Presentation on theme: "BRUCELLOSIS-2 Lecture on Epidemiology – L. Makrai"— Presentation transcript:
1BRUCELLOSIS-2 Lecture on Epidemiology – 07-03-2012 L. Makrai SZIU-FVS, Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
2OVINE EPIDIDYMITIS AND ORCHITIS CAUSED BY Brucella ovis Occurs in most sheep-raising regions of the world (Australia, New Zealand, North and South America, South Africa, many countries in Europe)Infertility, epididymitis, orchitis in ramsSporadic abortion in ewes (placentitis)Increased perinatal mortalityB. ovis, only sheep is susceptible
3EpidemiologyIntroduction into a herd: with matured, infected, asymptomatic ramsB. ovis is shed with urine and semenLifelong infectionEwe: infected with semen (venereal transmission) several month – get shot of brucellaascending infection: epididymis, testicle, accessory genital glands: inflammation, necrosis, oedema, fibrosis, spermatokele
4B. ovis (epididymitis and orchitis) HAJTÓS DR.B. ovis (epididymitis and orchitis)
5Clinical and Pathological findings incubation period: 5-9 weeksskin of scrotum is flushedpainfull and enlarged epididymis and testiclesabnormal gaitunilateral or bilateral testicular atrophy with swelling and hardening of the epididymisdecreasing quality of semen and sexual activity, reduced fertility in ramsChronic lesions: abscesses and necrotic foci in the testicles, uneven surface, calcificationsporadic abortion in ewesincreased perinatal mortality
6Diagnosis Epidemiological situation, clinical signs Palpation of testiclesmicroscopic and bacteriological examination of semenserology: - AGID- CFT- ELISAPCR (urine, semen, preputial washes)Differential diagnosis: - Histophilus somni- Actinobacillus seminis- B. melitensisTreatment: Pointless!
7Prevention, Eradication Castration of infected rams!young, immature rams: separated rearingELISA test 4-6 weeks intervals: removing seropositive rams
9SWINE BRUCELLOSIS Occurence Worldwide in swine-raising regions It has been eradicated from domesticated pigs in the US, Canada, European countries and Australia, but it persits in wild and feral swine population.Biotype 1-3: worldwide2: wild boars in Europe4: arctic regions of North America, and Russia5: in the former USSR (murine brucellosis)
10Pathogenesis: like cattle, Etiology:B. suis btEpidemiology:Introduction into a herd:- with infected, asymptomatic breeding animals- vehicles, instruments- dog, wild boarPathogenesis: like cattle,Infection is aquired by ingestion or by coitusbut: orchitis, vertebral osteomyelitis can be seen more frequently
11Clinical signs: bacteraemia: gen. asymptomatic sows: abortion (any gestation period),stillbirth, neonatal mortality increase,non-viable or poorly developed piglets,vaginal discharge for several daystemporary sterilityboars: excreting brucellae in semen (with or without clin. signs)Testicular abnormalities: orchitis, sterilityLameness, incoordination, posterior paralysis: vertebral abscess, fractures
12Pathology:Fetus: odema of fetus and fetal membranes, small haemorrhages, maceration, mumifictionSows: necrotic foci in uterine wallBoars: enlarged testicle, inflammatory necrotic fociLesions in bones and joints: vertebral body - deformities
18Eradication: Stock exchange! Diagnosis:Isolation of B. suisserology: Slide agglutination, tube agglutination, CFT, ELISA: susceptibility and specificity also low:only for livestock diagnosis!!!Treatment: NO!Eradication: Stock exchange!
