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Project Quality Management

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1 Project Quality Management

2 Definitions of Quality
User-Based: What consumer says it is Manufacturing-Based: Degree to which a product conforms to design specification Product-Based: Level of measurable product characteristic Once you have introduced these definitions of quality, ask students to provide example of products that use them.

3 What Is Project Quality Management?
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) defines quality as the totality of characteristics of an entity that bear on its ability to satisfy stated and implied needs Other experts define quality based on conformance to requirements: meeting written specifications fitness for use: ensuring a product can be used as it was intended

4 Project Quality Management Processes
Quality planning: identifying which quality standards are relevant to the project and how to satisfy them Quality assurance: evaluating overall project performance to ensure the project will satisfy the relevant quality standards Quality control: monitoring specific project results to ensure that they comply with the relevant quality standards while identifying ways to improve overall quality

5 Modern Quality Management
requires customer satisfaction prefers prevention to inspection recognizes management responsibility for quality Noteworthy quality experts include Deming, Juran, Crosby, Ishikawa, Taguchi, and Feigenbaum

6 Quality Experts Deming was famous for his work in rebuilding Japan and his 14 points Juran wrote the Quality Control Handbook and 10 steps to quality improvement Crosby wrote Quality is Free and suggested that organizations strive for zero defects Ishikawa developed the concept of quality circles and using fishbone diagrams Taguchi developed methods for optimizing the process of engineering experimentation Feigenbaum developed the concept of total quality control

7 Deming’s Fourteen Points
Create consistency of purpose Lead to promote change Build quality into the products Build long term relationships Continuously improve product, quality, and service Start training Emphasize leadership One point to make here is that this list represents a recent expression of Demings 14 points - the list is still evolving. Students may notice that many of these fourteen points seem to be simply common sense. If they raise this issue - ask them to consider jobs they have held. Were these points emphasized or implemented by their employers? If not, why not? This part of the discussion can be used to raise again the issue that proper approaches to quality are not “programs,” with limited involvement and finite duration, but rather philosophies which must become ingrained throughout the organization.

8 Deming’s Points - continued
Drive out fear Break down barriers between departments Stop haranguing workers Support, help, improve Remove barriers to pride in work Institute a vigorous program of education and self-improvement Put everybody in the company to work on the transformation

9 Sample Fishbone or Ishikawa Diagram

10 Cause and Effect Diagram
Used to find problem sources/solutions Other names Fish-bone diagram, Ishikawa diagram Steps Identify problem to correct Draw main causes for problem as ‘bones’ Ask ‘What could have caused problems in these areas?’ Repeat for each sub-area. This slide introduces the Cause and Effect Diagram. The next several slide show the development of a simple example. If time is available, it would be helpful to ask students to develop their own examples. © 2004 by Prentice Hall, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, N.J PowerPoint presentation to accompany Heizer/Render – Principles of Operations Management, 5e, and Operations Management, 7e

11 Cause and Effect Diagram Example
Too many defects Problem

12 Cause and Effect Diagram Example
Method Manpower Main Cause Too many defects Material Machinery Main Cause

13 Cause and Effect Diagram Example
Method Manpower Drill Overtime Too many defects Wood Steel Lathe Material Machinery Sub-Cause

14 Cause and Effect Diagram Example
Method Manpower Tired Old Slow Drill Overtime Steel Wood Lathe Too many defects Material Machinery

15 Fishbone Chart - Problems with Airline Customer Service
This slide illustrates a Cause and Effect Chart for a practical problem.

16 Malcolm Baldrige Award and ISO 9000
The Malcolm Baldrige Quality Award was started in to recognize companies with world-class quality ISO 9000 provides minimum requirements for an organization to meet their quality certification standards

17 Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award
1.0 Leadership (125 points) 2.0 Strategic Planning (85 points) 3.0 Customer and Market Focus (85 points) 4.0 Information and Analysis (85 points) 5.0 Human Resource Focus (85 Points) 6.0 Process Management (85 points) 7.0 Business/Project Results (450 points) 4

18 International Standard Organization (ISO)
ISO is a series of standards that outline the requirements for quality management system ISO set of guidelines for the selection use of standard, which relate to quality assurance ISO pertain to companies involved including in the design, development, production, installation, and servicing of products or services ISO similar to ISO 9001 excludes companies involved in design and development ISO pertains to companies involved in final inspection and test for distribution and value added contractors ISO employed as a guideline for the application of the elements of the Quality Management System.

