Presentation on theme: "HUMAN IMPACT ON ECOLOGY"— Presentation transcript:
1 HUMAN IMPACT ON ECOLOGY PRESENTED BY:Simranjeet Singh( )Rohit Chandra( )Manvir Singh( )Parmeet Singh( )Rajan Mittal ( )LMTSOM
2 WHAT IS ECOLOGY Study of the “house/environment” in which we live. Ecology is study of interactions between non-living and living components in the environment.lightwaterwindnutrients in soilheatsolar radiationatmosphere, etc.Living organisms…PlantsAnimalsmicroorganisms in soil, etc.
3 Nonlivingdead organic matternutrients in the soil and water.Producersgreen plantsConsumersherbivores and carnivoresDecomposersfungi and bacteria
4 ECOLOGY: Levels of Organization - a hierarchy of organizationin the environment
5 BiosphereSurface of the earthComposed of many ecosystemsEcosystemLarge or small as we decidePopulation – one species live in one place at one timeCommunity – All populations (diff. species) that live in a particular area.Habitat – physical location of communityOrganism – simplest level of organizationEcology is an integrated and dynamic study of the environment.
6 HUMAN IMPACT ON ECOLOGY DIRECTLand use changes (Deforestation & Degradation)Construction and ExcavationAgricultural PracticesNuclear programINDIRECTOzone DepletionAcid RainGreen House EffectPollution
7 AGRICULTURE PRACTICES LAND USE CHANGESDegradation can be deforestation, desertification, soil erosion, mineral depletion, or chemical degradation (acidification and salinization)AGRICULTURE PRACTICESInorganic FertlizersPesticides & insecticidesIncreased to 2.5 million tons annuallyWorld Health Organization estimated in 1992 that 3 million pesticide poisonings occur annually, causing 220,000 deaths.Decomposition of organic matter in the soil
8 Much of the methane emitted into the atmosphere is caused by the decomposition of organic matter in wet soils such as rice paddies.Wet or anaerobic soils also lose nitrogen through denitrification, releasing the greenhouse gas nitric oxide.[CONSTRUCTION AND EXCAVATIONHuman Activity Construction DamsIncreased urbanizationMultipurpose projectsRiver line and Coastal ErosionWater Temperature
9 NUCLEAR PROGRAMNuclear weapons emit large amounts of thermal radiation as visible, infrared, and ultraviolet lightAnthropogenic changes .Chief hazards are burns and eye injuriesBurns visible on a people in Hiroshima during the blast.
10 OZONE DEPLETIONOzone is the shield in the upper atmosphere that protects us from ultraviolet radiationChlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are a class of chemicals involved in ozone destructionDepletion, harms living organismsExposure to UV is linked to disorders in humans, including cataracts, skin cancer, and weakened immune systems.Effects on crops
12 CFCCoolant in refrigerators and air conditionersThe propellant in aerosol dispensersThe foaming agent in the production of plastic foam cups and containers
13 ACID RAINAcid rain" is a popular term referring to the deposition of wet (rain, snow, sleet, fog and cloudwater, dew) and dry (acidifying particles and gases) acidic components.A more accurate term is “acid deposition”.Principal cause of acid rain is sulphur and nitrogen compounds from human sources, such as electricity generation, factories, and motor vehiclesCoal power plants are one of the most polluting
14 Factories had short funnels to let out smoke, but this caused many problems locally
15 ACID RAIN EFFECTAn extremely destructive form of pollution, and the environment suffers from its effects.Forests, trees, lakes, animals, and plants suffer from acid rain.The needles and leaves of the trees turn brown and fall off.Lakes are also damaged by acid rain.Buildings, Acid rain dissolves the stonework and mortar of buildingsHumans can become seriously ill, and can even die from the effects of acid rain
16 GREEN HOUSE EFFECTGreenhouse effect is a naturally occurring process that aids in heating the Earth's surface and atmosphere.atmospheric gases, such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, and methane, are able to change the energy balance of the planet by absorbing long wave radiation emitted from the Earth's surface.Without the greenhouse effect life on this planet would probably not exist as the average temperature of the Earth would be a chilly -18°
18 Main sources of greenhouse gases burning of fossil fuels and deforestationuse of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)agricultural activities, including the use of fertilizers etc.GLOBAL WARMING is the increase in the average temperature of the Earth's near- surface air and oceans since the mid-20th century and its projected continuation. Global surface temperature increased 0.74°C between the start and the end of the 20th century.
19 CONSEQUENCESSea level rise Flooding coastal areas.Reduced yield of crops.Displacement of populations.Climate change Displacement of ecosystems.Change in range of insect vectors of pathogens.Declining Biological Diversity continuedExtinction of Plant and Animal species.
20 POLLUTIONPollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physical systems or living organisms.Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat, or light.Pollutants, the elements of pollution, can be foreign substances or energies, or naturally occurring; when naturally occurring, they are considered contaminants when they exceed natural levels.
