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A PEOPLE & A NATION EIGHTH EDITION Norton Katzman Blight Chudacoff Paterson Tuttle Escott Bailey Logevall Chapter 1: Three Old Worlds Create a New, 1492.

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Presentation on theme: "A PEOPLE & A NATION EIGHTH EDITION Norton Katzman Blight Chudacoff Paterson Tuttle Escott Bailey Logevall Chapter 1: Three Old Worlds Create a New, 1492."— Presentation transcript:

1 A PEOPLE & A NATION EIGHTH EDITION Norton Katzman Blight Chudacoff Paterson Tuttle Escott Bailey Logevall Chapter 1: Three Old Worlds Create a New, 1492 1600

2 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1 | 2 Ch. 1: Three Old Worlds Create a New, 1492 1600 Compare & contrast separate civilizations in Americas, Africa, and Europe Social organization, gender roles, and political structures How and why 3 worlds begin to interact and affect each other Origins of USA part of larger changes in world historyisolation to interaction

3 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1 | 3 I. American Societies Paleo-Indians (earliest Americans) adapt to environmental changes Nomadic hunters shift to agriculturekey for development of civilization Shift first occur in Mesoamerica After Olmecs, Mayas & Teotihuacan develop complex economy, society, religion, and political units

4 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1 | 4 I. American Societies (cont.) Mesoamericans may have influenced early native societies in N. America Pueblos (AZ & NM); Mississippian culture (midwest & southeast N. America) 1300s: Aztecs establish last large-scale indigenous civilization in Mesoamerica Decline in early civilizations usually caused by food supply failure (drought, overpopulation)

5 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1 | 5 II. North America in 1492 Diverse cultures form in adaptation to different environments Shoshones remain nomadic hunters in Great Basin while Chinooks combine agriculture, fishing, & hunting on upper Pacific coast Men dominate hunting; women control child rearing, food & clothing preparation

6 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1 | 6 II. N. America, 1492 (cont.) Among farming groups, the further gendered division of labor varied Pueblo men dominate farming East coast women active in agriculture Village = standard social organization in agrarian groups In each dwelling, an extended family, matrilineally defined

7 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1 | 7 II. N. America, 1492 (cont.) Except for Iroquois Confederation, villages politically autonomous and war w/ each other Unlike Europe, government less autocratic as civil/military power separated and some have female political activity (Algonquians) Religion generally polytheistic and tied to means of subsistence Not see themselves as one people (10 million w/ 1000 languages); disunity limits response to Europeans

8 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1 | 8 III. African Societies Like Native Americans, formed diverse civilizations, but Africans less isolated trade with Mediterranean and with Asia Trade by sea (East Africa) or by camel caravan (West Africa / Guinea) Politically, villages of Guinea grouped into small kingdoms

9 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1 | 9 III. African Societies (cont.) Like Native Americans, a gendered division of labor, but Africans more egalitarian Share agrarian duties; women act as traders Dual-sex principle in politics and religion Slavery existed in W. Africa before direct European contact, but usually less harsh African slaves usually prisoners of war or debtors

10 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1 | 10 IV. European Societies Like Native Americans & Africans, an agrarian people who live in villages, but European society more hierarchical In economy, politics, & religion, European women have less power than other 2 areas Christianity (dominate religion) affect relations w/non-Christians; also tension w/secular rulers Unlike Americas, Europe less isolated; e.g., germs for Black Death (1300s) start in Asia and arrive via trade

11 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1 | 11 IV. European Societies (cont.) 1400s: kings consolidate power and create stronger political unitspolitical base for overseas exploration Technological basenavigational & nautical advances as well as increased information w/ printing presses (Polos Travels, 1477)

12 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1 | 12 V. Motives for Exploration Economic: direct access to Asian/African luxury goods (esp. spices) would enrich individuals & their nations Religious: spread Christianity and weaken Middle Eastern Muslims Two motives reinforce each other

