Presentation on theme: "AP US History Topic: Early Colonial History"— Presentation transcript:
1 AP US History Topic: Early Colonial History Essential Question: Why did the colonists come to America?
2 ReviewRoanoke Island (Virginia) disappeared, founded by Sir Walter Raleigh (English)Why did Europeans desire to colonize and come to America?1) Quest for gold and spices2) Desire to spread Christianity3) Desire to utilize new technologies
3 Why America? 1) Economic reasons (lived in poverty) 2) Religious freedomThe big question: Was it more “push” or “pull” factors that brought the English to America?Biggest factors to consider:Gold, slavery, adventure, religious freedom,
4 VA & MD In the “Chesapeake” Region 1st 2 successful colonies The London Company (a joint-stock company) built Jamestown (VA)3 Biggest problems:A) Hostile environmentB) Unclear goalsC) Colonists did not work for common goodJoint-stock company: pooled the savings of people of moderate means and supported trading ventures that seemed moderately profitable.
6 Historical Background In the late 1580s, Sir Walter Raleigh attempted to plant a colony for England in present-day North Carolina (Roanoke).It was not until 1606 that the Virginia Company of London received a charter from the newly-crowned King James I.The Virginia Company was a joint-stock company, which sold shares.All who purchased shares shared in the success or failure of the venture.The Virginia Company was formed both to bring profit to its shareholders and to establish an English colony in the New World.In December 1606, the Virginia Company's three ships, containing 144 men and boys, set sail. On May 13, 1607, these first settlers selected the site of Jamestown Island as the place to build their fort.
8 Jamestown Disasterspeople died on the voyage to the New World.another ship from England lost its leaders and supplies in a shipwreck off Bermuda.Settlers died by the dozens!“Gentlemen” colonists would not work themselves.Smith nearly killed by Indians & PowhatanSettlers wasted time looking for gold instead of hunting or farming.
10 What did John Smith do? Imposed military order to the town Had to fight off Indians who were raiding the colonists"He who does not work, will not eat."
11 “The Starving Time” 1607: 104 colonists By spring, 1608: 38 survived 1609: 300 more immigrantsBy spring, 1610: 60 survived1610 – 1624: 10,000 immigrants1624 population: 1,200Adult life expectancy: 40 yearsDeath of children before age 5: 80%
12 Tobacco as a Cash Crop Saves Virginia John Rolfe1618 — Virginia produces 20,000 pounds of tobacco.1622 — Despite losing nearly one-third of its colonists in an Indian attack, Virginia produces 60,000 pounds of tobacco.1627 — Virginia produces ,000 pounds of tobacco.1629 — Virginia produces ,500,000 pounds of tobacco.
14 Virginia is “Bought Out” It’s a long story but basically the joint-stock company ended in epic failure. There were no real profits, money was owed to everyone, so in 1624 King James I declared Virginia a royal colonyGovt. was established (House of Burgesses)New system put in place called the “Headright System” where investors and residents were able to acquire land in paying the passage of new settlersWomen were also brought over…for the men
15 WidowarchyHigh mortality among husbands and fathers left many women in the Chesapeake colonies with unusual autonomy and wealth!
