Presentation on theme: "AP US History Topic: Early Colonial History Essential Question: Why did the colonists come to America?"— Presentation transcript:
AP US History Topic: Early Colonial History Essential Question: Why did the colonists come to America?
Review Roanoke Island (Virginia) disappeared, founded by Sir Walter Raleigh (English) Why did Europeans desire to colonize and come to America? 1) Quest for gold and spices 2) Desire to spread Christianity 3) Desire to utilize new technologies
Why America? 1) Economic reasons (lived in poverty) 2) Religious freedom The big question: Was it more push or pull factors that brought the English to America? Biggest factors to consider: Gold, slavery, adventure, religious freedom,
VA & MD In the Chesapeake Region 1 st 2 successful colonies The London Company (a joint-stock company) built Jamestown (VA) 3 Biggest problems: A) Hostile environment B) Unclear goals C) Colonists did not work for common good
Historical Background In the late 1580s, Sir Walter Raleigh attempted to plant a colony for England in present-day North Carolina (Roanoke). It was not until 1606 that the Virginia Company of London received a charter from the newly-crowned King James I. The Virginia Company was a joint-stock company, which sold shares. All who purchased shares shared in the success or failure of the venture. The Virginia Company was formed both to bring profit to its shareholders and to establish an English colony in the New World. In December 1606, the Virginia Company's three ships, containing 144 men and boys, set sail. On May 13, 1607, these first settlers selected the site of Jamestown Island as the place to build their fort.
Computer generated view
Jamestown Disasters people died on the voyage to the New World another ship from England lost its leaders and supplies in a shipwreck off Bermuda. Settlers died by the dozens! Gentlemen colonists would not work themselves. Smith nearly killed by Indians & Powhatan Settlers wasted time looking for gold instead of hunting or farming.
Enter John Smith
What did John Smith do? Imposed military order to the town Had to fight off Indians who were raiding the colonists "He who does not work, will not eat."
The Starving Time 1607: 104 colonists By spring, 1608: 38 survived 1609: 300 more immigrants By spring, 1610: 60 survived 1610 – 1624: 10,000 immigrants 1624 population: 1,200 Adult life expectancy: 40 years Death of children before age 5: 80%
Tobacco as a Cash Crop Saves Virginia John Rolfe 1618 Virginia produces 20,000 pounds of tobacco Despite losing nearly one-third of its colonists in an Indian attack, Virginia produces 60,000 pounds of tobacco Virginia produces 500,000 pounds of tobacco Virginia produces 1,500,000 pounds of tobacco.
Flooding the Market?
Virginia is Bought Out Its a long story but basically the joint-stock company ended in epic failure. There were no real profits, money was owed to everyone, so in 1624 King James I declared Virginia a royal colony Govt. was established (House of Burgesses) New system put in place called the Headright System where investors and residents were able to acquire land in paying the passage of new settlers Women were also brought over…for the men
Widowarchy High mortality among husbands and fathers left many women in the Chesapeake colonies with unusual autonomy and wealth!