19 Quality Planning It is important to design in quality and communicate important factors that directly contribute to meeting the customer’s requirements Design of experiments helps identify which variable have the most influence on the overall outcome of a process Many scope aspects of IT projects affect quality like functionality, features, system outputs, performance, reliability, and maintainability

20 Quality Assurance Quality assurance includes all the activities related to satisfying the relevant quality standards for a project Another goal of quality assurance is continuous quality improvement Benchmarking can be used to generate ideas for quality improvements Quality audits help identify lessons learned that can improve performance on current or future projects

21 Benchmarking Selecting best practices to use as a standard for performance Determine what to benchmark Form a benchmark team Identify benchmarking partners Collect and analyze benchmarking information Take action to match or exceed the benchmark Ask student to identify firms which they believe could serve as benchmarks. If students are unable to identify any firms - ask them to identify a college or university whose registration system or housing selection system could serve as a benchmark. Most students have enough knowledge of, or friends at,other colleges and universities so as to be able to respond to this question.

22 Quality Control The main outputs of quality control are
acceptance decisions rework process adjustments Some tools and techniques include pareto analysis statistical sampling quality control charts testing

23 Pareto Analysis Pareto analysis involves identifying the vital few contributors that account for the most quality problems in a system Also called the rule, meaning that 80% of problems are often due to 20% of the causes Pareto diagrams are histograms that help identify and prioritize problem areas

24 Sample Pareto Diagram

25 Statistical Process Control (SPC)
Uses statistics & control charts to tell when to adjust process Developed by Shewhart in 1920’s Involves Creating standards (upper & lower limits) Measuring sample output (e.g. mean wgt.) Taking corrective action (if necessary) Done while product is being produced This slide introduces the process of Statistical Process Control. Slides illustrating the mechanics will be found in the presentation for supplement 6S. At some point, you may wish to illustrate or discuss the connection between Statistical Process Control and the Target and Conformance-based quality control discussed earlier.

26 Statistical Process Control Steps
Produce Good Start Provide Service No Assign. Take Sample Causes? Yes Inspect Sample Stop Process Create Find Out Why Control Chart

27 Process Control Chart

28 Patterns to Look for in Control Charts
This chart enables you to discuss some of the information which can be obtained from the Process Control Charts. © 2004 by Prentice Hall, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, N.J PowerPoint presentation to accompany Heizer/Render – Principles of Operations Management, 5e, and Operations Management, 7e

29 Inspection Involves examining items to see if an item is defective
Detect a defective product Does not correct deficiencies in process or product Issues When to inspect Where in process to inspect This slide introduces the concept of inspection. At this point, one should probably stress the role of inspection in the overall quality control process. Some students seem to have the notion that inspection is quality control.

30 When and Where to Inspect
At your facility upon receipt of goods from the supplier Before costly or irreversible processes During the step-by-step activity processes When activity is complete Before delivery from your facility At the point of customer contact This slide can be used to frame a discussion about when to inspect. If your students have documented an actual production process from a local business, one of these documented processes can serve as an example.

31 Sample Quality Control Chart

32 Testing Many professionals think of testing as a stage that comes near the end of project development Testing should be done during almost every phase of the project development life cycle

33 Improving Project Quality
Several suggestions for improving quality for projects include Leadership that promotes quality Understanding the cost of quality Focusing on organizational influences and workplace factors that affect quality Following maturity models to improve quality

34 Leadership It is most important that top management be quality-minded. In the absence of sincere manifestation of interest at the top, little will happen below.” (Juran, 1945) A large percentage of quality problems are associated with management, not technical issues

35 Cost of Quality The cost of quality is
the cost of conformance or delivering products that meet requirements and fitness for use the cost of nonconformance or taking responsibility for failures or not meeting quality expectations

36 Costs of Quality Prevention costs - reducing the potential for defects
Appraisal costs - evaluating products Internal failure - of producing defective parts or service External costs - occur after delivery

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