19Maintain the disease-free status: Control of the import of susceptible animalsExamination of abortion cases in diagnostic institutesSerological survey of breeding boars in each 6 monthSerological examination of 10% of sows in each yearKeeping wild boars away from swineherds
21CANINE BRUCELLOSIS Occurence Susceptibility Worldwide (America, Asia, Africa)Europe: sporadic, everywhereFree: New Zealand, AustraliaSusceptibilityB. canisB. melitensisB. abortusB. suis
22Epidemiology Host spectrum Infection Shedding bacteria: narrow, dogs and the members of wild Canidaezoonosis (more, than 40 cases in the literature)Infectionoronasal contact, through mucous membranes(oral cavity, vagina, conjunctiva)infective dosis:p.o.: 106 CFUconjunctiva: CFUShedding bacteria:bitches: vaginal discharge (during oestrus, and mating),fetus, fetal fluid (1010 CFU/ml)6 weeks after abortionmales: settle down in the postate and epididymissemen, urine: CFU/mlfor 2 years
23Clinical signs No characteristic clinical signs, asymptomatic Enlargement of lymph nodesPregnant bitches:abortion (between days),reproduction failures (decreased fertility)Reduced litter sizeNeonatal mortalityMost bitches that have aborted subsequently have normal gestations.Males: infertility, epididymitis, orchitis, prostatitisScrotal dermatitis (saliva!)Dogs with chronic infections are often aspermic.rare: discospondylitis (lameness, paresis, paralysis), uveitis
24B. canisLeland E. Carmichael és Craig E. Greene, 1998
25Diagnosis Examination of semen Isolation of B. canis p.i. 5. weeks, inflammatory cells, morphological alteration of spermIsolation of B. canisfrom blood: pi 2-4 weeks – for years (5.5 years)Serological examinationSlide aggl., Tube Aggl., AGID, IF, ELISAEarliest positive result: pi weeks
26Fate of infected animal Removal of infected animals from the kennel and from breeding prgrammes.Castration (neutering) of infected dog and treatment with antibiotics reduces the risk of transmission.
27Treatment For 4 weeks or Extermination of infected animals! Combination oftetracyclines (minocycline) andaminoglycosides (streptomicin)For 4 weeksorExtermination of infected animals!
28Prevention serological examination: Breeding dogs: in each 6 monthIntroduction of a new dog into the kennel: two times in 1 month intervalsBreeding animals 3-4 weeks before mating.If a dog leave the kennel: before readmission.Do not get dogs from a kennel, where reproductive problems occursNo vaccines available!
30Brucellosis of other species Horse (B. abortus) – arthritis, bursitis and tendovaginitis, fistolous withers, poll-evilWild ruminants (B. abortus)Wild boars (B. suis) – source of B. s. infection in domestic pigs reared outdoorsWild hare (B. suis bt. 2.)
38HUMAN BRUCELLOSISOne of the most fequently seen bacterial zoonosis in the Earth new patient/year!Human is susceptible: MID50B. melitensis (101)B. abortus (103)B. suis (105)B. canis (106)B. cetiB. pinnipedialis +Infection:- ingestion (po): raw -unpasteurized- milk!and dairy products made from this,- skin abrasions: during abortion, amniotic fluid, urine- inhalation (lab infections)
40Clinical signs and pathological findings - incubation period: 5-14 days (3 months)- undulant fever (fluctuating pyrexia), malaise,inappetence, fatigue, muscle and joint pains- drenching sweats (at night)- bone and joints alterations(sacroiliitis, spondylitis, arthritis, osteomyelitis)- swelling of liver and spleen (33%)- lymph node alterations (10%)- alteration in urinary and genital tract (glomerulonephritis,kidney abscess, orchitis, epididymitis) (10%)- CNS signs (7%)- endocarditis(B. canis: can be asymptomatic, just seroconversion)
41Treatment of human brucellosis: Should be administered early in an infection!rifampicingentamycintrimethoprim-sulfamethoxazoledoxycycline, minocyclineciprofloxacinstreptomycinLong-term treatment may be required!
42Diagnosis Anamnesis! Haemoculture serology (B. canis Ag!!!), no crossreaction with B. abortus Ag!!!Slide agglutinationTube agglutinationELISAFals diagnosis:Lack of appropriate serological kit (S-R)Occurence of the disease is underestimatedTime after the first clinical signsSlide agglutination titer2 months323 months168 months2
43PreventionVeterinarians: examination of abortion cases - use of gloves and other protective clothingEducation of owners about the danger of rearing of brucella infected animalsConsumption of Raw milk should be avoided!Laboratory: safety rules must comply!The rules of common sense must be observed if we live together with animals!