Presentation on theme: "Steve Wright firstname.lastname@example.org T2E – Transport to Employment Reducing lack of transport as a barrier to gaining employment in rural communities Steve."— Presentation transcript:
1Steve Wright email@example.com T2E – Transport to Employment Reducing lack of transport as a barrier to gaining employment in rural communitiesSteve Wright
2T2E - In a nutshell Objectives Improve transport access to employment in East Sutherland, Easter Ross and Southern CaithnessDevelop solution requiring minimum ongoing financial supportEvaluate sustainability of the routes provided and assess the wider benefits of the service to society
3T2E - In a nutshell Startup funding provided by European Social FundScottish ExecutiveWorking For FamiliesHighland CouncilService planning - Taxi Studies Group at Napier UniversityBooking Office services - ‘T2E Ltd’ establishedTransport provided by numerous local taxi firmsEvaluation - TORG at Newcastle University
4Contents Why East Sutherland area ? EMIRES project Operational aspects of the T2E schemeService design + managementBooking office provisionTransport provisionEvaluationLevel of useStakeholder satisfaction (Users / Employers / Taxi operators)Assessment of costs/benefits and sustainabilityConclusions and what’s next
5East Sutherland areaSutherland is the least densely populated county in the UKRegional economy: main industries include tourism, call and contact centres; construction; agriculture.
6East Sutherland areaPOPULATIONApprox 8,000Dornoch 1200Golspie 1400Brora 1100Lairg 900Bonar Bridge / Ardgay 400Tain 3,500Alness 5,000Invergordon 4,000DISTANCESInverness – Dornoch milesTain - Dornoch milesGolspie - Dornoch milesLairg – Dornoch milesBonar Bridge – Dornoch 14 milesGolspie – Lairg milesGolspie - Brora milesBrora – Helmsdale milesGenerally, the main employment opportunities are located in or near the coastal towns of Dornoch, Golspie and Tain, which are popular tourist destinations and main centres of activity.
7Location of unemployed Source: NOMIS official labour market statistics (www.nomisweb.co.uk)
8Joseph Rowntree Foundation study (JRF, 2003 - Wired For Work Joseph Rowntree Foundation study (JRF, Wired For Work? ICT and Job Seeking in Rural Areas)190 face to face interviews and 6 focus groups conducted between 2001 and 2003job seekers hold realistic views about the need to commute51% from the Sutherland area willing to travel more than 40 km to and from work on a daily basis61% of job seekers in Sutherland held a driving licenceprivate transport ownership amongst job seekers very low (21%)So jobseekers willing to travel but don’t have own transport
9Joseph Rowntree Foundation study (JRF, 2003 - Wired For Work Joseph Rowntree Foundation study (JRF, Wired For Work? ICT and Job Seeking in Rural Areas)ICT plays a growing role in job search activitiesremote rural communities are much more likely to use the Internet to look for workJob search sites return vacancies but without own car can’t get to them – frustrating and gives perception they are not useful so job seekers stop using themjobseekers willing to use internet to find vacancies but also want to know if they can access them by PTEMIRES Project
10EU EMIRES projectMatching job search and transport information in a rural area(demonstration site East Sutherland)Jobcentre Plus nationwide vacancy databaseNational Public Transport databaseSutherland PT database (inc. DRT and post-bus services)Log of searches with no PT availability (postcode sector to sector)Mapping gaps in provisionbespoke journey planning softwareEMIRES website front end
11Job locations and labour supply EMIRES highlighted job vacancies remain unfilled in coastal towns of Dornoch, Golspie and TainGenerally low skilled jobs in tourist industry or call centresSupply of active job seekers outside immediate vicinity but within 20 mileshigher land values in the coastal towns prevent the job seeking labour force from moving closerCreates a need for travel BUT gaps in public transport provision restricting access to employmentIt is from this project that the T2E concept developedinitial user needs were identified,initial partnerships established,service design ideas nurtured.
