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Exposure, Attention, and Perception Chapter Four.

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Presentation on theme: "Exposure, Attention, and Perception Chapter Four."— Presentation transcript:

1 Exposure, Attention, and Perception Chapter Four

2 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4 | 2 Key Concepts Consumers’ exposure to marketing stimuli Characteristics of attention and sustaining consumers’ attention in products and marketing messages The major senses of perception and how consumers’ sensory perception is affected

3 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4 | 3 Chapter Overview: Exposure, Attention, and Perception (Exhibit 4.2)

4 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4 | 4 Exposure “…reflects the process by which the consumer comes into contact with a stimulus.”

5 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4 | 5 Exposure Marketing stimuli Factors influencing exposure –Position of an ad –Product distribution –Shelf placement Selective exposure –Zipping –Zapping Measuring exposure

6 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4 | 6 Media Exposure- U.S. Advertising Expense (2002 and 2003) Source: Facts About Newspapers, Figures in $Millions

7 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4 | 7 Shelf Placement and Manufacturers “Manufacturers should be ready to meet the store's criteria for placement (marketing campaign, slotting fees), have adequate personnel to cover sales and demos at each store, and be prepared to give an informed, effective presentation as to how their product will increase product category sales.” - State of Colorado Dept. of Agriculture Source: State of Colorado Department of Agriculture,,http://www.ag.state.co.us/mkt/fgtp/chapter3.htmlhttp://www.ag.state.co.us/mkt/fgtp/chapter3.html

8 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4 | 8 Attention “…the process by which we devote mental activity to a stimulus…necessary for information to be processed…activate our senses.”

9 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4 | 9 Characteristics of Attention Selective Capable of being divided Limited

10 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4 | 10 Focal and Nonfocal Attention Preattentive processing Hemispheric lateralization Preattentive processing, brand name liking, and choice

11 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4 | 11 Hemispheric Lateralization Right hemisphere - Processing music - Grasping visual/spatial information - Forming inferences - Drawing conclusions Left hemisphere- Processing units that can be combined: e.g., - Counting - Processing unfamiliar words - Forming sentences

12 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4 | 12 Hemispheric Lateralization

13 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4 | 13 Gender-Based Hemispheric Lateralization The gender difference in marketing messages, “…is manifested in men preferring advertising messages that feature competition and show dominance and in women preferring messages that show importance to self as well as others.”, Source: “Exploring the Origins and Information Processing Differences Between Men and Women: Implications for Advertisers”, Academy of Marketing Science Review, 2001,

14 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4 | 14 Enhancing Consumer Attention by Making Stimulus Personally relevant Pleasant Surprising Easy to process

15 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4 | 15 Pleasant Attractive models Music Humor

16 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4 | 16 Surprising Novelty Unexpectedness Puzzle

17 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4 | 17 Easy to Process Stimuli –Prominent –Concrete –Contrasting Amount of competing information

18 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4 | 18 Concreteness and Abstractness (Exhibit 4.6)

19 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4 | 19 Attention Defines customer segments Habituation

20 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4 | 20 Perception “…occurs when stimuli are registered by one of our five senses: vision, hearing taste, smell, and touch.

21 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4 | 21 Perceiving Through Vision Size and shape Color Color dimensions Color and physiological responses/moods Color and liking

22 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4 | 22 Perceiving Through Hearing Sonic identity Sound symbolism

23 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4 | 23 Perceiving Through Taste Varying perceptions of what “tastes good” Culture backgrounds In-store marketing

24 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4 | 24 In-Store Marketing Tactics

25 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4 | 25 U.S. Brands In-Store Marketing Expenditures (2004) Source: Promo, Apr. 1, 2005, $16.60 $1.00 $0.85 Point-of-Purchase Retail Merchandising In-Store Services In Billions 2004 = $18.5 Billion

26 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4 | 26 Perceiving Through Smell Smell and physiological response/moods Product trial Liking Buying

27 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4 | 27 Perceiving Through Touch Touch and physiological responses/moods Liking

28 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4 | 28 When Do We Perceive Stimuli? Absolute thresholds Differential thresholds –Just noticeable –Weber’s Law Subliminal perception and consumer behavior

29 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4 | 29 How Do Consumers Perceive a Stimulus? Perceptual organization Figure and ground Closure Grouping

30 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4 | 30 Perceptual Thresholds Absolute threshold (limen): –The lowest level of stimulation at which you can detect a difference between “something” and “nothing.” Differential threshold –Just noticeable difference (j.n.d.): stimulation change required to result in detection of a change. This is usually a constant proportion (k) of the baseline intensity of the stimulus. k differs from modality to modality (e.g., the k for weight or kinesthesis is.02)  Intensity k = Base Intensity D Intensity.02 = =.32 16


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