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QUALITY ASSURANCE TERESITA R. MANZALA Chairperson, Professional Regulation Commission Chairperson, Task Force for the AQRF 24 th PACUCOA Annual General.

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Presentation on theme: "QUALITY ASSURANCE TERESITA R. MANZALA Chairperson, Professional Regulation Commission Chairperson, Task Force for the AQRF 24 th PACUCOA Annual General."— Presentation transcript:

1 QUALITY ASSURANCE TERESITA R. MANZALA Chairperson, Professional Regulation Commission Chairperson, Task Force for the AQRF 24 th PACUCOA Annual General Assembly December 6, 2013

2 Outline of Presentation 1. Regional Arrangements 2. ASEAN 2015: the ASEAN Economic Community and the ASEAN MRA’s 3. The Philippine Qualifications Framework 4. The ASEAN Qualifications Reference Framework 5. Implications for Higher Education 6. Way Forward

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4 The ASEAN Economic Community 2015 Single Market and Production Base Single Market and Production Base Free flow of professionals Free flow of professionals Free flow of skilled workers Free flow of skilled workers Free flow of goods Free flow of goods Free flow of investment Free flow of investment Free flow of capital Free flow of capital

5 The ASEAN Mutual Recognition Arrangements (MRA’s) Recognition Education Training Experience Certificates Licenses Mobility

6 Objectives of the ASEAN MRA 1. Facilitate mobility of professionals within ASEAN 2. Exchange information and enhance cooperation in respect of mutual recognition of medical practitioners 3. Promote adoption of best practices on standards and qualifications 4. Provide opportunities for capacity building and training of medical practitioners

7 Exchange of Information 1. Basic qualifications and recognized institutions 2. Postgraduate qualifications and recognized institutions 3. Core competencies and scope of practice

8 Recognition and Eligibility of Foreign Professionals 1. In possession of a qualification recognized by PRA of country of origin and host country 2. In possession of a valid professional registration and license to practice issued by PRA of country of origin 3. Has been in active practice a for: Engineers/Architects: 7 years Engineers/Architects: 7 years Medicine/Dentistry: 5 years Medicine/Dentistry: 5 years Nursing: 3 years Nursing: 3 years

9 4. In compliance with CPD requirements 5. Has been certified as not having violated any professional or ethical standards, local and international 6. Has declared that there is no investigation or legal proceeding pending against him/her in the country of origin or another country 7. In compliance with any other assessment or requirement as may be imposed by host country

10 I. PQF: Origin and Development 1998 Started with TVET Sector 2003 Philippine TVET Qualifications Framework (PTQF) 2004 Presidential Executive Order promoting expansion of QF

11 2011 His Excellency Benigno S. Aquino III, President of the Republic of the Philippines, signed the Executive Order No. 83 dated October 1, 2012 INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF THE PHILIPPINE QUALIFICATIONS FRAMEWORK

12 Philippine Qualifications Framework (PQF) Qualification Levels Descriptors Working Groups Qualifications Register Pathways & Equivalencies Quality Assurance Information & Guidelines International Alignment Industry needs Need for global recognition of competencies Current qualifications issues at all levels Qualifications issues in recognition of prior learning Research and policy papers on NQF NQFs of other countries Consultation and Advocacy With Stakeholders INPUTSOUTPUTS

13 The Philippine Qualifications Framework (PQF) National Policy Levels of educational qualifications Standards for qualification outcomes Competency-basedLabor market-drivenAssessment-based qualification recognition

14 The PQF Coverage Basic Education Technical and Vocational Education Higher Education

15 The PQF Coverage All institutions and systems TrainingSpecialization Skills and competencies Work experience Lifelong learning

16 Objectives National standards and levels for outcomes of education, training National regulatory and quality assurance mechanisms Pathways and equivalencies for access to qualifications Individual lifelong learning goals for progress through education and training Alignment with international qualifications frameworks

17 Governance of the PQF National Coordinating Committee (NCC) Technical SecretariatPQF Working Groups DEPED TESDA CHED PRC DOLE

18 Governance of the PQF Chairman Chairman Secretary, DEPED Members: Members: Secretary, DOLE Secretary, DOLE Director-General, TESDA Director-General, TESDA Chairperson, CHED Chairperson, CHED Chairperson, PRC Chairperson, PRC

