Presentation on theme: "Neural and Hormonal Systems"— Presentation transcript:
1 Neural and Hormonal Systems PSYCHOLOGYNeural and Hormonal Systems
2 True or False?A small amount of brain tissue from a person cannot be distinguished from that of a monkey.The human brain produces its own natural opiates.Some one can write but be unable to read.Electrically stimulating a cat’s brain at a certain point can cause the animal to cower in terror in the presence of a small mouse.Some people have had their brain cut in half with no apparent ill effect.
3 What does your skull tell us about you? Demostration: take your hands and feel your skull/headWhat do you notice?
4 Phrenology Franz Gall - phrenologist Not very scientific Bumps on skull reveal mental abilities & character traitsNot very scientificHowever it did highlight the presumed function of specific brain regions
5 Neural Communication Biological Psychology branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behaviorsome biological psychologists call themselves behavioral neuroscientists, neuropsychologists, behavior geneticists, physiological psychologists, or biopsychologists
6 Neuron Neuron a nerve cell the basic building block of the nervous system
7 Neural Communication Dendrite (listen) Axon (speak) the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell bodyAxon (speak)the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages are sent to other neurons or to muscles or glands
8 The insulator Myelin [MY-uh-lin] Sheath a layer of fatty cells encasing the fibers of many neuronsenables vastly greater transmission speed of neutral impulses
9 Neuron Axon terminals - where message leaves axon Synaptic gap - space the message jumps across from the axon terminal to the next dentrite
10 Neural Communication Synapse [SIN-aps] (Sherrington) Neurotransmitters junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neurontiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or cleftNeurotransmitterschemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neuronswhen released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether it will generate a neural impulse
12 Neural communicationHow does a neuron fire a message?
13 Neural Communication Action Potential a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axonThresholdthe minimum level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
14 How does a neuron fire a message? For Action potential a Threshold has to be reach:The + sodium ions (partiers) around the axon have to be excitedThere has to be more partiers (excitatory) then party poopers (inhibitory) for the message to be sent down the axon
15 Neural impulse - Action potential Resting potential (polarized neuron;- potassium inside, + sodium outside)Excitatory (+ sodium, partiers - gas pedal) vs Inhibitory (- potassium, party poopers -brake)All or nothing responseReach threshold for action potentialDepolarization (+sodium come into the axon)Selectively permeable - gate opensRefractory period (recharging, +sodium move back out)
16 Neural Communication Cell body end of axon Direction of neural impulse: toward axon terminals
17 Neural communication Where does a neural impulse begin? Know the order of transmissionHow does one neuron communicate to another?Be able to explain the process
18 Neural comm.Know names of neurotransmitters and their functions & malfunctions - see chart in bookShould also know whether they inhibit or excite
20 Neural Communication Acetylcholine [ah-seat-el-KO-leen] a neurotransmitter that, among its functions, triggers muscle contractionEndorphins [en-DOR-fins]“morphine within”natural, opiate-like neurotransmitterslinked to pain control and to pleasure
26 3 kinds of neurons 1. Sensory Neurons 2. Interneurons 3. Motor Neurons neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system2. InterneuronsCNS neurons that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs3. Motor Neuronscarry outgoing information from the CNS to muscles and glands
27 The Nervous System Nervous System the body’s speedy, electrochemical communication system
28 The Nervous System Nerves neural “cables” containing many axons part of the peripheral nervous systemconnect the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs
29 The Nervous System Central (brain and spinal cord) Nervous system Autonomic (controlsself-regulated action ofinternal organs and glands)Skeletal (controlsvoluntary movements ofskeletal muscles)Sympathetic(arousing)Parasympathetic(calming)Peripheral
30 2 parts of nervous system Central Nervous System (CNS)the brain and spinal cordPeripheral Nervous System (PNS)the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system (CNS) to the rest of the body
31 PNS Skeletal or Somatic Nervous System the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body’s skeletal muscles
32 PNS Autonomic Nervous System (think automatic) the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart)a. Sympathetic Nervous Systemdivision that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situationsb. Parasympathetic Nervous Systemdivision that calms the body, conserving its energy
35 The Nervous System Reflex a simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulusSkinreceptorsMuscleSensory neuron(incoming information)Motor neuron(outgoinginformation)BrainInterneuronSpinal cord
36 Neural Networks Neural Networks interconnected neural cells with experience, networks can learn, as feedback strengthens or inhibits connections that produce certain resultscomputer simulations of neural networks show analogous learningInputsOutputsNeurons in the brainconnect with oneanother to form networksThe brain learns by modifyingcertain connections inresponse to feedback
37 The Endocrine System Endocrine System the body’s “slow” chemical communication systema set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
38 Endrocrine system Hormones Slow & long lasting chemical messengers that travel through the blood
39 Endocrine System Pituitary Gland (the master gland) under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands
40 Endrocrine system Adrenal [ah-DREEN-el] Glands a pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneyssecrete the hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline), which help to arouse the body in times of stress
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