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The failure of the League of Nations and the causes of WWII

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1 The failure of the League of Nations and the causes of WWII
Topic B Learning Guide 3

2 Q1. Chart and map the Manchurian Crisis.
Japan – desire to develop a colonial empire (imperialism) Increased demands for natural resources Abundant natural resources in Manchuria made it a target Deliberate breach of the Covenant of the League of Nations Demonstrates the ineffectiveness of the League of Nations and maintaining peace and security. “Toothless” Reinforced the concept of expansionism through force (Europe and Japan). Encouraged European dictators to follow similar expansion in Africa. (Mussolini & Abyssinia)

3 Topic B Learning Guide 3 Q2.What did the Lytton commission decide about the Manchurian incident? In Part sympathetic to the Japanese position Accepted they had a long standing investment that should be protected. Named Japan as the aggressor in the overall incident Japan withdraws from the League of Nations

4 Q8. Chart and Map: Italy’s Invasion of Abyssinia.
The death blow to the League of Nations Mussolini wanted war and glory. Abyssinia would make up for the lack of territory it received in the Treaty of Versailles. Help to create an Italian Empire Increase political support. Reaction to the Invasion was caution – diplomacy Gave time for Mussolini to send his army into Ethiopia League implements trade arms, rubber & metals sanctions. Nations would not support sanctions as they were more interested in protecting their own economy. Abyssinia secretly given to Italy by Britain & France.

5 Rise of Fascism Why did the Weimar Republic Collapse? Weaknesses of the new republic Associated with defeat & humiliation of Versailles Treaty. Tradition of admiration of army and lack of respect for democracy. Widespread feeling that politician had betrayed soldiers- “the stab in the back”. New constitution had weaknesses – proportional representation meant political instability because no one party could gain a majority. Politicians and people lacked experience of democracy Often resorted to violent methods to achieve aims. Government failed to prevent political violence – seemed weak and lost respect

6 Economic problems Hyper inflation of 1923 affected working class and many of middle class. They blamed the government. Economic recovery of mid- 1920’s was reliant on American loans Dawes Plan 1924 potentially dangerous (economic dependence). Wall Street Crash of 1929 led to world economic crisis. Germany badly hit and unemployment rose sharply. People looked to alternatives such as Nazi Party to solve their problems.

7 3. Growth of the Nazi Party
Nazis promised prosperity & employment, & gave people someone to blame for their problems – politicians, communists, Jews Appealed to nationalism – promised to rebuild a strong Germany. Hitler was a superb politician and speaker – appealed to emotions rather than reason. Told people what they wanted to hear. Masterful use of propaganda to make their points and political violence to disrupt opponents. Offered striking alternative to Weimar government – strength versus weakness decisiveness versus caution, order versus chaos

8 German Foreign Policy Weimar foreign policy falls into two periods Allied control of Germany until the early 20’s Wilhelm and his successors trying to restore Germany to the diplomatic community and to find agreements that would lead to economic and territorial recovery Policy of Fulfillment To fulfill the terms laid down by Versailles & by doing so show how impossible they were for Germany and thus bring about mood in which Germany could more profitably ask for revision of the treaty. The chief architect of this policy was Gustav Stresemann Fulfillment came with Locarno Pacts of 1925

9 Hitler’s Foreign Policy
Four chief aims underlay Hitler’s foreign policy To extend Nazism into more areas of Germany He planned to defy and revise the terms and the spirit of Versailles He intended to unite all German-speaking peoples of central Europe into a greater Reich. He wanted to make conquests in the east to provide Lebensraum.

10 1st four year plan 1933 Reduction of unemployment through public works programs The Autobahn Reforestation Conservation Marriage allowances for women (to remove the from the labor force) 2nd 4 year plan 1936 The aim of this plan was autarky or economic self-sufficiency It was hoped that autarky would make Germany totally independent of world economic trends. Some countries were boycotting Germany for her anti-Semitic policies autarky would be essential in the case of war.

11 Q4. Explain how Hitler gained power in Germany.
Appealing to the emotional side of people Offered decisive action Willingness of the people to allow leadership by military rather than politicians Economic depression world wide People turned to leaders who promised stability Hitler promoted economic stability and nationalism, industrial growth, rearmament, and an end to the reparation payments Inconsistency by previous chancellors in solving economic problems. Prez. Hindenburg replaces Von Schleichen with Hitler.

