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New generations of Marlin drifters. Results of development and testing Motyzhev S.*, Horton E.**, Lunev E.*, Kirichenko A.*, Tolstosheev A.*, * Marine.

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Presentation on theme: "New generations of Marlin drifters. Results of development and testing Motyzhev S.*, Horton E.**, Lunev E.*, Kirichenko A.*, Tolstosheev A.*, * Marine."— Presentation transcript:

1 New generations of Marlin drifters. Results of development and testing Motyzhev S.*, Horton E.**, Lunev E.*, Kirichenko A.*, Tolstosheev A.*, * Marine Hydrophysical Institute NASU/Marlin-Yug Ltd, Kapitanskaya,2, Sebastopol, Ukraine, ** Naval Oceanographic Office, 1002 Balch Boulevard, Stennis Space Center, MS ,USA

2 Components of WOCE drifter technology to be taken into account when developing of the smart buoy idea User needs Manufacturer abilities Data transfer Deployments of buoys

3 User needs Space-time resolution Controlled parameters HardwareSoftware Data format DBCP-M2 DBCP-M2+ Other Buoy's modes in operation Samples Analysis Transfer Switch-on Landing Pick-up Area Season Buoy DAR  40 Aut.depl. Electronics Sensors Data logging & analyzing PTT GPS Standard AP SST Wind AdditionalTz T.profile Waves Bio- optical GTS Other e.g. ADS Drifter Data distribution Synoptical 10-th day Mesoscale 3-d hour High  60min Manufacturer Matrix of user needs and manufacturer abilities (No downlink capability) Setting of time

4 Unified electronics of last generation of the Marlin WOCE drifters PTT MT105A Certified by CNES France Main Features Operation range: -30…+60  C Storage range: -40…+70  C Any channels S1…S14 Voltage range: +7 …+15 VDC Transmitting power: 1.25±0.1 W (50 Ohm) Power supply: transmit mode < 6 VADC; sleep mode < 100  A Interface: RS-232 Dimension: 100  80  20 mm Weight: < 100 g

5 Data processing board MM400 Main Features Operation range: -10…+60  C Storage range: -20…+60  C Voltage range: +6 to +15 VDC Power supply: measuring mode < 2 mА; sleep mode < 100  A Air pressure: range - 10 to 1100 hPa resolution - 0,05 hPa accuracy -  0,5 hPa 1-Wire ® technology (300 sensors) Interface: RS-232 Dimension : 80  50  20 mm Weight: < 100 g Unified electronics of last generation of the Marlin WOCE drifters

6 Two-processors Marlin electronics wide variety of applications: WOCE style drifters Automatic weather stations Etc. Data processing board MM400 Argos PTT MT105A (Certified by CNES France)

7 SVP-B drifter (Storm Buoy)-First generation, 2003 ParameterSVP-B (Storm buoy) AP resolution (hPa) AP dynamic range (hPa) to to APT dynamic range (hPa) to to Interval between samples (min) 6015 AP measurement Standard algorithm 40 AP samples (40 s). Median of the lowest 3 points. Median within 1 hPa “Storm” algorithm 10 standard measurements within 15 minutes with 90 sec interval. Average of 10 medians Rank for data transfer 14 (0, 1, 2, 3) Goal: Investigation of the tropical waves transformation in AP depression and so on.

8 SVP-B drifter (Storm Buoy)-First generation, 2003 Registration of the hurricane Fabian in August-September 2003 Advantages Good resolution of AP variability No AP spikes Disadvantages Large enough time interval between samples

9 ParameterSVP-B SVP-BT (Storm buoy) AP resolution (hPa) 0.1 AP dynamic range (hPa) to APT dynamic range (hPa) to Interval between samples (min) 6030 AP measurement Standard algorithm 40 AP samples (40 s). Median of the lowest 3 points. Median within 1 hPa “Storm” algorithm 10 standard measurements within 15 minutes with 90 sec interval. Average of 10 medians Rank for data transfer 15 (0, 1, 2, 3, 4) SVP-BT drifter (Storm Buoy)-Second generation, 2004 Tz sensor at the end of tether (12.5 m) Goal: Investigation of the heat processes in the active layer

