting.” (W.E.B DuBois) What is this quote referring to? Why did this quote prove."— Presentation transcript:
1 Bell Ringer 3/1/06“ We return. We return from fighting. We return fighting.” (W.E.B DuBois)What is this quote referring to?Why did this quote prove to be true?
3 1920’s Culture The flapper Short hair for women Dancing & Music SpeakeasiesSilent movies“The Jazz Age was wicked and monstrous and silly. Unfortunately, I had a good time.” Heywood Broun
4 How did technology impact society? 15 million cars were sold80% were bought on creditA Model T Ford cost $290 in 192020% of U.S. homes had electricity by the end of the decade10 million families owned radios by 1929Shifting of America from a rural country to an urban country
5 Leisure Time??? Movies Reading Sports Music Shorter work week and vacation time – more free time to enjoy:MoviesReadingSportsMusic
6 Too much of a good thing????Mass consumption, changing values, new technologies – are they always good???Many said NOHarlem Renaissance benefited and reacted against it
7 Harlem Renaissance /Jazz Age African American writers in NYCWell-educatedMiddle class groupAlienated from societySpoke against the bigotry on the time and pride in African American cultureW.E.B DuBois, Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston, Alain Locke, Duke Ellington, Bessie Smith
8 THE FLAPPER by Dorothy Parker The Playful flapper here we see, The fairest of the fair. She's not what Grandma used to be, -- You might say, au contraire. Her girlish ways may make a stir, Her manners cause a scene, But there is no more harm in her Than in a submarine.
9 Women in the 20s……. By 1929, made up 22% of the workforce 90% of married women did not workWork available to women were low paying and of lower statusVoted in 1920 election – not very many participatedMajority were not flappers, but were helped by the technologyFamily size smaller, divorce laws still favored men
11 Struggle of OLD vs. NEW Prohibition Minorities Cultural Values Women Scopes TrialModernization of societyReligion not as important
12 Who’s Who Hand in: #1 Project #2 Sources #3 Rubric with your name on it!!!!
13 “Coolidge Prosperity” Harding vs. CoolidgeHarding (1920 – 1923)Former Newspaper Publisher and not experienced in politicsScandals – theft of Veteran supplies, fraud, Teapot Dome Scandal (bribery and oil reserves)Coolidge (1923 – 1928)Laissez-faire economic policy and committed to business interestsSmall recession – post war decline1923 – 1929 business booming“Coolidge Prosperity”
14 Coolidge Prosperity???????????Large Business prosper – Upper Class prospersMiddle Class, Laborers, Farmers, Native Americans, and African Americans did not prosper
15 Election of 1928 Hoover (Rep.) vs. Alfred Smith (Dem.) Hoover – secretary of commerce- Self Made Millionaire- Humanitarian- Leader in war effort and post war reconstructionHoover won 84% of the electoral vote
16 What was the Great Depression? Roaring 20s End Great Depression BeginsWhat was the Great Depression?The worst economic crisis of the centuryOver 13 million people unemployed“Dust bowl” as a result of droughtFarmers lost cropsMany lost their homes
17 What caused the Great Depression? Stock market crash of 1929Unequal distribution of wealthExcessive Buying on CreditWeak Business StructureWeak Banking StructureInadequate Government PoliciesWeak International economy
18 Stock Market Crash Many stocks purchased on speculation Panic sets in as they are forced to produce the money for the loansStock prices fellPanic sellingHuge sums of money lostThursday, October 24, 1929Stock values fell $14 billion
19 Unequal Distribution of Wealth No middle classSupply not equal to demandCredit cards created false demand
20 Excessive Buying on Credit Creates a false demandUnder consumptionPeople unable to make installment payments, therefore stop buying
21 Weak Business Structure Business consolidation – makes a few large companies for each industryProfits and control were in the hands of a few – fragile system
22 Weak Banking Structure No FDIC – No government regulationPeople pull money out – PanicBanks close with people’s money
23 Inadequate Government Policies No government regulation of stock marketTax policies contributed to unequal distribution of wealthAntitrust laws were not enforcedFederal Reserve Board made poor decisions
24 Weak International Economy WWI and the Stock Market crash effected the worldNo U.S. foreign investment – no money to pay America backForeign countries had no money to buy American goods
26 Hooverisms Hoover Hog – armadillos that were baked in the desert Hoover Flag – empty pocket turned outHoover Blanket – Newspaper slept underHoover Car – Abandoned CarsHoover Bag – suitcase with holesHoover Shoes – shoes with holes in solesHoovervilles – shack towns of boxes and crates.