12 Q5. How did the Enabling Act allow Hitler to establish a single party dictatorship? How was Hitler able to use democracy to create his dictatorship? Gave Hitler power to rule by decree (official order) without the Reichstag's approval. Able to abolish all opposing parties Create a court system that would deal with dissidents He became the supreme lawmaker Regulated Private Enterprise Told business people that he would not let the communists take their businesses away Individual rights are subordinated to the goals of the state The fascist state is an object of worship

13 Q6. What was the significance of the “Night of the Long Knives”?
Massacre / blood purge of potential political rivals. Targeted SA leaders & supporters of a socialist views

14 Q7. What was the final step that gave Hitler absolute power?
Merged the offices of the chancellor and the president into one. Eliminated any political competitors Eliminated any constitutional authority

15 Q9. Explain the significance of the Maginot Line to French security.
Stationary fortification to deter German aggression. These were built along the French Border between Germany, France, Italy. Purpose was to provide time for the French army to mobilize in the event of an attack. In-effective Germans walked around the line at Ardennes Forest, Belgium and Netherlands


17 Meuse river in the Ardennes


19 Q10. Rhineland: Why was the reoccupation of the Rhineland seen as a risk?
Hitler's military leaders opposed the reoccupation. They worried it would precipitate war with France. Germany was not yet read to go to war.

20 Q11. Chart and Map the Spanish Civil War.
War breaks out 1936 Labor problems unemployment / starvation leads to civil unrest Demands for better working conditions and redistribution of wealth Demands for republican form of government crushed Military dictatorship (1923 – 1930) 1931 General election Alfonso abdicates throne Left wing (republican) party in power promises reforms and welfare legislation unable to make changes fast enough Nation divided: cities want republic rural loyal to Monarchy 1933 Right wing party undoes any reforms 1936 Left wing party attempt to break up rich estates

21 Confrontation between left wing supporters and rich
General Francisco Franco (nationalist) moves to restore order (opposed the Socialist (Left). The Dress Rehearsal of WWII Britain and France adopted a policy of non-intervention Germany & Italy support Franco Italy soldiers / Germany airplanes Russia supports left wing Republicans Russia gives support in an attempt to convince Britain & France to get involved and re-establish the Triple Entente Hitler supported Franco in hopes of getting military support

22 League of Nations didn’t intervene in the civil war
Hitler learned that the Western democracies were not yet ready to oppose the aggressive activities of Germany and Italy Stalin came to the same conclusion; if Germany stated the war, then Britain & France might follow a policy of non-intervention and leave USSR to fend for herself. Franco was an nationalist & opportunist dealing with both sides Spain gave some iron ore and safe haven for German u-boats and did not join the war Spain didn’t stop British or Americans’ from using the straits of Gibraltar

23 Q12. Define appeasement. Giving into demands in hopes of preserving peace

24 Q13. How did Hitler gain control of Austria?
Union of Germany and Austria (Anschluss) Rome-Berlin axis created in 1936 Mussolini would renege on its treaty with Austria guaranteeing independence Hitler would provide Italy support who had invaded Abyssinia (Ethiopia) Anschluss forbidden under the Treaty of Versailles

25 Austrian Chancellor Kurt Von Schuschnigs creates a national referendum (unification with Germany or independence) Germany sends forces to border in a pre-invasion position Schuschnig resigns Nazi Party assumes power German army invited in German Austrian union proclaimed

26 Q14. Chart and Map: Munich Agreement
Chamberlain/ Britain, Daladier / France, Hitler / Germany Mussolini / Italy Chamberlain & Daladier concerned about German expansion – not prepared for a war. Czechoslovakia was forced to give up the Sudetenland in return for no more German Aggression Germany ignores pact sends troops into Czechoslovakia & occupies the country without a shot Germany was allowed to move into the Sudetenland & areas that had more than 50% German population Czechs would give up their western defenses & withdraw army

27 Q15. Why did Britain and France allow Germany to annex the Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia?
Major example of appeasement To prevent a potential war France was committed to supporting Czechs if attacked Britain not interested in fighting a European war. Inscription in the flag:“ On towards the East!" Soviet poster of 1930-s by Kurkryniksy

28 Q16. Give the terms and the significances of the Nazi Soviet Pact.
Reasons for signing Nazi-Soviet Pact A belief by Russia that the democracies could not be trusted Disappointed that France and Great Britain did not get involved in the Spanish Civil War Because of the Purge of military officers by Stalin France and Great Britain hostile to communism. They did not feel Russia to be dependable allies. Russia was not asked to participate in the Munich Conference Russia wanted assurance that its troops would have “free Passage” across Poland and Rumania to Czechoslovakia.

29 Stalin wants territories lost in 1918 Treaty of Versailles
Stalin does not want a 2 front war (Germany and Japan) Germany invades Poland---Russia will not give aid to Poland Neither would attack the other Neither would help a “belligerent” third power Neither would join a group armed at the other Hitler make sure the USSR would not join Britain and France against Germany. Russo-German Pact – gave Hitler the “green light” for aggression

30 APPEASEMENT This policy is based on three assumptions: Pacifism – war was to be avoided at all costs. Treaty of Versailles was to harsh, therefore German grievances were legitimate. Anti-communist – a strong Germany might be useful against the Soviet dictatorship and communism This policy went against collective security and assured the League of failure. It only served to postpone the war and give both sides more time to prepare.

31 Q17. Why did Hitler invade Poland?
Germany wants back Free Port City (Danzig) and the Polish Corridor which had cut East Prussia off from the rest of Germany. Hitler want to re-unite the German people of East Prussia.

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