12General people movements required to match job supply and demand
13Existing public transport services in East Sutherland TrainIntercity BusLocal BusScool BusDial-a-RidePost BusTaxisGenerally do not provide appropriate level of service to match job seekers to vacancies
14T2E service characteristics small numbers of travellersoften demanding travel at same time from and to dispersed locationssometimes unsociable hours of worknew bus services inappropriateuse of several small vehicles as and when neededTaxis !sustainableacceptablelegaldevise method of utilising local taxi firms
15Design Requirements (1) Sustainable – minimise costs and maximise revenuesPlan routes which enable and encourage coordination of trip demands onto same vehicleconsider known trip demands in time and spaceconsider potential of route to satisfy future demandsconsider potential of route to attract existing employeesNegotiated tariffs with taxi firmsAchieved 40% reduction on standard tariff rates £1 per mileSame rate regardless of passengers carriedNo retainerModel for achieving sustainability is based on 3 users sharing ride with an average trip length of 10 milesCost10 miles x £1 per mile =£10Revenue35p per mile x 10 miles x 3 passengers = £10.50
16Design Requirements (2) Acceptablejob seekersJob seekers travel free for first 4 monthsAfter this pay equivalent of a bus fare (35p per mile – capped at £3.50)Job Seekers pay T2E monthly in arrears. Billed only for trips made.flexible routes – access to childcare desired en-route to worktaxi firmsTaxi drivers don’t handle bookings or fares – T2E booking office deal with this.Low technology requirementsProvided weekly route itinerary by fax + . Sent monthly billing forms to sign for payment direct from Highland Council.EmployersFlexibility to change work rotas in knowledge staff can still get to work
17Design Requirements (3) LegalMust abide by regulations on shared use of private hire vehiclesSection 11 of the Transport Act 1985 makes provision for the carriage at separate fares in licensed taxis and private hire vehicles of passengers who have booked their journeys in advance.Allows changes to route at short notice
18Design Requirements (4) Numerous local private hire taxi firms (often small and without proper office – mobile)Needed mechanism to co-ordinate routes and allocate demands to most suitable taxiNeeded single number for job seekers to ring to receive information and to make bookingsNeeded standard way of billing and making paymentsNeed for a centralised booking officeCentral service planning / route developmentCo-ordinated booking and scheduling of tripsCo-ordinated billing and paymentsInformation and PromotionInitially Napier UniversityNow ‘T2E Ltd’(private company with charitable status)
19Booking Office Provision (1) The T2E booking officededicated phone-line – the T2E Hotline – charged at local ratesstaffed by from 9:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., 5 days per weekcalls made outside these hours are diverted to an answering service, which is also operational when the T2E Hotline number is engaged.separate emergency number available between 0600 and 2200 hours, 7 days per week.T2E web-site offers on-line booking for registered users (http://www.t2e.org.uk).
20Booking Office Provision (2) Individual clients can be introduced to the scheme in a number of ways:Direct Contact - including contact initiated through published media, the T2E website, the Highland Council website and service points.Referred Contact - potential users placed in contact with the scheme by the Jobcentre Plus, Working for Families or by employers providing information at the point of interview or first contact between employer and potential employeePersonal Contact - whereby potential users are introduced to the scheme by existing user recommendations
24Contents Evaluation Level of use Stakeholder satisfaction Why East Sutherland area ?EMIRES projectOperational aspects of the T2E schemeService design + managementBooking office provisionTransport provisionEvaluationLevel of useStakeholder satisfaction(Users / Employers / Taxi operators)Assessment of costs/benefits and sustainabilityConclusions and what’s next
25Evaluation summaryThe methodology employed in the evaluation consisted ofa detailed analysis of the booking and invoicing data collected for the 10 month period from June 2006 – March 2007combination of surveys to gauge the levels of effectiveness, acceptability and reliability of the service. Consisting of;structured questionnaires with usersstructured questionnaires with providers (of employment and transport) andsemi-structured interviews with key stakeholders
26Evaluation results- use of service Generally the T2E services meet with the principle funding criteria which wereto overcome the barriers met by young people who do not have opportunities for learning and employment,childcare initiatives to support access to work, andto improve opportunities for womenNo of users now exceeds 100.A constant churn of users dropping out of the service and being replaced by new users is evident.