27 “Hooverism” Hoover’s response to the Great Depression: Restore confidence in economyPromoted helping businesses to help economyReconstruction Finance CorporationFederal Work Projects to create jobsHalted war repayment by EuropeAsked businesses to not lower wages or prices
28 Failure of “Hooverism” No direct relief – damaged imageEconomy was continuing to spiral and Hoover continued to say things were improving“Bonus Army” - march on Washington, disbanded by army
29 DustbowlsA traveler noticed a nice new hat by the side of the road, and he stopped to pick it up.Under the hat was a man, buried up to his neck in the dust! As he dug the poor fellow out, the traveler asked if he wanted a ride into town. "No, I'll get there myself," the man replied, "I'm on a horse."(Excerpt from THE DUST BOWL by Tricia Andryszewski, p. 33.)
31 Franklin Delano Roosevelt Elected in 1932 with 89% of the electoral voteGovernment experience:NYS LegislatureAsst. Secretary of the NavyGovernor of NYS
32 3 R’s of the New Deal RELIEF of those who were suffering RECOVERY for the economyREFORM to avoid future depressions
33 New Deal Programs Outcomes Banking Emergency Act (FDIC) – restored confidence, soon more deposits than withdrawlsFederal Emergency Relief Admin. (FERA) – Helped to revitalize relief organizations and encourage workCivilian Conservation Corps (CCC) – Taught men and women to be independent, increased self confidence and self esteem
34 New Deal Programs Outcomes Public Work Administration PWA – benefited America and American workersAgricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) – Declared unconstitutional, did not raise prices as hoped – just made people upsetTennessee Valley Authority (TVA) - cheap electric power, flood control, and recreational opportunities to the entire Tennessee River valley.
35 New Deal Programs Outcomes Works Progress Admin. (WPA) – decreased unemploymentSocial Security Act (SSA) - it did help millions of Americans feel more secure.National Recovery Admin. (NRA) – organized the relief effort, centralized government effortsRural Electrification Admin. (REA) – gave several small farmers electricity
36 Wagner Act Also known as the National Labor Relations Act (1935) Guaranteed labor unions the right to form unions and to practice collective bargainingProgressive Legislation??????
38 Central Bank, Silver backing of money, increase circulation Father CoughlinGovernment Pension Plan for Elderly – no SSAFrancis Townsend“Production for Use” – state ownership of land and factoriesUpton Sinclair
39 Table of Contents #1 Outline/Concepts #16 Hoover vs. FDR #2 Twenties Talk #17 Share our Wealth#3 Sports Stars #18 FDR’s New Deal#4 Who’s Who #19 You and the New Deal#5 Roaring 20s Culture #20 Be a New Deal Worker#6 The Automobile #21 No New Deal#7 The New Woman #22 The S.C. and New Deal#8 Roaring 20s Packet #23 FDR and the S.C.#9 Great Migration#10 Immigration#11 Urban-Rural Change#12 Roaring 20s Politics#13 What caused the Great Depression?#14 Hooverisms#15 Images of the Great Depression
40 The New Deal and the Supreme Court NRA – Schechter Poultry Corp v. United States (1935)NRA codes were too much like lawsExecutive was legislatingDeclared unconstitutionalAAA – declared unconstitutionalCongress passed another similar law to circumvent the Supreme Court.
41 The New Deal and the Supreme Court Court-PackingConservative Court did not follow FDR’s planDemocratic President and a Republican CourtProposed a plan to increase the number of justices
42 Third Term Controversy Elected:1932193619401944Republicans accused him of breaking the unwritten constitutionAfter death, 22nd Amendment was proposed to limit to two terms1951 – 22nd Amendment ratified
45 Loss of homes “Hoovervilles” Here were all these people living in old rusted-out car bodies. ... One family ... [was]living in a piano box. This wasn't just a littlesection, this was maybe 10 miles wide and 10miles long. People living in whatever theycould junk together. ..."