13 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1 | 13 VI. Early European Explorations Mediterranean Atlantic = key training groundIberians learn to adapt to different winds Islands there = first areas shaped by European expansione.g., Madeira Population & economic change (create sugar plantations worked by many slaves) Native people on Canary Islands enslaved

14 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1 | 14 VI. Early European Explorations (cont.) Besides direct exploitation, islands advance Portuguese trade w/ W. Africa Voyages funded by Prince Henry the Navigator (1400s) result in 1.Trading posts that increase Portuguese wealth & introduce black slavery to Europe 2.First direct sea trade with Asia (da Gama, 1498)

15 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1 | 15 VII. Lessons of Early Colonization, 1490s Europeans learn to 1.Ship crops & livestock to new areas for profit 2.Control native peoples through conquest (Canary Islands) or manipulation (West Africans) 3.Establish plantation agriculture; e.g., Sao Tome = first sugar economy worked by enslaved Africans

16 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1 | 16 VIII. Columbus Schooled in Mediterranean Atlantic, advocates sailing west to reach Asia Financed by Spains king who wants to copy Portuguese overseas success 1492 = first sustained contact b/t Old World & Americas (contrast w/Norse voyages, 1000s)

17 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1 | 17 VIII. Columbus (cont.) Represent early European expansion: 1.driven by desire for immediate profit, especially gold & spices 2.assume other American products could be source of profit 3.assume native peoples (Indians) could be controlled & exploited

18 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1 | 18 IX. Cabot & Northern Voyages Arrive in N. America (1497)build on earlier ventures to Ireland, then Iceland Funded by English king who (like Portuguese & Spanish) wants Asian trade

19 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1 | 19 X. Spanish Exploration and Conquest Spanish = first to pursue colonization Start in Caribbean, then spread to southern N. America as well as Central & South America Conquest of Aztecs by Cortes crucial (1521) Earn massive profit by exploit New World resources When gold/silver mines falter in mid- 1600s, Spain decline as world power

20 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1 | 20 XI. Spanish Model of Colonization Hierarchical governmentcolonies treated as crown possessions w/ no autonomy Mostly males sentlead to mestizos Brutally exploit Indians and later Africans for profit in mines, ranches, & sugar plantations (especially in Caribbean) Many Indians convert to Christianity b/c native societies so disrupted by Spanish

21 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1 | 21 XII. Colombian Exchange Broad transfer of plants, animals, & diseases Introduce cattle and horses to Americaschange diet and lifestyle (e.g., Native Americans in Great Plains) Introduce corn, beans potatoes, etc. to Old World Global population increase w/ new food sources

22 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1 | 22 XII. Colombian Exchange (cont.) Diseases, especially smallpox, devastate American population, estimate 90% decline Explain why Europeans able to dominate and why turn to Africans for labor From America, Europeans receive syphilis Europeans introduce sugar to Americas and American tobacco to Europe

23 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1 | 23 XIII. Europeans in N. America Initially, no colonies; instead profit from fish and fur trade w/ Native Americans Establish a few outposts Ecological and lifestyle changes w/ fur trade

24 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1 | 24 XIII. Europeans in N. America (cont.) Envy of massive Spanish profit result in first English attempt at a colony Roanoke Island (1580s) = base for attacks on Spanish shipping and follow Spanish model (exploit natives for profit) Roanoke collapselack stable food supply and antagonize Native Americans

25 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1 | 25 XIII. Europeans in N. America (cont.) Harriots Briefe and True Report (1588) reflect early English views of N. America Focus on quick profit and assume easy conquest of Native Americansreflect English attempts to imitate Spanish model

26 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1 | 26 Summary: Discuss Links to the World & Legacy How does maize reflect Columbian Exchange? How does corn reflect the continuing importance of Native Americans to the world? Controversy over what to do w/ Kennewick Man/Ancient One? Why was European impact devastating for Native American peoples? Besides disease & conquest, Spanish destroy indigenous temples, records, etc.


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