16 For further readingcompany-of-london.htmhill.com/sites/ /student_view0/
17 Homework for the weekend Read & take notes on the first 10 pages of Chapter 2Expect a reading quiz on Monday:Key Terms:
19 Reading QuizDirections: From the following 5 topics, pick three (3) and in a sentence or two, explain why you think they made the textbook. This requires some evidence from your book (and your reading notes) plus your own interpretation of why the topic is important:A) JamestownB) Bacon’s RebellionC) William BradfordD) John SmithE) Proprietary ColonyThis is timed! 10 minutes is the limit
20 Things you need to cover Powhatan ConfederacyPowhatan Uprising of 1622First Anglo-Powhatan WarSecond Anglo-Powhatan WarPeace Treaty of 1646
21 Bellwork What were the 3 types of British colonies? Royal, Proprietary, and Self-GoverningWith a neighbor, discuss the difference between a proprietary colony and a royal colonyProprietary Colony = type of settlement where favorites of the British crown (individuals) were awarded huge tracts of land in the New World to supervise and develop. (Also a way for monarchs to repay political and economic debts to key individuals) Examples Penn, Maryland, DelawareRoyal Colony = a colony run by a royal governor (owned by the king) appointed by the British crown, having a representative assembly elected by the people
22 House of Burgesses (1619)Unsuccessful venture in government BUT 1st example of representative self government [met in Jamestown]Goal was to make local government in Virginia more responsive to the colonistsKing James I did not trust members (and favored royal colonies) and hated tobaccoHigh death rate ensured rapid turnover of membersControlled finances & militia (similar to House of Commons in England)22 members, including a governor; any laws could be vetoed by London
26 Middle PassageSo called because it was the middle leg of a three-part voyage -- a voyage that began and ended in Europe.The first leg of the voyage carried a cargo that often included iron, cloth, brandy, firearms, and gunpowder.Upon landing on Africa's "slave coast," the cargo was exchanged for Africans.Fully loaded with its human cargo, the ship set sail for the Americas, where the slaves were exchanged for sugar, tobacco, or some other product.The final leg brought the ship back to Europe.
27 Quote from Equiano"The closeness of the place, and the heat of the climate, added to the number in the ship, which was so crowded that each had scarcely room to turn himself, almost suffocated us. This produced copious perspirations, so that the air soon became unfit for respiration, from a variety of loathsome smells, and brought on a sickness among the slaves, of which many died.”
29 Slave CodesMade blacks [and their children] property, or chattel for life of white masters.In some colonies, it was a crime to teach a slave to read or write.Conversion to Christianity did not qualify the slave for freedom.**These “black codes” or “Slave codes” would again appear during and after the Civil War era
31 Bacon’s RebellionLed 1,000 Virginians in a rebellion against Governor BerkeleyRebels resented Berkeley’s close relations with Indians. Berkeley profited from the Indians but refused to deal with Indian attacks on frontier settlements.Berkeley monopolized the fur trade with the Indians in the area.Bacon threatened Berkeley at gunpoint and burned JamestownSignificance: Civilian challenging royal authority in the name of liberty. Bacon felt his life was threatened by Indians.
32 Effects of Bacon’s Rebellion Rebels attacked Indians, whether they were friendly or not to whites.Governor Berkeley driven from Jamestown.They burned the capital.Rebels went on a rampage of plundering.Bacon suddenly died of fever.Berkeley brutally crushed the rebellion and hanged 20 rebels.
33 What did it expose?Socio-economic class differences/clashes between rural and urban communities would continue throughout American history.Upper class planters searched for laborers less likely to rebel BLACK SLAVES!!
34 Maryland- 1634 Refer to text for more thorough overview Known as a haven for CatholicsKnown as a proprietary colony (granted to an individual or group by the British crown and that were granted full rights of self-government.)Best 2 examples of P.C. MD & PA
35 Maryland Toleration Act 1649 Maryland Toleration Act of 1649Supported by the Catholics in MD.Guaranteed toleration to all CHRISTIANS.Decreed death to those who denied the divinity of Jesus [like Jews, atheists, etc.].
38 Review We have now covered: Virginia & Jamestown / Royal Colony Role of tobacco / John RolfeJohn Smith & The Starving TimeMaryland as a Proprietary colonyMaryland Toleration Act 1649Bacon’s Rebellion & SignificanceSlave Codes, Middle Passage, EquianoHouse of Burgesses
39 Colonies CoveredVirginiaMarylandMassachusetts BayPlymouth (in MA)
40 Reading Homework Tonight read & take notes on pages 43-52 Possible reading quiz tomorrow
41 Quiz on Friday A) First 10 Presidents B) First 10 Amendments C) Historical Eras in order with the saying but no freebies Point Value will be 30