Presentation on theme: "The Cold War: Domino Theory and Containment"— Presentation transcript:
1The Cold War: Domino Theory and Containment Korea, VietnamCuba, Central AmericaMiddle East
2Terms to Know: The Arms Race Brinkmanship:US needed to act as though we are willing to go to war.Had to go to the “brink” the verge of war without slipping into it.
3Arms Race in the Sky ICBMs Sputnik Long range rockets loaded with nuclear weaponsSputnikThe rocket that carried the first satellite into space could also carry a nuclear weapon to space.
4Arms Race in the SkyU2 – high altitude planes that flew over territory and took pictures.15 miles in the air.U2 Incident: 1960Russia was able to shoot down a U2
5The Domino Theory: Asia 1949: Communists take over China.Most populated country in the world had gone Communist.Led by Mao Zedong
6Korea After WWII Korea was divided at the 38th Parallel. North – Russian controlledSouth – US Controlled1948 – occupying forces withdrew.
7Korean War Both sides wanted reunification – but under whose rule? 1950 – North Korea army poured across 38th Parallel to force reunification.
8Korean War US thought it was all orchestrated by the Communists. Had to make a stand against the Communist North Koreans.
9Korean War: UN Military Action 16 nations – including the US – came to defend South Korea from North Korea.80% of troops were American.
10Waging the Korean WarGeneral Douglas MacArthur led the offense against North KoreaBacked by Soviet and Chinese weapons and soldiers.
11MacArthur goes too farTo push the North Koreans back behind the 38th Parallel, destroy the Communists in North Korea, or attack China?MacArthur wanted the second front in China.
12MacArthur goes too far President Truman said NO to invading China. MacArthur tried to go behind the Commander in Chief’s back (Truman) and get Congressional support.Truman FIRED MacArthur for insubordination.1951.
13Korean WarTruman spent his presidency keeping the war contained to Korea.President Eisenhower used the threat of a nuclear attack to get the North Koreans to return behind the 38th Parallel.
14Effects of the Korean War 34,000 Americans dead in three years (1950 – 1953)Containment had workedBut North Korea was and still is Communist.
15The 38th Parallel in 2005 Most US troops are stationed there. Will Kim Jong Il force a reunification under a Communist dictatorship with a nuclear threat?Has six bombs and perfecting missile delivery.
16The Domino Theory: Vietnam 1954 - 1975 2000 years Vietnam has resisted being absorbed into China.1800s Vietnam became a colony for France.WWII:Fought for independence from Japan
17Ho Chi Minh Communist Vietnamese. Fought for independence before, during and after WII.Leader of a group called the VIETMINH.Defeated the French in 1954.
181954 Peace Treaty over Vietnam Divided Vietnam.North Vietnam – Communist under Ho Chi MinhSouth Vietnam – Supposed to be capitalist and democratic.SUPPOSED TO BE
19South Vietnam President Diem Called himself “president” Said he was pro-USABrutally put down any opponents.Pro-Catholic in a mostly Buddhist country.Corruption to make his family rich.
20Remember that the CIA used to be able to do political assassination? That’s what happened to President Diem!CIA authorized and said the US would not object to Diem’s overthrow.Gee – Diem ended up dead trying to flee.November 1963
21US Players in Vietnam President Eisenhower President Kennedy Military advisors for South Vietnamese.President KennedySent troops to keep North Vietnam contained.President Johnson“I’m not going to be the president who saw Southeast Asia go the way China went.”
22US Players in VietnamRobert McNamara – Secretary of Defense for Kennedy and JohnsonCreated policies that led to more US involvement.Movement away from nuclear threat to a “flexible response”Finding different ways to fight a war than nuclear threat option.
23Communist Advances in Vietnam Diem’s successors were unpopular and unsuccessful.More worried about power for themselves than fighting and winning a war.
24The Communist Advances in Vietnam VietCongCommunist guerrillas in South VietnamGained more control of territoryMore popular with the people.Aided by Ho Chi Minh
25Expanding Presidential Power to better run the Vietnam War Gulf of Tonkin Incident1964President Johnson said the US Navy had been attacked by the North Vietnamese.Congress gave the president special powers to “cover everything” to fight the North Vietnamese.
26Gulf of Tonkin Incident IT NEVER HAPPENED!Johnson faked it to get more power than the Constitution gave him to fight the war.Escalation3 million soldiers committed for the rest of the war.