30User SurveysSurveys conducted with over a third of the total number of users revealed:70 % claimed that public transport was available to their place of work but at unsuitable times while 30 % claimed that there was no public transport at all to their place of work¾ of respondents have had to turn down job opportunities in the past due to a lack of transportT2E has enabled over 95% of respondents to gain employment which, otherwise, they would have been unable to access.45 % were employed before T2E, 33 % were unemployed and 22 % were in full-time educationMore than half of the T2E users who had been unemployed prior to using T2E were long-term unemployed (>24months)All respondents reported that they were happy with the destinations offered by T2E and that their T2E journey operated at a suitable time for themOnly 1 user commented that the service was too expensiveAll respondents said they would recommend the service to others and, in fact, almost half of the respondents have already recommended T2E to someone who now uses the service
31Former UsersOver 60% of former users felt the service was very reliable and had no problems. The remainder thought the service was somewhat reliable or had no strong opinion.The following reasons were given for stopping use of the service:3 moved job2 moved house2 bought a car1 changed personal circumstances1 family illness prevented user going to work2 work was seasonal1 decided to live on premises1 user commented that service was too expensive, but also stated this was not their main reason for stopping use
32Taxi operator surveysThe Taxi operators who responded both agreed or strongly agreed that the T2E service provided a steady income and greater stability.Both had provided more working hours to members of staff and one had employed more drivers as a direct result of increased work provided by T2E.taxi firms reported that T2E provided double the income they would otherwise have received for the times they were involved in T2E journeys – a 20% increase in income but at the sacrifice of 10% of revenue from other sources (although some of this is picked up at other times of day)the T2E service has been a welcome addition to the taxi trade – especially during winter months
33Employers surveyshalf the respondents stated it was easier to fill vacancies as a direct result of T2E.66% believed that the flexibility of the service had eased the burden of sorting out work rostersOver 85% of respondents thought that the T2E service operated at times which fit with shift patterns and working hoursOver 70% thought that as a result of T2E there was a greater likelihood of them appointing someone from the local areaEmployers, generally, agreed that their businesses have benefited from T2E on many levels, specifically: improved staff attendance; easier management of staff rotas; greater likelihood of appointing staff from the local area. However, the majority of employers are reluctant to contribute to the costs of the service, even though the introduction of it has resulted in a reduction in their own expenses.
34Stakeholders interviews The involvement of the stakeholder organisations and the roles of the individuals interviewed within these organisations included providing financial backing, steering group membership, involvement in designing service delivery, contact point and referral agent for job seekers, liaising with employers, negotiating with taxi operators and promotion of project.All respondents felt, with conviction, the service has been effective at improving access to employment?flexibility of the service was highlighted as a major advantage in regard to accessing childcareAll stakeholders aware of the costs to users thought they were acceptable and every stakeholder was of the opinion that T2E provides a service that job seekers could not receive anywhere else.
35Survey summaryIn general, the service is viewed very positively by its users and employers / stakeholdersThe cost/revenue evaluation suggests that overall, on the established routes, just over 20% of costs are being recovered, requiring 80% support.It is important to realise that the value of a route can not be determined solely by its level of subsidy.
36SROI Analysis need for an alternative form of cost / benefit analysis accounts for the social and economic benefits to individual usersnot simply assessing the sustainability of the service based on the balance sheet of supplier costs and revenues generated.apply assessment technique known as Social Return on Investment (SROI) analysisgain some measure of these social benefits and economic benefits to individuals
37SROI analysisSROI captures the economic value of social benefits by translating social objectives into financial measures of benefit.Measured benefits arising from T2E include those to individual clients and to the State.A monetary value is established in relation to the social benefits of increased employment to the client (based upon net increased income, i.e. client’s wages minus lost welfare benefits and increased taxes).The monetary value to the State is assessed in terms of the reduction in welfare payments offset against increased tax contribution.Comparing this value of benefits to the investment made produces an SROI ratio.
39Drop-off and Add-onClients who have stopped using the T2E service (drop-off rate 75%) have not necessarily stopped working;some have bought a car to travel to work,others have moved home in order to be closer to their place of work.T2E has helped them get started in employment until they felt established and financially stable enough to make the commitment to either purchase a car or move closer to work.For these instances, the benefits of T2E in terms of increased income, tax revenue and reduced benefits payments continue without the cost of supplying transport.Requires introduction of an ‘add-on’ factor which allows the analysis to more closely reflect the lasting benefits of the service to society.user survey responses indicate that approximately one third of the users who stop using the T2E service (75% of all users) continue in the same employmentwhich results in an add-on rate of 25%.