10 SVP-BT drifter (Storm Buoy)-Second generation, 2004 Registration of the hurricane Frances in August-September 2004 Advantages Better resolution of AP variability Disadvantages Large enough time interval between samples Fast loss of drogue and Tz sensor

11 SVP-BT drifter (Storm Buoy)-Second generation, 2004 Registration of the hurricanes Katrina and Rita (August-September 2005) Advantage High reliability of the AP channel in storm conditions

12 SVP-BT drifter (Storm Buoy)-Second generation, 2004 Advantage Better resolution when multisatellite service Hurricane Rita

13 SVP-BTC drifter Temperature chain up to depth of 60 m Main Features One-wire communication of chain with buoy Temperature sensors Range: 0…40  С Type: DS18B20 (Dallas Semiconductor) Accuracy: +/-0,2  С Resolution: 0,04  С Number of sensors: 10 Depth: 12,5; 17,0; 22,0; 27,0; 32,0; 37.0; 42,0; 47,0; 52,0; 57,0 m Duration of measurement (10 sensors): 20 s Time constant: 100 s (in stirred water) Depth sensor Range: 0…100 m Type: D0,6 (Orlex) Accuracy: +/- 1m Resolution: 0,1 m Duration of measurement: 3 s

14 SVP-BTC drifter. First generation, 2004 Experiment in the Black Sea Cooling of upper layer for August-December 2004

15 Model, fixing the locations of temperature sensors depending on depth sensor data Intercalibration of the drifter and Argo profiling float in the Black Sea SVP-BTC drifter. Second generation, 2005  50 km The testing of a chain's temperature sensors in Meteo-France thermostabilized chamber has shown that accuracy is +/-0.2°C MGI and NAVOCEANO Experiment in the Black Sea Testing of temperature chain in laboratory and in situ

16 SVP-BTC drifter. Second generation, 2005 MGI and NAVOCEANO Experiment in the Black Sea Heating in upper layer for April-August 2005 Failure of the Meteo-France drifter. Some technological problem.

17 SVP-BTC drifter. Second generation, 2005 MGI and NAVOCEANO Experiment in the Black Sea Fragment of Tzi variability with 60-min resolution for two days (16-18 May 2005)

18 SVP-BTC drifter. Second generation, 2005 Testing of tether and chain automatic deployments after drop into water Data of depth sensor

19 SVP-BLT drifter, January-August 2005 MGI and NAVOCEANO Experiment in the Black Sea SVP-BT drifter with smaller hull as a carrier for new generation of drifters

20 SVP-BLT drifter, January-August 2005 MGI and NAVOCEANO Experiment in the Black Sea

21 Advantage Small size and less cost Disadvantage Possible AP spikes when wind took place SVP-BLT drifter, January-August 2005 MGI and NAVOCEANO Experiment in the Black Sea

22 No any AP spikes for storm buoy with 40-cm hull SVP-B Storm Buoy, deployed in July 2003

23 User needs Space-time resolution Controlled parameters HardwareSoftware Data format DBCP-M2 DBCP-M2+ Other Buoy's modes in operation Samples Analysis Transfer Switch-on Landing Pick-up Buoy DAR  40 without chain Aut.depl. Electronics Sensors Data logging & analyzing PTT GPS Standard AP SST Wind AdditionalTz T.profile Waves Bio- optical GTS Other e.g. ADS Drifter Data distribution Manufacturer New generation of drifters Synoptical 10-th day High  60min Mesoscale 3-d hour Area Season Setting of time Completed Status In processing

24 Conclusions 1.Deployment of the 1250 th drifter has marked that technological phase of the drifter technology development is behind. 2.Further investigations could be directed to have more parameters under reliable control as well as longer lifetime when constant hardware budget. 3.One of the possible ways might be a creating of drifter networks, when each drifter could choose resolution of sensors, frequency of samples, number of sensors in operation, variants of data transfer, etc. according variability of the parameters under control. 4.The further efforts of network operators, data users and drifter creators could be directed to develop some requests for those drifters to be realized by manufacturers with smallest financial and material spending.

25 Thanks


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