22 GOVT. ROLES ON ECO-FRIENDLY ENVIRONMENT Govt. of India is committed to ensure all ecofriendly environment to all Indian citizen.Government and legislatures are using their influence to reduce environmental and health hazards due to industrialization and to stimulate the development of clean technologiesadopt clean and eco-friendly technologies and environmental-safe disposal of used products, along with preventive and mitigate approaches.
23 EARTH SUMMITThe United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as the Rio Summit, Rio Conference, Earth Summit Issues addressed included:systematic scrutiny of patterns of production — particularly the production of toxic components, such as lead in gasoline, or poisonous waste including radioactive chemicalsalternative sources of energy to replace the use of fossil fuels which are linked to global climate change
24 new reliance on public transportation systems in order to reduce vehicle emissions, congestion in cities and the health problems caused by polluted air and smogThe growing scarcity of water.
25 MONTREAL PROTOCOLMontreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone LayerAn international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of a number of substances.Believed to be responsible for ozone depletion. The treaty was opened for signature on September 16, 1987, and entered into force on January 1, 1989
26 Terms and purposes of this treaty Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Phase-out Management PlanHydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) Phase-out Management Plan (HPMP)
27 ENERGY AUDIT Preliminary audit An energy audit is an inspection, survey and analysis of energy flows for energy conservation in a building, process or system to reduce the amount of energy input into the system without negatively affecting the output(s).Preliminary auditThe preliminary audit (alternatively called a simple audit, screening audit or walk-through audit) is the simplest and quickest type of audit.A brief review of facility utility bills and other operating dataA walk-through of the facility to become familiar with the building operation and to identify any glaring areas of energy waste or inefficiencyLevel of detail, while not sufficient for reaching a final decision on implementing a proposed measures.
28 DETAIL ENERGY AUDITCollecting more detailed information about facility operation and by performing a more detailed evaluation of energy conservation measures Better understanding of major energy consuming systems and to gain insight into short and longer term energy consumption patterns.Detailed implementation cost estimates, site- specific operating cost savings, and the customer's investment criteria.
29 It includesSufficient detail is provided to justify project implementation.Study of EquipmentStudy of ProcessData collection, data analysis, inter firm comparison, standard settingIdentify of potential area.
30 INDUSTRIAL POLICY RESOLUTION The Industrial Policy Statement of 1991 stated that “the Government will continue to pursue a sound policy framework encompassing encouragement of entrepreneurship”.Development of indigenous technology through investment in research and development.Dismantling of the regulatory system, development of the capital markets and increased competitiveness for the benefit of common man".
31 Objective of the Industrial Policy Statement – 1991 sustained growth in productivity, enhance gainful employment and achieveoptimal utilization of human resources, to attain international competitiveness,and to transform India into a major partner and player in the global arena.
32 VARIOUS ACTS AIR PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF POLLUTION) ACT, 1981 WATER (PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF POLLUTION) ACT, 1974CONSERVATION OF FORES THE INDIAN WILDLIFE (PROTECTION) ACT, 1972SOIL AND GROUNDWATER POLLUTION REMEDIATION ACT
33 Statutory organisation, was constituted in September, 1974 under the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974.CPCB was entrusted with the powers and functions under the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981PRINCIPAL FUNCTIONS OF THE CPCB to promote cleanliness of streams and wells in different areas of the States by preventioncontrol and abatement of water pollutionto improve the quality of air and to prevent, control or abate air pollution in the country.
34 MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT & FORESTS (MOEF) The planning, promotion, co-ordination and overseeing the implementation of India's environmental and forestry policies and programmes.Broad objectives of the Ministry are:conservation of the country's natural resources including its lakes and rivers, its biodiversity, forests and wildlife.Ensuring the welfare of animals, and the prevention and abatement of pollution.Conservation and survey of flora, fauna, forests and wildlife
35 Prevention and control of pollution Afforestation and regeneration of degraded areasProtection of the environment andEnsuring the welfare of animals
36 Subordinate officesBotanical Survey of India (BSI), KolkataDirectorate of Forest Education (DFE), DehradunForest Survey of India (FSI), DehradunIndira Gandhi National Forest Academy (IGNFA), DehradunNational Museum of Natural History (NMNH), New DelhiNational Zoological Park (NZP), New DelhiZoological Survey of India (ZSI), Kolkata
37 Autonomous institutions Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), DelhiCentral Zoo Authority (CZA), New DelhiG.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, AlmoraIndian Council of Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE), Dehradun
38 Soil and Groundwater Pollution Remediation Act This Act is formulated to prevent and remediate soil and groundwater pollution, ensure the sustainable useof soil and groundwater, enhance the living environment, and advance public health.The regulations of other laws shall apply to those matters not regulated by this Act.
39 Earth Hour started in 2007 in Sydney, Australia when 2 Earth Hour started in 2007 in Sydney, Australia when 2.2 million homes and businesses turned their lights off for one hour to make their stand against climate change.Only a year later and Earth Hour had become a global sustainability movementEnvironment Action Programs have been prepared.“ONE PLANT ONE LIFE” as awareness creation