19 PQF Working Groups and Lead Agencies Qualifications Register (TESDA) Pathways and Equivalencies (CHED) International Alignment (PRC) Information and Guidelines (DEPED) Quality Assurance (CHED)

20 THE PHL QUALIFICATIONS FRAMEWORK LEVEL GRADE 10 GRADE 12 TECHNICAL EDUCATION AND SKILLS DEVELOPMENT TECHNICAL EDUCATION AND SKILLS DEVELOPMENT HIGHER EDUCATION HIGHER EDUCATION DOCTORAL AND POST DOCTORAL DOCTORAL AND POST DOCTORAL BACCALAUREATE BASICEDUCATION L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6 L7 L8 NC I NC II NC IV NC III NC IV DIPLOMA BACCALAUREATE POST BACCALAUREATE

21 8-LEVEL QUALIFICATIONS DESCRIPTORS Defined in terms of 3 domains 1. Knowledge, skills and values 1. Knowledge, skills and values 2. Application 2. Application 3. Degree of independence 3. Degree of independence

22 LEVEL6 KNOWLEDGE, SKILLS AND VALUES Graduates at this level will have a broad and coherent knowledge and skills in their field of study for professional work and lifelong learning APPLICATION Application in professional work in a broad range of discipline and/or for further study DEGREE OF INDEPENDENCE Independent and /or in teams of related field QUALIFICATION TYPE Baccalaureate Degree

23 LEVEL7 KNOWLEDGE, SKILLS AND VALUES Graduates at this level will have advanced knowledge and skills in a specialized or multi-disciplinary field of study for professional practice, self-directed research and/or lifelong learning APPLICATION Applied in professional work that requires leadership and management in a specialized or multi-disciplinary professional work and/or research and/or for further study DEGREE OF INDEPENDENCE Independent and or in teams of multidisciplinary QUALIFICATION TYPE Post-Baccalaureate Program

24 LEVEL8 KNOWLEDGE, SKILLS & VALUES Graduates at this level have highly advanced systematic knowledge and skills in highly specialized and/or complex multidisciplinary field of learning for complex research and/or professional practice or for the advancement of learning APPLICATION Applied in highly specialized or complex multi- disciplinary field of professional work that requires innovation, and/or leadership and management and/or research in a specialized or multi-disciplinary field DEGREE OF INDEPENDENCE Independent and/or in teams of multi-disciplinary and more complex setting QUALIFICATION TYPE Doctoral Degree and Post-Doctoral Programs

25 The PQF: components 1. Structure and system of progression 2. Covers three sectors: Basic education Basic education TVET TVET Higher education Higher education 3. Eight levels of qualifications 4. Three domains of learning 5. Descriptors of learning outcomes with increasing complexity

26 PQF: components  Qualifications Register  Quality Assurance  Pathways and Equivalencies  International Alignment  Credit Accumulation and Transfer  Lifelong Learning  Recognition of Prior Learning

27 II. Most important Features 1. Shift to outcomes-based education and use of learning outcomes 2. Government regulatory bodies confer recognition to education and training providers 3. Training and education providers are held accountable for the attainment of learning outcomes 4. Implementation of quality assurance mechanisms, pathways and equivalencies

28 II. Most important Features 5. Establishment of a Qualifications Register 6. Ensuring international alignment of qualifications 7. Encouraging lifelong learning 8. Government regulatory bodies confer recognition to certificates and licenses 9. Recognition of qualification is based on assessment of individual

29 ASEAN Qualifications Reference Framework ASEAN Qualifications Reference Framework

30 ASEAN Qualifications Reference Framework (AQRF) I. BACKGROUND  May 2010, Manila: 1st AANZFTA Joint Committee Meeting considered the draft of the concept proposal for the ASEAN Qualifications Reference Framework  ASEAN-Australia-New Zealand FTA Economic Cooperation Work Program (ECWP)

31 Governance Creation of Task Force for the AQRF Composition  Chair: PRC Chairperson Teresita Manzala  Vice-Chair: Megawati Santoso (Indonesia)  Members: Representatives from ASEAN Member States (Ministry of Education, Ministry of Labour/Manpower Development, other relevant Ministries and Qualification Agencies) For the PHILS: PRC, DTI, CHED, TESDA, DEPED AND DOLE Chairmanship: 2012- 2014

