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PSYCHOLOGY Neural and Hormonal Systems. True or False? 1.A small amount of brain tissue from a person cannot be distinguished from that of a monkey. 2.The.

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Presentation on theme: "PSYCHOLOGY Neural and Hormonal Systems. True or False? 1.A small amount of brain tissue from a person cannot be distinguished from that of a monkey. 2.The."— Presentation transcript:

1 PSYCHOLOGY Neural and Hormonal Systems

2 True or False? 1.A small amount of brain tissue from a person cannot be distinguished from that of a monkey. 2.The human brain produces its own natural opiates. 3.Some one can write but be unable to read. 4.Electrically stimulating a cat’s brain at a certain point can cause the animal to cower in terror in the presence of a small mouse. 5.Some people have had their brain cut in half with no apparent ill effect.

3 What does your skull tell us about you? zDemostration: take your hands and feel your skull/head zWhat do you notice?

4 Phrenology zFranz Gall - phrenologist yBumps on skull reveal mental abilities & character traits zNot very scientific zHowever it did highlight the presumed function of specific brain regions

5 Neural Communication  Biological Psychology  branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior  some biological psychologists call themselves behavioral neuroscientists, neuropsychologists, behavior geneticists, physiological psychologists, or biopsychologists

6 Neuron  Neuron  a nerve cell  the basic building block of the nervous system

7 Neural Communication  Dendrite (listen)  the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body  Axon (speak)  the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages are sent to other neurons or to muscles or glands

8 The insulator  Myelin [MY-uh-lin] Sheath  a layer of fatty cells encasing the fibers of many neurons  enables vastly greater transmission speed of neutral impulses

9 Neuron Axon terminals - where message leaves axon Synaptic gap - space the message jumps across from the axon terminal to the next dentrite

10 Neural Communication  Synapse [SIN-aps] (Sherrington)  junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron  tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or cleft  Neurotransmitters  chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons  when released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether it will generate a neural impulse

11 Neural Communication

12 Neural communication zHow does a neuron fire a message?

13 Neural Communication Action Potential  a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon Threshold  the minimum level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse

14 How does a neuron fire a message? For Action potential a Threshold has to be reach: The + sodium ions (partiers) around the axon have to be excited There has to be more partiers (excitatory) then party poopers (inhibitory) for the message to be sent down the axon

15 Neural impulse - Action potential 1.Resting potential (polarized neuron; - potassium inside, + sodium outside) 1.Excitatory (+ sodium, partiers - gas pedal) vs Inhibitory (- potassium, party poopers -brake) 2.All or nothing response Reach threshold for action potential 3.Depolarization (+sodium come into the axon) Selectively permeable - gate opens 4.Refractory period (recharging, +sodium move back out)

16 Neural Communication Cell body end of axon Direction of neural impulse: toward axon terminals

17 Neural communication zWhere does a neural impulse begin? yKnow the order of transmission zHow does one neuron communicate to another? yBe able to explain the process

18 Neural comm. zKnow names of neurotransmitters and their functions & malfunctions - see chart in book zShould also know whether they inhibit or excite

19 Neural Communication

20  Acetylcholine [ah-seat-el-KO-leen]  a neurotransmitter that, among its functions, triggers muscle contraction  Endorphins [en-DOR-fins]  “morphine within”  natural, opiate-like neurotransmitters  linked to pain control and to pleasure

21 Agonist vs Antagonist zAgonists - excite / mimic zAntagonists - inhibit / block

22 Neural Communication Neurotransmitter molecule Receiving cell membrane Receptor site on receiving neuron Agonist mimics neurotransmitter Antagonist blocks neurotransmitter

23 Reuptake zReuptake - neurotransmitters that don’t get absorbed by the receiving neuron go back to the sending neuron

24 Neural Communication

25 Serotonin Pathways Dopamine Pathways

26 3 kinds of neurons 1. Sensory Neurons  neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system 2. Interneurons  CNS neurons that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs 3. Motor Neurons  carry outgoing information from the CNS to muscles and glands

27 The Nervous System Nervous System  the body’s speedy, electrochemical communication system

28 The Nervous System Nerves  neural “cables” containing many axons  part of the peripheral nervous system  connect the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs

29 The Nervous System Central (brain and spinal cord) Nervous system Autonomic (controls self-regulated action of internal organs and glands) Skeletal (controls voluntary movements of skeletal muscles) Sympathetic (arousing) Parasympathetic (calming) Peripheral

30 2 parts of nervous system Central Nervous System (CNS)  the brain and spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)  the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system (CNS) to the rest of the body

31 PNS Skeletal or Somatic Nervous System  the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body’s skeletal muscles

32 PNS Autonomic Nervous System (think automatic) the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart) a. Sympathetic Nervous System  division that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations b. Parasympathetic Nervous System  division that calms the body, conserving its energy

33 The Nervous System

34

35  Reflex  a simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus Skin receptors Muscle Sensory neuron (incoming information) Motor neuron (outgoing information) Brain Interneuron Spinal cord

36 Neural Networks  interconnected neural cells  with experience, networks can learn, as feedback strengthens or inhibits connections that produce certain results  computer simulations of neural networks show analogous learning InputsOutputs Neurons in the brain connect with one another to form networks The brain learns by modifying certain connections in response to feedback

37 The Endocrine System  Endocrine System  the body’s “slow” chemical communication system  a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream

38 Endrocrine system Hormones  Slow & long lasting chemical messengers that travel through the blood

39 Endocrine System Pituitary Gland (the master gland)  under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands

40 Endrocrine system Adrenal [ah-DREEN-el] Glands  a pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys  secrete the hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline), which help to arouse the body in times of stress


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