For further reading company-of-london.htm company-of-london.htm hill.com/sites/ /student_view0/
Homework for the weekend Read & take notes on the first 10 pages of Chapter 2 Expect a reading quiz on Monday: Key Terms:
Reading Quiz Directions: From the following 5 topics, pick three (3) and in a sentence or two, explain why you think they made the textbook. This requires some evidence from your book (and your reading notes) plus your own interpretation of why the topic is important: A) Jamestown B) Bacons Rebellion C) William Bradford D) John Smith E) Proprietary Colony This is timed! 10 minutes is the limit
Things you need to cover Powhatan Confederacy Powhatan Uprising of 1622 First Anglo-Powhatan War Second Anglo-Powhatan War Peace Treaty of 1646
Bellwork What were the 3 types of British colonies? Royal, Proprietary, and Self-Governing With a neighbor, discuss the difference between a proprietary colony and a royal colony Proprietary Colony = type of settlement where favorites of the British crown (individuals) were awarded huge tracts of land in the New World to supervise and develop. (Also a way for monarchs to repay political and economic debts to key individuals) Examples Penn, Maryland, Delaware Royal Colony = a colony run by a royal governor (owned by the king) appointed by the British crown, having a representative assembly elected by the people
House of Burgesses (1619) Unsuccessful venture in government BUT 1 st example of representative self government [met in Jamestown] Goal was to make local government in Virginia more responsive to the colonists King James I did not trust members (and favored royal colonies) and hated tobacco High death rate ensured rapid turnover of members Controlled finances & militia (similar to House of Commons in England) 22 members, including a governor; any laws could be vetoed by London
Atlantic Slave Trade
17 th Century Pop. In Chesapeake
The Middle Passage
Middle Passage So called because it was the middle leg of a three-part voyage -- a voyage that began and ended in Europe. The first leg of the voyage carried a cargo that often included iron, cloth, brandy, firearms, and gunpowder. Upon landing on Africa's "slave coast," the cargo was exchanged for Africans. Fully loaded with its human cargo, the ship set sail for the Americas, where the slaves were exchanged for sugar, tobacco, or some other product. The final leg brought the ship back to Europe.
Quote from Equiano "The closeness of the place, and the heat of the climate, added to the number in the ship, which was so crowded that each had scarcely room to turn himself, almost suffocated us. This produced copious perspirations, so that the air soon became unfit for respiration, from a variety of loathsome smells, and brought on a sickness among the slaves, of which many died.
Slave Codes Made blacks [and their children] property, or chattel for life of white masters. In some colonies, it was a crime to teach a slave to read or write. Conversion to Christianity did not qualify the slave for freedom. **These black codes or Slave codes would again appear during and after the Civil War era
Led 1,000 Virginians in a rebellion against Governor Berkeley Rebels resented Berkeleys close relations with Indians. Berkeley profited from the Indians but refused to deal with Indian attacks on frontier settlements. Berkeley monopolized the fur trade with the Indians in the area. Bacon threatened Berkeley at gunpoint and burned Jamestown Significance: Civilian challenging royal authority in the name of liberty. Bacon felt his life was threatened by Indians.
Effects of Bacons Rebellion Rebels attacked Indians, whether they were friendly or not to whites. Governor Berkeley driven from Jamestown. They burned the capital. Rebels went on a rampage of plundering. Bacon suddenly died of fever. Berkeley brutally crushed the rebellion and hanged 20 rebels.
What did it expose? Socio-economic class differences/clashes between rural and urban communities would continue throughout American history. Upper class planters searched for laborers less likely to rebel BLACK SLAVES!!
Maryland Refer to text for more thorough overview Known as a haven for Catholics Known as a proprietary colony (granted to an individual or group by the British crown and that were granted full rights of self-government.) Best 2 examples of P.C. MD & PA
Maryland Toleration Act 1649 Maryland Toleration Act of 1649 Supported by the Catholics in MD. Guaranteed toleration to all CHRISTIANS. Decreed death to those who denied the divinity of Jesus [like Jews, atheists, etc.].
Plymouth Colony Plymouth Lesson
MA Bay Colony
Review We have now covered: Virginia & Jamestown / Royal Colony Role of tobacco / John Rolfe John Smith & The Starving Time Maryland as a Proprietary colony Maryland Toleration Act 1649 Bacons Rebellion & Significance Slave Codes, Middle Passage, Equiano House of Burgesses
Colonies Covered Virginia Maryland Massachusetts Bay Plymouth (in MA)
Reading Homework Tonight read & take notes on pages Possible reading quiz tomorrow
Quiz on Friday A) First 10 Presidents B) First 10 Amendments C) Historical Eras in order with the saying but no freebies Point Value will be 30
Study Guide for Exam 1 Is posted on the website