32 ASEAN Qualifications Reference Framework (AQRF) DEVELOPMENT Phase 1: Policy concept paper Phase 1: Policy concept paper Regional forum Regional forum Workshops in ASEAN countries Workshops in ASEAN countries Phase 2: Refinement of the model Phase 2: Refinement of the model Further regional fora / meetings Further regional fora / meetings Finalize the framework Finalize the framework

33 ASEAN Qualifications Reference Framework (AQRF) DEVELOPMENT Phase 3: March 2013 – December 2014 Capacity building for NQF’s Thailand-New Zealand (pilot project) Thailand-New Zealand (pilot project) Philippines-Australia (proposal)

34 3 rd Meeting / Workshop of the TF-AQRF  November, 2013  Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia  Update: Finalization of the key features, structure and principles of the AQRF

35 Finalization of the AQRF Structure and components: Structure and components: 1. Scope 1. Scope 2. Purpose 2. Purpose 3. Principles 3. Principles 4. Quality Assurance 4. Quality Assurance 5. Learning outcomes 5. Learning outcomes 6. Level descriptors 6. Level descriptors 7. Domains 7. Domains 8. Referencing 8. Referencing 9. Governance 9. Governance

36 ASEAN Qualifications Reference Framework (AQRF) SCOPE The AQRF, a common reference framework, will function as a translation device to enable comparisons of qualifications across participating ASEAN Countries. AQRF addresses education and training sectors (Education and training incorporates informal, non formal and formal learning. Formal learning includes but is not limited to post compulsory schooling, adult and community education, TVET and higher education) and the wider objective of promoting lifelong learning.

37 ASEAN Qualifications Reference Framework (AQRF) PURPOSE To enable comparisons of qualifications across countries that will: 1. Support recognition of qualifications 2. Encourage the development of qualifications frameworks that can facilitate lifelong learning 3. Encourage the development of national approaches to validating learning gained outside formal education 4. Promote and encourage education and learner mobility 5. Promote worker mobility 6. Lead to better understood qualifications systems 7. Promote higher quality qualifications systems

38 ASEAN Qualifications Reference Framework (AQRF) PRINCIPLES Based on agreed understandings between member countries Based on agreed understandings between member countries Voluntary in nature Voluntary in nature Neutral influence on NQF’s Neutral influence on NQF’s Provide support and enhance each country’s NQF Provide support and enhance each country’s NQF

39 ASEAN Qualifications Reference Framework (AQRF) PROCESSES Underpinned by a set of agreed quality assurance principles and broad standards related to: The functions of the registering and accrediting agencies The functions of the registering and accrediting agencies Education and training providers Education and training providers Systems for the assessment learning and issuing of qualifications Systems for the assessment learning and issuing of qualifications Regulation of the issuance of certificates Regulation of the issuance of certificates

40 ASEAN Qualifications Reference Framework (AQRF) STRUCTURE: Learning Outcomes Based on descriptors of levels of complexity of learning outcomes Based on descriptors of levels of complexity of learning outcomes Facilitate comparisons and links Facilitate comparisons and links

41 ASEAN Qualifications Reference Framework (AQRF) STRUCTURE: Levels Eight levels Eight levels Based upon a hierarchy of complexity of learning outcomes Based upon a hierarchy of complexity of learning outcomes It includes: Cognitive competence involving the use of theory and concepts, as well as informal tacit knowledge gained experientially Cognitive competence involving the use of theory and concepts, as well as informal tacit knowledge gained experientially Functional competence (skills or know-how), those things that a person should be able to do when they work in a given area Functional competence (skills or know-how), those things that a person should be able to do when they work in a given area Personal competence involving knowing how to conduct oneself in a specific situation Personal competence involving knowing how to conduct oneself in a specific situation

42 ASEAN Qualifications Reference Framework (AQRF) STRUCTURE: domains 1. Knowledge and skills 2. Application/responsibility

43 ASEAN Qualifications Reference Framework (AQRF) REFERENCING: CRITERIA To establish the comparability of ASEAN country framework levels or qualifications types, countries will need to refer their qualification framework levels or qualification types to the AQRF. However, countries could, if there is no national qualifications framework, align their benchmark level qualifications or qualifications types to the AQRF. Proposal: 2018

44 ASEAN Qualifications Reference Framework (AQRF) REFERENCING: Procedure  To describe a common structure for linking NQFs to the AQRF.  To ensure that the linking process undertaken is robust and transparent way.  To provide a common reporting structure for the referencing reports.

