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PROJECT QUALITY MANAGEMENT. Definitions of Quality  User-Based: What consumer says it is  Manufacturing-Based: Degree to which a product conforms to.

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Presentation on theme: "PROJECT QUALITY MANAGEMENT. Definitions of Quality  User-Based: What consumer says it is  Manufacturing-Based: Degree to which a product conforms to."— Presentation transcript:


2 Definitions of Quality  User-Based: What consumer says it is  Manufacturing-Based: Degree to which a product conforms to design specification  Product-Based: Level of measurable product characteristic

3 What Is Project Quality Management?  The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) defines quality as the totality of characteristics of an entity that bear on its ability to satisfy stated and implied needs  Other experts define quality based on  conformance to requirements: meeting written specifications  fitness for use: ensuring a product can be used as it was intended

4 Project Quality Management Processes  Quality planning: identifying which quality standards are relevant to the project and how to satisfy them  Quality assurance: evaluating overall project performance to ensure the project will satisfy the relevant quality standards  Quality control: monitoring specific project results to ensure that they comply with the relevant quality standards while identifying ways to improve overall quality

5 Modern Quality Management  Modern quality management  requires customer satisfaction  prefers prevention to inspection  recognizes management responsibility for quality  Noteworthy quality experts include Deming, Juran, Crosby, Ishikawa, Taguchi, and Feigenbaum

6 Quality Experts  Deming was famous for his work in rebuilding Japan and his 14 points  Juran wrote the Quality Control Handbook and 10 steps to quality improvement  Crosby wrote Quality is Free and suggested that organizations strive for zero defects  Ishikawa developed the concept of quality circles and using fishbone diagrams  Taguchi developed methods for optimizing the process of engineering experimentation  Feigenbaum developed the concept of total quality control

7 Deming’s Fourteen Points  Create consistency of purpose  Lead to promote change  Build quality into the products  Build long term relationships  Continuously improve product, quality, and service  Start training  Emphasize leadership

8 Deming’s Points - continued  Drive out fear  Break down barriers between departments  Stop haranguing workers  Support, help, improve  Remove barriers to pride in work  Institute a vigorous program of education and self-improvement  Put everybody in the company to work on the transformation

9 Sample Fishbone or Ishikawa Diagram

10 PowerPoint presentation to accompany Heizer/Render – Principles of Operations Management, 5e, and Operations Management, 7e © 2004 by Prentice Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, N.J  Used to find problem sources/solutions  Other names  Fish-bone diagram, Ishikawa diagram  Steps  Identify problem to correct  Draw main causes for problem as ‘bones’  Ask ‘What could have caused problems in these areas?’ Repeat for each sub-area. Cause and Effect Diagram

11 Too many defects Problem Cause and Effect Diagram Example

12 MethodManpower Material Machinery Too many defects Main Cause Cause and Effect Diagram Example

13 MethodManpower Material Machinery DrillDrill OvertimeOvertime SteelSteel WoodWood LatheLathe Too many defects Sub-Cause Cause and Effect Diagram Example

14 MethodManpower Material MachineryDrillDrillOvertimeOvertime SteelSteel WoodWood LatheLathe Too many defects TiredTiredOldOld SlowSlow Cause and Effect Diagram Example

15 Fishbone Chart - Problems with Airline Customer Service

16 Malcolm Baldrige Award and ISO 9000  The Malcolm Baldrige Quality Award was started in 1987 to recognize companies with world-class quality  ISO 9000 provides minimum requirements for an organization to meet their quality certification standards

17  1.0 Leadership (125 points)  2.0 Strategic Planning (85 points)  3.0 Customer and Market Focus (85 points)  4.0 Information and Analysis (85 points)  5.0 Human Resource Focus (85 Points)  6.0 Process Management (85 points)  7.0 Business/Project Results (450 points) Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award

18 International Standard Organization (ISO)  ISO is a series of standards that outline the requirements for quality management system  ISO set of guidelines for the selection use of standard, which relate to quality assurance  ISO pertain to companies involved including in the design, development, production, installation, and servicing of products or services  ISO similar to ISO 9001 excludes companies involved in design and development ISO pertains to companies involved in final inspection and test for distribution and value added contractors  ISO employed as a guideline for the application of the elements of the Quality Management System.

19 Quality Planning  It is important to design in quality and communicate important factors that directly contribute to meeting the customer’s requirements  Design of experiments helps identify which variable have the most influence on the overall outcome of a process  Many scope aspects of IT projects affect quality like functionality, features, system outputs, performance, reliability, and maintainability

20 Quality Assurance  Quality assurance includes all the activities related to satisfying the relevant quality standards for a project  Another goal of quality assurance is continuous quality improvement  Benchmarking can be used to generate ideas for quality improvements  Quality audits help identify lessons learned that can improve performance on current or future projects

21 Benchmarking Selecting best practices to use as a standard for performance  Determine what to benchmark  Form a benchmark team  Identify benchmarking partners  Collect and analyze benchmarking information  Take action to match or exceed the benchmark

22 Quality Control  The main outputs of quality control are  acceptance decisions  rework  process adjustments  Some tools and techniques include  pareto analysis  statistical sampling  quality control charts  testing

23 Pareto Analysis  Pareto analysis involves identifying the vital few contributors that account for the most quality problems in a system  Also called the rule, meaning that 80% of problems are often due to 20% of the causes  Pareto diagrams are histograms that help identify and prioritize problem areas

24 Sample Pareto Diagram

25  Uses statistics & control charts to tell when to adjust process  Developed by Shewhart in 1920’s  Involves  Creating standards (upper & lower limits)  Measuring sample output (e.g. mean wgt.)  Taking corrective action (if necessary)  Done while product is being produced Statistical Process Control (SPC)

26 Produce Good Provide Service Stop Process Yes No Assign. Causes? Take Sample Inspect Sample Find Out Why Create Control Chart Start Statistical Process Control Steps

27 Process Control Chart

28 PowerPoint presentation to accompany Heizer/Render – Principles of Operations Management, 5e, and Operations Management, 7e © 2004 by Prentice Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, N.J Patterns to Look for in Control Charts

29  Involves examining items to see if an item is defective  Detect a defective product  Does not correct deficiencies in process or product  Issues  When to inspect  Where in process to inspect Inspection

30 When and Where to Inspect  At your facility upon receipt of goods from the supplier  Before costly or irreversible processes  During the step-by-step activity processes  When activity is complete  Before delivery from your facility  At the point of customer contact

31 Sample Quality Control Chart

32 Testing  Many professionals think of testing as a stage that comes near the end of project development  Testing should be done during almost every phase of the project development life cycle

33 Improving Project Quality  Several suggestions for improving quality for projects include  Leadership that promotes quality  Understanding the cost of quality  Focusing on organizational influences and workplace factors that affect quality  Following maturity models to improve quality

34 Leadership  It is most important that top management be quality-minded. In the absence of sincere manifestation of interest at the top, little will happen below.” (Juran, 1945)  A large percentage of quality problems are associated with management, not technical issues

35 Cost of Quality  The cost of quality is  the cost of conformance or delivering products that meet requirements and fitness for use  the cost of nonconformance or taking responsibility for failures or not meeting quality expectations

36 Costs of Quality  Prevention costs - reducing the potential for defects  Appraisal costs - evaluating products  Internal failure - of producing defective parts or service  External costs - occur after delivery

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