41SROI Resultsvalues of total annual benefit adjusted –using discount rate of 3.5%- to produce the Net Present Value (NPV) of benefits‘value added’ measures the value that the project has created through its activities (the difference between the NPV of benefits and the NPV of investment)‘SROI ratio’ measures the value of the benefits relative to the costs of achieving those benefits (the ratio between the NPV of benefits to the NPV of investment)SROI ratio of 3.2 means that for every £1 of investment, £3.20 worth of social benefits is generated.Any value of SROI ratio above 1 is generally attractive from an investment viewpoint.
43Contents Why East Sutherland area ? EMIRES project Operational aspects of the T2E schemeService design + managementBooking office provisionTransport provisionEvaluationLevel of useStakeholder satisfaction (Users / Employers / Taxi operators)Assessment of costs/benefits and sustainabilityConclusions and what’s next
44Stakeholder viewsAll stakeholders thought the T2E service offered good or very good value for money to the usersthose that committed a financial or human resource towards the operation of the service felt they received very good value return for their input.Stakeholders thought that T2E improved community cohesion as it “put money into local pockets” but it was commented that the whole community does not benefit from the service as its use is restricted to particular groups.Stakeholders were very keen that the added value social benefits of the service was considered in value for money assessments.Additionally stakeholders also commented on the harder to quantify benefits to individuals of improved quality of life gained from increased opportunities, self esteem gained from securing employment, increased spending power and related freedoms and felt these were also attributable to the T2E service.
45Stakeholder viewsthe service should continue to receive subsidy from government/local authority funds as it is providing a necessary service to the public in the absence of any alternative public transportall stakeholders envisaged continuing their involvement with T2E in the future subject to their organisations receiving continued funding themselveschanges stakeholders would like to seea relaxation of eligibility criteria to open the service up to more groups of the populationto use the same model to provide access to health care/social sectors.employers to become more involved and to take some responsibility for changes to shifts and to contribute towards costs of the service
46Transferabilityfew barriers to transferability were foreseen as the model for delivery is not location specific as it uses a central booking office and subcontractors to deliver the servicestakeholders felt that T2E could operate effectively in most other areas of the Highlands and specifically Fort William, Wester Ross, Lochaber and the Islands.however, introduction of the service in certain areas, especially the west coast, should proceed with caution due to the long distances involved in travel and a lack of transport providers in some of the more remote areasother rural areas and semi-rural areas of the UK were also seen as potentially suitable for delivery of the servicethe willingness of key partner engagement was seen as essential and the involvement of an individual ‘champion’ is viewed as very important to the success of schemes like T2E.
47Current plans T2E Northern Ireland running since July2007 On-going operation of T2E in East Sutherland/Easter Ross/Southern Caithnessinvestigate revisions to routes provided to increase occupancy ratesApplication to Big Lottery for funding beyond 2008T2E Northern Ireland running since July2007
48Next StepsBased on the evaluation of the T2E service in East Sutherland/Easter Ross/Southern Caithness a rule base has been developed for establishing the application of T2E services elsewhereIdentify the need for the serviceAn identifiable number of job vacancies which are difficult to fillIdentify types of job and job seekerA sizable number of job seekers >3 miles but less than 20 miles from these job vacanciesIdeally, sufficient job vacancies will be clustered in an area or along a corridor which define the destination and route. The establishment of core routes between areas of high unemployment and areas with large numbers of unfilled jobs or large numbers of employers is important if multiple occupancy T2E routes are to be generatedA lack of alternative transport provision in the area – especially public transport operating between the locations with job seekers and the locations of job vacanciesEstablish the supply for the service (must be sufficient taxi firms based locally)Maximise benefits - It is important to provide journeys to work (via childcare when necessary) for new job seekers rather than for those already in workProvides other advice onSetting of FaresEstablishing multiple occupancy routesMaximum length of routeConsultation with EmployersPartnership workingDevelop this advice and create a tool which automates as much of the process as possibleGIS based tool which presents spatial data ondemographics,employment, job densities + job vacancies,public transportInvestigate capabilities of accessibility modelling tools for this purpose
49Acknowledgement http://www.t2e.org.uk It was unanimous amongst stakeholders that the drive and enthusiasm of James Cooper has been paramount in the success of the service in Sutherland and Easter Ross.The added value of the service to individuals is encapsulated by the following stakeholder quote…..“It cannot be stressed enough that this service changes people lives, lifts them out of poverty by enabling them to go to work. It is especially important to consider the [accessibility] factors of living in a rural area with bad transport infrastructure. T2E enables people to remain in the area they choose to live in by breaking down this barrier to work.”