45 ASEAN Qualifications Reference Framework (AQRF) REFERENCING: Panels It is proposed that the referencing include international experts. could be external to the ASEAN member countries could be external to the ASEAN member countries should not be a representative of the referencing country or the observer’s country should not be a representative of the referencing country or the observer’s country COMPOSITION OF EACH COUNTRY’S REFERENCING PANEL : at least one international representative at least one international representative plus an additional observer from one of the other ASEAN countries. plus an additional observer from one of the other ASEAN countries.

46 ASEAN Qualifications Reference Framework (AQRF) REFERENCING: Comparability Comparability Benchmarking Benchmarking Concept of “best fit” Concept of “best fit”

47 THE PHL QUALIFICATIONS FRAMEWORK LEVEL GRADE 10 GRADE 12 TECHNICAL EDUCATION AND SKILLS DEVELOPMENT TECHNICAL EDUCATION AND SKILLS DEVELOPMENT HIGHER EDUCATION HIGHER EDUCATION DOCTORAL AND POST DOCTORAL DOCTORAL AND POST DOCTORAL BACCALAUREATE BASICEDUCATION L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6 L7 L8 NC I NC II NC IV NC III NC IV DIPLOMA BACCALAUREATE POST BACCALAUREATE

48 INDONESIA S2S2 S1S1 S3S3 General High School 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 6 Professional Spesialist D I D IV D III D II Vocational Senior High School Subspesialist Elementary/Junior High School FORMAL ACADEMIC EDUFORMAL VOCATIOAL/PROF EDU

49 ASEAN QUALIFICATIONS REFERENCE FRAMEWORK (AQRF) ASEAN QUALIFICATIONS REFERENCE FRAMEWORK (AQRF) 8 8 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 Qualifications (A) Qualifications (A) Qualifications (B) Qualifications (B) Country (A) Country (A) Country (B) Country (B) AQRF 8 8

50 ASEAN Qualifications Reference Framework (AQRF) GOVERNANCE: Voluntary (will not be regulatory in nature) Voluntary (will not be regulatory in nature) based on agreed understandings. based on agreed understandings. PROPOSAL - a board or managing committee be established by the ASEAN Secretariat COMPOSITION - national representatives (from a NQF body or responsible body in each country) and an independent expert, and be responsible for the ongoing management of the AQRF.

51 What are the implications What are the implications for Higher Education? for Higher Education?

52 Philippine Qualifications Framework PQF as TOOL for: Curriculum Planning Curriculum Planning Development of Qualifications Development of Qualifications Qualifications Register Qualifications Register Quality Assurance Quality Assurance Accreditation of Education Providers Accreditation of Education Providers Certification of graduates Certification of graduates International Alignment International Alignment

53 1. Curriculum Planning Shift to outcomes-based education and the use of learning outcomes Shift to outcomes-based education and the use of learning outcomes Higher Ed CMO 46 CMO 46 OBE OBE TVET Basic Ed (K12) (K12) OBE OBE

54 2. Development of Qualifications, with PQF Level, Learning Descriptors ASEAN MRA: exchange of information on ASEAN MRA: exchange of information on 1. Basic Qualification and recognized 1. Basic Qualification and recognized institutions institutions 2. Postgraduate Qualifications and 2. Postgraduate Qualifications and recognized institutions recognized institutions 3. Core competencies and scope of 3. Core competencies and scope of practice practice

55 3. Qualification Register Basic qualifications Basic qualifications Postgraduate qualifications Postgraduate qualifications