27Johnson Commits to Containment American AdvantagesSuperior arms and suppliesVietCong AdvantagesFamiliar with the terrain of jungles and swampsFound protection across the border in Laos and CambodiaLocal population support
28Conditions of Viet Nam Many South Vietnamese did not welcome US help. Keeping an unpopular government in place.US troops couldn’t tell who was the enemy.
29The Ground War in Vietnam VietCong used guerrilla war tactics.The Tunnel System used by the VietCongBooby traps, land mines, grenades, trip wires
30The Air War in VietnamB-52s used SATURATION BOMBING on roads, bridges, civilians.Fragmentation Bombs
31The Air War in Vietnam Agent Orange Herbicide meant to deforest the jungle and show VietCong hiding spots.Killed crops, livestock and health effects for humans
32The Air War in Vietnam Napalm Jellylike substance that splattered and burned uncontrollably.
33Hawks v. Doves Hawks: Those who supported the war Doves: those who opposed the war.
34Turning Points in Vietnam The Tet OffensiveCommunist brutalityMy Lai Massacre
35The Tet Offensive 536,000 US troops in 1968 Tet: The Vietnamese New Year January 30, 1968Surprise attacks on major cities and US troops.Fighting went for several weeks.
36Communist Brutality in the Tet Offensive Communists were brutal – killing anyone labeled an enemy.TeachersDoctorsMinor officials3000 – 5000 killed
37Massacre at My Lai America atrocity in Vietnam Rumors that the VietCong were being hidden in the village of My LaiUS troops killed 400 Vietnamese
38People at Massacre of My Lai Lieutenant William L. Calley Jr.Gave command for the Massacre.Helicopter pilot Hugh Thompson
39Political Divisions in Vietnam: Student Led Protests SDS: Students for a Democratic SocietyFree Speech MovementThe Teach-In MovementDraft Resistence
40Draft Resistance or Draft Dodger Draft for those from 18 – 26.CO: Conscientious ObjectorOther methods to be found “unsuitable” for military serviceDeferment:College
41Election of 1968SURPRISE! Johnson said he would not run for reelection!“I shall not seek, and I will not accept, the nomination of my party for another term.”Lyndon Johnson
42Election of 1968 Republicans – Richard M. Nixon American Independents – George WallaceDemocrats - ?????
43The Democratic Convention Robert KennedyassassinatedEugene McCarthyThought too far leftVice President Hubert HumphreyDefended Johnson’s policiesHumphrey won
45Nixon’s Vietnam Policy Promised a “secret” plan to end the war if elected.Pulled back on bombing of North Vietnam and peace talks in Paris.1972 – only 24,000 troops remained in South Vietnam
46Nixon’s Vietnam Policy War spreads to CambodiaSecret bombing to get bargaining advantage in Paris.Flush the VietCong out of hiding places in CambodiaCreated war in Cambodia
47Nixon’s “Silent Majority” Called for law and order and less protests by students.“My Country Right or Wrong”“Love it or Leave it”
48Kent State and Jackson State Kent State, Ohio 1970Anti-War Protestors vandalized buildings and burned down an ROTC buildingGovernor ordered National Guard out to restore order
49Kent State Someone (National Guard?) fired on the protestors. 4 dead Jackson State, Mississippi left 2 dead and 11 injured.
50Deep Divisions Attacks horrified Americans. But some favored the president.100,000 construction workers marched in NYC in support of President Nixon
511973 Paris Peace Agreement ending US involvement in Vietnam 1. US would withdraw all forces from South Vietnam in 60 daysAll prisoners of war would be releasedN. Vietnam and US would end end activities in Laos and Cambodia17th Parallel would continue to divide Vietnam in two.
52Aftermath of the WarWar continued for two more years after US withdrawal.April 29, 1975 US evacuates last remaining Americans.1,000 Americans6,000 VietnameseApril 30 – Communists take over.
53Communist Domino Effect Vietnam fell to the CommunistsLaos fellCambodia fellAtrocities were committed by the Communists
54Legacy of Vietnam: War Powers Act of 1973 Limits president’s war-making powers.If no declaration of war by Congress it requires the President toNotify Congress within 48 hours of committing troopsEnd combat within 60 days unless Congress authorizedCongress has power to end combat at any time.
55Legacy of Vietnam: 58,000 Americans dead 300,000 wounded 2,500 POWS (Prisoners of War) and MIAs (Missing in Action)No “welcome home” parades or treatment as heroes.
56Legacy of Vietnam: Costs of the War $150 billion dollarsInflation / deficitVietnamese diplomatic exchange in 1995Landscape of Vietnam still troubled by war.LandminesAgent Orange after effects on health
57The Vietnam Veterans Memorial 1982: Created by Maya Lin.