Presentation on theme: " Otzi is a well-preserved natural mummy of a Chalcolithic (Copper Age) man from about 3300 BC. On September 19, 1991 two German tourists climbing in."— Presentation transcript:
Otzi is a well-preserved natural mummy of a Chalcolithic (Copper Age) man from about 3300 BC. On September 19, 1991 two German tourists climbing in the Ötztal Alps, near the border between Austria and Italy discovered a frozen body emerging from the glacier. This frozen body would become known as the Iceman, and be one of the most exciting scientific discovery of its time.
Because of its state of preservation, the body was at first thought to be a modern corpse, like several others which had been recently found in the region. Before the body was removed from the ice, people were allowed to see it, and some took portions of the clothing and tools as souvenirs.
Ötzi the Iceman while still frozen in the glacier, photographed by Helmut Simon upon the discovery of the body in September 1991
Another early photograph of the body before its removal from the ice.
Lying on its front and frozen in ice below the torso, it was crudely removed from the glacier by the Austrian authorities using a small jackhammer (which punctured the hip of the body) and ice-axes using non- archaeological methods. The body was then taken to a morgue in Innsbruck, where its true age was subsequently ascertained.
Damage caused by small jack hammer to Otzi’s hip when authorities attempted to remove his body from the ice.
Ötzi was approximately 1.65 metres (5 ft 5 in) tall and weighed about 50 kilograms. He was about 45 years of age. The body has been extensively examined, measured, X-rayed, and dated. Tissues and intestinal contents have been examined microscopically, as have the items found with the body.
An early x-ray of Otzi
Analysis of Ötzi's intestinal contents showed his last meals (the last one about eight hours before his death), the most recent of red deer meat. There was also some grain as well as some roots and fruits. The grain was a highly processed wheat bran, quite possibly eaten in the form of bread. Also, pollen grains of hop-hornbeam were discovered. The pollen was very well preserved, indicating that it had been fresh (a few hours old) at the time of Ötzi's death, which places his death in the spring.
Ötzi had whipworm, an intestinal parasite. During CT scans, it was observed that three or four of his right ribs had been squashed when he had been lying face down after death, or where the ice had crushed his body. His fingernail (only one was found) indicates he was sick three times in the six months before he died.
Whipworm found in Otzi’s intestines
Ötzi had approximately 57 carbon tattoos consisting of simple dots and lines on his lower spine, behind his left knee, and on his right ankle. Using X-rays, it was determined that the Iceman may have had arthritis in these joints. It has been speculated that they may be related to acupuncture
Ötzi's clothes were sophisticated. He wore: ◦ cloak made of woven grass and a coat ◦ a belt, a pair of leggings ◦ a loincloth made of leather of different skins. ◦ He also wore a bearskin cap with a leather chin strap. ◦ Shoes made of bearskin for the soles, deer hide for the top panels, and a netting made of tree bark. Soft grass went around the foot and in the shoe and functioned like modern socks.
The coat, belt, leggings, and loincloth were constructed of vertical strips of leather sewn together with sinew. His belt had a pouch sewn to it that contained useful items: a scraper, drill, flint flake, and a dried fungus to be used as tinder. His shoes were waterproof and wide, designed for walking across snow
Unfinished Bow Axe Backpack Ibex bones Two birch containers Dagger with scabbard Retoucher Belt pouch and contents Two pieces of fungi Tassel with marbel bead A net of grass string Quiver and aroows 9/7/2014
182cms long bow Quiver had 2 arrows ready to use and 12 partly completed shafts
Skin binding copper blade to yew handle. Only prehistoric axe ever found intact.
Ash wood handle bound with animal sinew with flint blade. Scabbard of grass cord and leather strap
Like a stubby pencil. Stag antler set into wooden handle. Used to sharpen flint tools.
Antibiotic – a travelling medical kit?
Who was Otzi? What was his occupation? (What did he do?) What was he doing in the mountains? What can Otzi teach us about society in Europe during the Chalcolithic (Copper Age) period? How did he die?