56 Example of Register Entry Qualification Title Qualification Level Issue Coding Number Date of Issue Issued by Descriptor Credit Units Entry Requirements Qualification developer Quality assurance body Content Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering PQF Level 6 00__________________________ Mapua Institute of Technology The program provides a solid and coherent foundation of civil works, knowledge, professional skills, values, ethics and attitude that enable graduates to continue to learn and adapt to changes in practice of the profession 232 Secondary Education Report Card Certificate of Good Moral Character Mapua Institute of Technology CHED, PACUCOA General Education subjects, Mathematics, Surveying, Hydraulics, Structural Engineering, Construction

57 NumberClassificationOrganisation Qualification type LevelCredit Entry Requirements Outcome statement Qualification developer Quality assurance body Content 00__________ Medical Specialty PCS / PSGS Postdoctoral Degree PQF Level 8 Number of hours or Units Passed the PRC Physician Licensure Examinations A solid grounding in the diagnosis and management of surgical disorders and conditions falling under the scope of GS PSGS Committee on Accreditation/Philippine Board of Surgery Biomedical Sciences, General Surgery covering head and neck, thorax, abdomen, extremities; Specialty Surgery clinical rotations; Basic Anesthesia

58 PQF Level 8 Doctoral Postdoctoral Academic Qualification PhD Professional Qualification Diplomate / Fellow

59 4. Quality Assurance 4. Quality Assurance

60 QA Mechanism for HEI’s CHED Schools Accrediting Bodies Graduates Professionals PRC

61 QA for HEI’s Regulatory Body: CHED Regulatory Body: CHED External accrediting bodies: External accrediting bodies: 1. Philippine Accrediting Association for Schools, Colleges and Universities (PAASCU, 1957) (PAASCU, 1957) 2. Philippine Association of Colleges and Universities-Commission on Accreditation (PACUCOA, 1973) (PACUCOA, 1973)

62 QA for HEI’s Regulatory Body: CHED Regulatory Body: CHED External accrediting bodies: External accrediting bodies: 3. Association of Christian Schools and Colleges- Accrediting Agency (ACSC-AA, 1976) (ACSC-AA, 1976) 4. Accrediting Agency of Chartered Colleges and Universities in the Philippines (AACCUP,1989)

63 QA for HEI’s “Migration and Education: Quality Assurance and Mutual recognition of Qualifications- The Philippines (Paris: UNESCO, 2008) “Migration and Education: Quality Assurance and Mutual recognition of Qualifications- The Philippines (Paris: UNESCO, 2008) Author: Ethel Agnes P. Valenzuela Author: Ethel Agnes P. Valenzuela In 2008: only 221 of the 1,943 HEI’s participated in obtaining external accreditation (11.3% only) In 2008: only 221 of the 1,943 HEI’s participated in obtaining external accreditation (11.3% only) Due to its voluntary nature Due to its voluntary nature

64 Reflection on QA Canada, 2001 Canada, 2001 80% of doctors, 66% of engineers, 61% of nurses from the Philippines secured low-skilled employment 80% of doctors, 66% of engineers, 61% of nurses from the Philippines secured low-skilled employment Similar trends seen in Australia Similar trends seen in Australia Author: Lesleyanne Hawthorne, “Migration and Education Quality Assurance and Mutual Recognition of Qualifications Country Report: Australia”, 2008 Author: Lesleyanne Hawthorne, “Migration and Education Quality Assurance and Mutual Recognition of Qualifications Country Report: Australia”, 2008

65 Philippine Study Journal of Philippine Higher Education Quality Assurance (Vol. 1, No. 1, 2003) Journal of Philippine Higher Education Quality Assurance (Vol. 1, No. 1, 2003) Author: Manuel T. Corpus Author: Manuel T. Corpus Executive Director Executive Director Accrediting Agency of Chartered Colleges and Universities in the Philippines (AACCUP) Accrediting Agency of Chartered Colleges and Universities in the Philippines (AACCUP) Small number of HEI’s obtained external accreditation Small number of HEI’s obtained external accreditation

66 PRC Statistics 5-year overall passing percentage of graduates in all licensure examinations: 5-year overall passing percentage of graduates in all licensure examinations: 39-40% 39-40%

67 5. Certification of Graduates Assessment of competencies of individual Assessment of competencies of individual Certification of competencies attained Certification of competencies attained Government recognition of certificates and licenses Government recognition of certificates and licenses

