2Definitions of Quality User-Based: What consumer says it isManufacturing-Based: Degree to which a product conforms to design specificationProduct-Based: Level of measurable product characteristicOnce you have introduced these definitions of quality, ask students to provide example of products that use them.
3What Is Project Quality Management? The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) defines quality as the totality of characteristics of an entity that bear on its ability to satisfy stated and implied needsOther experts define quality based onconformance to requirements: meeting written specificationsfitness for use: ensuring a product can be used as it was intended
4Project Quality Management Processes Quality planning: identifying which quality standards are relevant to the project and how to satisfy themQuality assurance: evaluating overall project performance to ensure the project will satisfy the relevant quality standardsQuality control: monitoring specific project results to ensure that they comply with the relevant quality standards while identifying ways to improve overall quality
5Modern Quality Management requires customer satisfactionprefers prevention to inspectionrecognizes management responsibility for qualityNoteworthy quality experts include Deming, Juran, Crosby, Ishikawa, Taguchi, and Feigenbaum
6Quality ExpertsDeming was famous for his work in rebuilding Japan and his 14 pointsJuran wrote the Quality Control Handbook and 10 steps to quality improvementCrosby wrote Quality is Free and suggested that organizations strive for zero defectsIshikawa developed the concept of quality circles and using fishbone diagramsTaguchi developed methods for optimizing the process of engineering experimentationFeigenbaum developed the concept of total quality control
7Deming’s Fourteen Points Create consistency of purposeLead to promote changeBuild quality into the productsBuild long term relationshipsContinuously improve product, quality, and serviceStart trainingEmphasize leadershipOne point to make here is that this list represents a recent expression of Demings 14 points - the list is still evolving.Students may notice that many of these fourteen points seem to be simply common sense. If they raise this issue - ask them to consider jobs they have held. Were these points emphasized or implemented by their employers? If not, why not? This part of the discussion can be used to raise again the issue that proper approaches to quality are not “programs,” with limited involvement and finite duration, but rather philosophies which must become ingrained throughout the organization.
8Deming’s Points - continued Drive out fearBreak down barriers between departmentsStop haranguing workersSupport, help, improveRemove barriers to pride in workInstitute a vigorous program of education and self-improvementPut everybody in the company to work on the transformation
11Cause and Effect Diagram Example Too many defectsProblem
12Cause and Effect Diagram Example MethodManpowerMain CauseToo many defectsMaterialMachineryMain Cause
13Cause and Effect Diagram Example MethodManpowerDrillOvertimeToo many defectsWoodSteelLatheMaterialMachinerySub-Cause
14Cause and Effect Diagram Example MethodManpowerTiredOldSlowDrillOvertimeSteelWoodLatheToo many defectsMaterialMachinery
15Fishbone Chart - Problems with Airline Customer Service This slide illustrates a Cause and Effect Chart for a practical problem.
16Malcolm Baldrige Award and ISO 9000 The Malcolm Baldrige Quality Award was started in to recognize companies with world-class qualityISO 9000 provides minimum requirements for an organization to meet their quality certification standards
17Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award 1.0 Leadership (125 points)2.0 Strategic Planning (85 points)3.0 Customer and Market Focus (85 points)4.0 Information and Analysis (85 points)5.0 Human Resource Focus (85 Points)6.0 Process Management (85 points)7.0 Business/Project Results (450 points)4
18International Standard Organization (ISO) ISO is a series of standards that outline the requirements for quality management systemISO set of guidelines for the selection use of standard, which relate to quality assuranceISO pertain to companies involved including in the design, development, production, installation, and servicing of products or servicesISO similar to ISO 9001 excludes companies involved in design and developmentISO pertains to companies involved in final inspection and test for distribution and value added contractorsISO employed as a guideline for the application of the elements of the Quality Management System.
19Quality PlanningIt is important to design in quality and communicate important factors that directly contribute to meeting the customer’s requirementsDesign of experiments helps identify which variable have the most influence on the overall outcome of a processMany scope aspects of IT projects affect quality like functionality, features, system outputs, performance, reliability, and maintainability
20Quality AssuranceQuality assurance includes all the activities related to satisfying the relevant quality standards for a projectAnother goal of quality assurance is continuous quality improvementBenchmarking can be used to generate ideas for quality improvementsQuality audits help identify lessons learned that can improve performance on current or future projects
21BenchmarkingSelecting best practices to use as a standard for performanceDetermine what to benchmarkForm a benchmark teamIdentify benchmarking partnersCollect and analyze benchmarking informationTake action to match or exceed the benchmarkAsk student to identify firms which they believe could serve as benchmarks. If students are unable to identify any firms - ask them to identify a college or university whose registration system or housing selection system could serve as a benchmark. Most students have enough knowledge of, or friends at,other colleges and universities so as to be able to respond to this question.
22Quality Control The main outputs of quality control are acceptance decisionsreworkprocess adjustmentsSome tools and techniques includepareto analysisstatistical samplingquality control chartstesting
23Pareto AnalysisPareto analysis involves identifying the vital few contributors that account for the most quality problems in a systemAlso called the rule, meaning that 80% of problems are often due to 20% of the causesPareto diagrams are histograms that help identify and prioritize problem areas
25Statistical Process Control (SPC) Uses statistics & control charts to tell when to adjust processDeveloped by Shewhart in 1920’sInvolvesCreating standards (upper & lower limits)Measuring sample output (e.g. mean wgt.)Taking corrective action (if necessary)Done while product is being producedThis slide introduces the process of Statistical Process Control. Slides illustrating the mechanics will be found in the presentation for supplement 6S.At some point, you may wish to illustrate or discuss the connection between Statistical Process Control and the Target and Conformance-based quality control discussed earlier.
26Statistical Process Control Steps Produce GoodStartProvide ServiceNoAssign.Take SampleCauses?YesInspect SampleStop ProcessCreateFind Out WhyControl Chart
29Inspection Involves examining items to see if an item is defective Detect a defective productDoes not correct deficiencies in process or productIssuesWhen to inspectWhere in process to inspectThis slide introduces the concept of inspection.At this point, one should probably stress the role of inspection in the overall quality control process. Some students seem to have the notion that inspection is quality control.
30When and Where to Inspect At your facility upon receipt of goods from the supplierBefore costly or irreversible processesDuring the step-by-step activity processesWhen activity is completeBefore delivery from your facilityAt the point of customer contactThis slide can be used to frame a discussion about when to inspect. If your students have documented an actual production process from a local business, one of these documented processes can serve as an example.
32TestingMany professionals think of testing as a stage that comes near the end of project developmentTesting should be done during almost every phase of the project development life cycle
33Improving Project Quality Several suggestions for improving quality for projects includeLeadership that promotes qualityUnderstanding the cost of qualityFocusing on organizational influences and workplace factors that affect qualityFollowing maturity models to improve quality
34LeadershipIt is most important that top management be quality-minded. In the absence of sincere manifestation of interest at the top, little will happen below.” (Juran, 1945)A large percentage of quality problems are associated with management, not technical issues
35Cost of Quality The cost of quality is the cost of conformance or delivering products that meet requirements and fitness for usethe cost of nonconformance or taking responsibility for failures or not meeting quality expectations
36Costs of Quality Prevention costs - reducing the potential for defects Appraisal costs - evaluating productsInternal failure - of producing defective parts or serviceExternal costs - occur after delivery