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Global Marketing and R & D

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1 Global Marketing and R & D
Managing Transnational Corporations Global Marketing and R & D

2 Opening Case Kodak entered Russia in the early 1990’s
Country was deep in the middle of a turbulent transition from a communist economy to a new democracy Russian consumers had little knowledge of Kodak’s products The consumer market for photography was underdeveloped Apart from state-run stores, there was little or no infrastructure in place for distributing photographic equipment, film, and processing Consumers were poor and lacked the ability to afford all but the most inexpensive cameras

3 Opening Case Kodak’s entry into Russia is widely regarded as a major success because it accounts for a significant portion of $2.59 billion in international sales and growth rate of 26% Reasons for Kodak’s success include A clear and consistent marketing message communicated through a number of media- saving memories; you press button and we do the rest They invested in promoting a corporate image as a firm that takes a stand against corruption and black-market practices The product strategy has been to sell lower-end film and cameras in Russia Encouraged major enterprises to give cameras to valued employees Built a distribution channel through franchising – Kodak Express

4 The Globalization of Markets and Brands
Important to determine when product standardization is appropriate in an international market Firms may need to vary marketing mix in each different country Globalization may be the exception rather than the rule in many consumer goods markets and industrial markets due to significant differences in countries

5 Key Focus areas of this session
Market Segmentation Distribution Strategy Communication Strategy Push Versus Pull Strategy Pricing Strategy Configuring the Marketing Mix New Product Development Integrating R&D, Marketing and Production

6 Market Segmentation Refers to identifying distinct groups of consumers whose purchasing behavior differs from others in important ways Segments can based on: Geography Demography Socio-cultural factors Psychological factors

7 Market Segmentation Two main issues relating to segmentation:
Extent of differences between countries in the structure of market segments Existence of segments that transcend national borders

8 Product Attributes Cultural differences Economic development
Product and technical standards

9 Cultural Differences Differ along dimensions such as social structure, language, religion, and education Impact of tradition Some tastes and preferences becoming cosmopolitan

10 Economic Development Consumer behavior is influenced by economic development Consumers in highly developed countries tend to demand extra performance attributes in their products Price not a factor due to high income level Consumers in less developed countries value basic features as more important Price a factor due to lower income level Cars: no air-conditioning, power steering, power windows, radios, and cassette players Product reliability is more important

11 Product and Technical Standards
Government standards can rule out mass production and marketing of a standardized product Differing technical standards constrain globalization of markets Different television signal frequencies 120 vs 220 volt equipments

12 Distribution Strategy
Choice of the optimal channel for delivering a product to the consumer Optimal strategy is determined by the relative costs and benefits of each alternative Depends on differences between countries Retail concentration Channel length Channel exclusivity

13 Typical Distribution System
Figure 17.1, p. 590

14 Retail Concentration Concentrated system Fragmented system
Common in developed countries Contributing factors: increase in car ownership, number of households with refrigerators and freezers, and two-income households Fragmented system Common in developing countries Contributing factors: great population density with large number of urban centers, e.g. Japan Uneven or mountainous terrain, e.g. Nepal

15 Channel Length Refers to number of intermediaries between the producer and the consumer Determined by degree to which the retail system is fragmented Long distribution channel Short distribution channel

16 Channel Length Long distribution channel Short distribution channel
Fragmented retail system promotes growth of wholesalers and retailers Firms go through intermediaries such as wholesalers to cut selling costs Short distribution channel Concentrated retail system Firms deal directly with retailers

17 Channel Exclusivity Degree to which it is difficult for outsiders to access distribution channels Varies between countries Japan - exclusive systems because personal relations, often decades old, play an important role in stocking products Difficult for new firm to get shelf space as compared to an old firm

18 Choosing a Distribution Strategy
The optimal strategy is determined by the relative costs and benefits of each alternative Varies from country to country Benefits of a shorter distribution channel The longer the channel, the greater the aggregate markup and the higher the price that consumers are charged for the final product If price is an important competitive weapon the firm might choose a shorter channel

19 Choosing a Distribution Strategy
Benefits of a longer distribution channel Cuts selling costs when the retail sector is fragmented Longer channels can provide increased market access If channel quality is poor, a firm should consider what steps it could take to upgrade the quality of the channel This may include establishing its own distribution channel

20 Communication Strategy
Defines the process the firm will use in communicating the attributes of its product to prospective customers Cultural barriers Source effects Noise levels

