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Exposure, Attention, and Perception

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1 Exposure, Attention, and Perception
Chapter Four Exposure, Attention, and Perception

2 Key Concepts Consumers’ exposure to marketing stimuli
Characteristics of attention and sustaining consumers’ attention in products and marketing messages The major senses of perception and how consumers’ sensory perception is affected

3 Chapter Overview: Exposure, Attention, and Perception (Exhibit 4.2)

4 Exposure “…reflects the process by which the consumer comes into contact with a stimulus.”

5 Exposure Marketing stimuli Factors influencing exposure
Position of an ad Product distribution Shelf placement Selective exposure Zipping Zapping Measuring exposure

6 Media Exposure- U.S. Advertising Expense (2002 and 2003)
Figures in $Millions Source: Facts About Newspapers,

7 Shelf Placement and Manufacturers
“Manufacturers should be ready to meet the store's criteria for placement (marketing campaign, slotting fees), have adequate personnel to cover sales and demos at each store, and be prepared to give an informed, effective presentation as to how their product will increase product category sales.” -State of Colorado Dept. of Agriculture Source: State of Colorado Department of Agriculture, ,http://www.ag.state.co.us/mkt/fgtp/chapter3.html

8 Attention “…the process by which we devote mental activity to a stimulus…necessary for information to be processed…activate our senses.”

9 Characteristics of Attention
Selective Capable of being divided Limited

10 Focal and Nonfocal Attention
Preattentive processing Hemispheric lateralization Preattentive processing, brand name liking, and choice

11 Hemispheric Lateralization
Right hemisphere Processing music Grasping visual/spatial information Forming inferences Drawing conclusions Left hemisphere- Processing units that can be combined: e.g., Counting Processing unfamiliar words Forming sentences

12 Hemispheric Lateralization

13 Gender-Based Hemispheric Lateralization
The gender difference in marketing messages, “…is manifested in men preferring advertising messages that feature competition and show dominance and in women preferring messages that show importance to self as well as others .” Source: “Exploring the Origins and Information Processing Differences Between Men and Women: Implications for Advertisers”, Academy of Marketing Science Review, 2001,

14 Enhancing Consumer Attention by Making Stimulus
Personally relevant Pleasant Surprising Easy to process

15 Pleasant Attractive models Music Humor

16 Surprising Novelty Unexpectedness Puzzle

17 Easy to Process Stimuli Prominent Concrete Contrasting
Amount of competing information

18 Concreteness and Abstractness (Exhibit 4.6)

19 Attention Defines customer segments Habituation

20 Perception “…occurs when stimuli are registered by one of our five senses: vision, hearing taste, smell, and touch.

21 Perceiving Through Vision
Size and shape Color Color dimensions Color and physiological responses/moods Color and liking

22 Perceiving Through Hearing
Sonic identity Sound symbolism

23 Perceiving Through Taste
Varying perceptions of what “tastes good” Culture backgrounds In-store marketing

24 In-Store Marketing Tactics

25 U.S. Brands In-Store Marketing Expenditures (2004)
$ 1 6 . 8 5 P o i n t - f u r c h a s e R l M d g I S v In Billions 2004 = $18.5 Billion Source: Promo, Apr. 1, 2005,

26 Perceiving Through Smell
Smell and physiological response/moods Product trial Liking Buying

27 Perceiving Through Touch
Touch and physiological responses/moods Liking

28 When Do We Perceive Stimuli?
Absolute thresholds Differential thresholds Just noticeable Weber’s Law Subliminal perception and consumer behavior

29 How Do Consumers Perceive a Stimulus?
Perceptual organization Figure and ground Closure Grouping

30 Perceptual Thresholds
Absolute threshold (limen): The lowest level of stimulation at which you can detect a difference between “something” and “nothing.” Differential threshold Just noticeable difference (j.n.d.): stimulation change required to result in detection of a change. This is usually a constant proportion (k) of the baseline intensity of the stimulus. k differs from modality to modality (e.g., the k for weight or kinesthesis is .02) D Intensity k = Base Intensity .02 = = .32 16


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