68 6. International Alignment Recognition of qualifications is based on international benchmarks and standards Recognition of qualifications is based on international benchmarks and standards Globalization of standards: Globalization of standards: Dublin Accord Sydney Accord Sydney Accord Washington Accord Washington Accord International Maritime Organization (IMO) International Maritime Organization (IMO)

69 Qualifications Landscape Qualifications Landscape Learning Outcomes (knowledge, skills, values, degree of independence) Standards (occupational, institutional, professional standards, qualification criteria, assessment criteria) Qualifications (certificates, bachelor’s degree, craft diplomas, awards by professional bodies) Sectoral Qualifications (Indian National Skills Qualifications Framework National Qualifications Frameworks (Philippine Qualifications Framework) Regional Qualifications Frameworks (EQF) International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED)

70 Challenges “Migration and Education: Quality Assurance and Mutual Recognition of Qualifications- The Philippines (Paris: UNESCO, 2008) “Migration and Education: Quality Assurance and Mutual Recognition of Qualifications- The Philippines (Paris: UNESCO, 2008) Author: Ethel Agnes P. Valenzuela Author: Ethel Agnes P. Valenzuela In 2008: only 221 of the 1,943 HEI’s participated in obtaining external accreditation (11.3% only) In 2008: only 221 of the 1,943 HEI’s participated in obtaining external accreditation (11.3% only) Due to its voluntary nature Due to its voluntary nature

71 Challenges PRC data: the overall passing percentage of graduates who took the licensure examinations from 2008-2012 is 38% PRC data: the overall passing percentage of graduates who took the licensure examinations from 2008-2012 is 38% The development and implementation of the PQF, and its referencing to the AQRF in 2018 The development and implementation of the PQF, and its referencing to the AQRF in 2018

72 Challenges The need for research capabilities in developing labour market information to guide the development of qualifications and core competencies The need for research capabilities in developing labour market information to guide the development of qualifications and core competencies Unity towards a single direction in order to provide the optimum environment for our students, graduates, skilled workers and professionals to develop their potentials Unity towards a single direction in order to provide the optimum environment for our students, graduates, skilled workers and professionals to develop their potentials

73 Challenges Improvement of governance of higher educational institutions through the PQF and AQRF and increased transparency and readability of PQF vis-à-vis higher education institutions in ASEAN Improvement of governance of higher educational institutions through the PQF and AQRF and increased transparency and readability of PQF vis-à-vis higher education institutions in ASEAN Policy dialogues on strategic issues on higher education particularly in: Policy dialogues on strategic issues on higher education particularly in: Educational capacity building of HEI’s vis-à-vis AMS HEIs Educational capacity building of HEI’s vis-à-vis AMS HEIs Policy research and conduct study for harmonization of HE Policy research and conduct study for harmonization of HE Harmonization of PQF Quality Assurance Framework with ASEAN Quality Assurance Framework in Higher Education Harmonization of PQF Quality Assurance Framework with ASEAN Quality Assurance Framework in Higher Education

74 Challenges Review existing credit transfer system especially AUN- ACTS (ASEAN University Network – ASEAN Credit Transfer Systems) vis-à-vis PQF: Review existing credit transfer system especially AUN- ACTS (ASEAN University Network – ASEAN Credit Transfer Systems) vis-à-vis PQF: 1. PQF 2. Common platform for credit systems with ASEAN during pilot/pre-referencing with select undergraduate and post-graduate courses from HEI’s 3. Capacity building to improve capacity of participating HEI’s to existing credit system 4. Take into consideration cross-cutting issues like gender- balance, equal opportunities and the participation of disadvantaged groups e.g. students with special needs and economically disadvantaged students.

75 Way Forward / Next Steps With the ASEAN Integration in 2015, there is a lot to be done in Higher Education With the ASEAN Integration in 2015, there is a lot to be done in Higher Education

76 Way Forward / Next Steps Bringing together all stakeholders Bringing together all stakeholders Government agencies Government agencies Academe Academe Accrediting bodies Accrediting bodies Industry/Business Industry/Business Professional organizations Professional organizations Professionals Professionals In enhancing our Education Competitiveness

77 Thank you very much Thank you very much for your kind attention! for your kind attention!


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