21 Barriers to International Communication
Cultural Barriers Develop cross-cultural literacy Firm should use local input such as local advertising agency and sales force Source and country of origin effects Receiver of the message evaluates the message based on status or image of the sender Anti-Japan wave in US in 1990’s Place of manufacturing influences product evaluations Often used when consumer lacks more detailed knowledge of the product Examples: French wines, Italian clothes, and German luxury cars

22 Barriers to International Communication
Noise levels Amount of other messages competing for a potential customer’s attention Developed countries - high Less developed countries - low Standardized advertising strategy execution more difficult (culture, laws)

23 Push Versus Pull Strategy
Push strategy emphasizes personal selling Requires intense use of a sales force Relatively costly Pull strategy depends on mass media advertising Can be cheaper for a large market segment Determining factors of type of strategy Product type and consumer sophistication Channel length Media availability

24 Product Type and Consumer Sophistication
Pull strategy Consumer goods Large market segment Long distribution channels Mass communication has cost advantages Push strategy Industrial products or complex new products Direct selling allows firms to educate users Short distribution channels Used in poorer nations for consumer goods where direct selling only way to reach consumers

25 Channel Length Pull strategy Push Strategy
Long or exclusive distribution channels e.g. Japan Mass advertising to generate demand to pull product through various layers Push Strategy In countries with low literacy levels to educate consumers

26 Media Availability Pull strategy Push strategy
Relies on access to advertising media Common in developed nations Push strategy Media availability limited by law All electronic media state owned with no commercial policy

27 Global Advertising Standardized: Non-standardized:
Significant economic advantages Scarce creative talent Many global brand names Non-standardized: Cultural differences Advertising regulations can be a restriction

28 Pricing Strategy Three aspects of international pricing strategy
Price discrimination Strategic pricing Regulatory influence on prices

29 Price Discrimination Said to occur when consumers in different countries are charged different prices for the same product Two conditions necessary National markets kept separate to prevent arbitrage Capitalization of price differentials by purchasing product in countries where prices are lower and reselling where prices are higher Different price elasticities of demand in different countries Greater in countries with low income levels and highly competitive conditions

30 Elastic and Inelastic Demand
The price elasticity of demand is a measure of the responsiveness of demand for a product to changes in price. Demand is said to be elastic when a small change in price produces a large change in demand; it is said to be inelastic when a large change in price produces only a small change in demand. Figure 17.2 illustrates elastic and inelastic demand curves. Generally a firm can charge a higher price in a country where demand is inelastic. Figure 17.2, p. 601

31 Strategic Pricing Predatory pricing
Using price as a competitive weapon to drive weaker competition out of a national market Firms then raise prices to enjoy high profits Firms normally have profitable position in another national market

32 Strategic Pricing Multipoint pricing strategy
Two or more international firms compete against each other in two or more national markets A firm’s pricing strategy in one market may impact a rival in another market Kodak and Fuji

33 Strategic Pricing Experience curve pricing
Firms price low worldwide to build market share Incurred losses are made up as company moves down experience curve, making substantial profits Cost advantage over its less-aggressive competitors

34 Regulatory Influences on Prices
Antidumping regulations Selling a product for a price that is less than the cost of producing it Antidumping rules vague, but place a floor under export prices and limit a firm’s ability to pursue strategic pricing Article 6 of GATT allows action against an importer if the product is sold at ‘less than fair value’ and causes ‘material injury to a domestic industry’ Competition policy Regulations designed to promote competition and restrict monopoly practices

35 Configuring the Marketing Mix
Standards Differences Here Competition Distribution Economy Culture Gov’t Regs Product Attributes Pricing Strategy Requires Variation Here Communications Strategy Distribution Strategy

36 New Product Development
The location of R & D Rate of new product development greater in countries where More money spent on R&D Underlying demand is strong Consumers are affluent Competition is intense

37 Integrating R&D, Marketing and Production
Integrating R&D, production and marketing ensures Project development driven by customer needs New products are designed for ease of manufacture Development costs are kept in check Time to market is minimized

38 Integrating R&D, Marketing and Production
High failure rate ratio Between 33 % and 60% of new products fail to earn adequate profits Reasons for failure: Limited product demand Failure to adequately commercialize product Inability to manufacture product cost-effectively

39 Cross-Functional Product Development Teams
Objective of team to take a product development project from the initial concept development to market introduction Effective teams must have “Heavyweight “ project manager One member from each key function Physically co-located to facilitate communication Clear plan and goals Own process for communication and conflict resolution

40 Looking Ahead to next session
Global Human Resource Management The Strategic Role of International HRM Staffing Policy Training and Management Development Performance Appraisal Compensation International Labor Relations Please Read: 1-Cross cultural case study 2-Hindustanizaion of Levers

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