Presentation on theme: "The failure of the League of Nations and the causes of WWII"— Presentation transcript:
1The failure of the League of Nations and the causes of WWII Topic BLearning Guide 3
2Q1. Chart and map the Manchurian Crisis. Japan – desire to develop a colonial empire (imperialism)Increased demands for natural resourcesAbundant natural resources in Manchuria made it a targetDeliberate breach of the Covenant of the League of NationsDemonstrates the ineffectiveness of the League of Nations and maintaining peace and security. “Toothless”Reinforced the concept of expansionism through force (Europe and Japan).Encouraged European dictators to follow similar expansion in Africa. (Mussolini & Abyssinia)
3Topic B Learning Guide 3Q2.What did the Lytton commission decide about the Manchurian incident?In Part sympathetic to the Japanese positionAccepted they had a long standing investment that should be protected.Named Japan as the aggressor in the overall incidentJapan withdraws from the League of Nations
4Q8. Chart and Map: Italy’s Invasion of Abyssinia. The death blow to the League of NationsMussolini wanted war and glory.Abyssinia would make up for the lack of territory it received in the Treaty of Versailles. Help to create an Italian EmpireIncrease political support.Reaction to the Invasion was caution – diplomacyGave time for Mussolini to send his army into EthiopiaLeague implements trade arms, rubber & metals sanctions.Nations would not support sanctions as they were more interested in protecting their own economy.Abyssinia secretly given to Italy by Britain & France.
5Rise of FascismWhy did the Weimar Republic Collapse?Weaknesses of the new republicAssociated with defeat & humiliation of Versailles Treaty.Tradition of admiration of army and lack of respect for democracy.Widespread feeling that politician had betrayed soldiers- “the stab in the back”.New constitution had weaknesses – proportional representation meant political instability because no one party could gain a majority.Politicians and people lacked experience of democracyOften resorted to violent methods to achieve aims.Government failed to prevent political violence – seemed weak and lost respect
6Economic problemsHyper inflation of 1923 affected working class and many of middle class.They blamed the government.Economic recovery of mid- 1920’s was reliant on American loansDawes Plan 1924 potentially dangerous (economic dependence).Wall Street Crash of 1929 led to world economic crisis.Germany badly hit and unemployment rose sharply. People looked to alternatives such as Nazi Party to solve their problems.
73. Growth of the Nazi Party Nazis promised prosperity & employment, & gave people someone to blame for their problems – politicians, communists, JewsAppealed to nationalism – promised to rebuild a strong Germany.Hitler was a superb politician and speaker – appealed to emotions rather than reason. Told people what they wanted to hear.Masterful use of propaganda to make their points and political violence to disrupt opponents.Offered striking alternative to Weimar government –strength versus weaknessdecisiveness versus caution,order versus chaos
8German Foreign PolicyWeimar foreign policy falls into two periodsAllied control of Germany until the early 20’sWilhelm and his successors trying to restore Germany to the diplomatic community and to find agreements that would lead to economic and territorial recoveryPolicy of FulfillmentTo fulfill the terms laid down by Versailles & by doing so show how impossible they were for Germany and thus bring about mood in which Germany could more profitably ask for revision of the treaty.The chief architect of this policy was Gustav StresemannFulfillment came with Locarno Pacts of 1925
9Hitler’s Foreign Policy Four chief aims underlay Hitler’s foreign policyTo extend Nazism into more areas of GermanyHe planned to defy and revise the terms and the spirit of VersaillesHe intended to unite all German-speaking peoples of central Europe into a greater Reich.He wanted to make conquests in the east to provide Lebensraum.
101st four year plan 1933Reduction of unemployment through public works programsThe AutobahnReforestationConservationMarriage allowances for women (to remove the from the labor force)2nd 4 year plan 1936The aim of this plan was autarky or economic self-sufficiencyIt was hoped that autarky would make Germany totally independent of world economic trends.Some countries were boycotting Germany for her anti-Semitic policies autarky would be essential in the case of war.
11Q4. Explain how Hitler gained power in Germany. Appealing to the emotional side of peopleOffered decisive actionWillingness of the people to allow leadership by military rather than politiciansEconomic depression world widePeople turned to leaders who promised stabilityHitler promoted economic stability and nationalism, industrial growth, rearmament, and an end to the reparation paymentsInconsistency by previous chancellors in solving economic problems.Prez. Hindenburg replaces Von Schleichen with Hitler.
12Q5. How did the Enabling Act allow Hitler to establish a single party dictatorship? How was Hitler able to use democracy to create his dictatorship?Gave Hitler power to rule by decree (official order) without the Reichstag's approval.Able to abolish all opposing partiesCreate a court system that would deal with dissidentsHe became the supreme lawmakerRegulated Private EnterpriseTold business people that he would not let the communists take their businesses awayIndividual rights are subordinated to the goals of the stateThe fascist state is an object of worship
13Q6. What was the significance of the “Night of the Long Knives”? Massacre / blood purge of potential political rivals.Targeted SA leaders & supporters of a socialist views
14Q7. What was the final step that gave Hitler absolute power? Merged the offices of the chancellor and the president into one.Eliminated any political competitorsEliminated any constitutional authority
15Q9. Explain the significance of the Maginot Line to French security. Stationary fortification to deter German aggression.These were built along the French Border between Germany, France, Italy.Purpose was to provide time for the French army to mobilize in the event of an attack.In-effectiveGermans walked around the line at Ardennes Forest, Belgium and Netherlands
19Q10. Rhineland: Why was the reoccupation of the Rhineland seen as a risk? Hitler's military leaders opposed the reoccupation.They worried it would precipitate war with France.Germany was not yet read to go to war.
20Q11. Chart and Map the Spanish Civil War. War breaks out 1936Labor problems unemployment / starvation leads to civil unrestDemands for better working conditions and redistribution of wealthDemands for republican form of government crushedMilitary dictatorship (1923 – 1930)1931 General election Alfonso abdicates throneLeft wing (republican) party in power promises reforms and welfare legislation unable to make changes fast enoughNation divided:cities want republicrural loyal to Monarchy1933 Right wing party undoes any reforms1936 Left wing party attempt to break up rich estates
21Confrontation between left wing supporters and rich General Francisco Franco (nationalist) moves to restore order (opposed the Socialist (Left).The Dress Rehearsal of WWIIBritain and France adopted a policy of non-interventionGermany & Italy support FrancoItaly soldiers / Germany airplanesRussia supports left wing RepublicansRussia gives support in an attempt to convince Britain & France to get involved and re-establish the Triple EntenteHitler supported Franco in hopes of getting military support
22League of Nations didn’t intervene in the civil war Hitler learned that the Western democracies were not yet ready to oppose the aggressive activities of Germany and ItalyStalin came to the same conclusion; if Germany stated the war, then Britain & France might follow a policy of non-intervention and leave USSR to fend for herself.Franco was an nationalist & opportunist dealing with both sidesSpain gave some iron ore and safe haven for German u-boats and did not join the warSpain didn’t stop British or Americans’ from using the straits of Gibraltar
23Q12. Define appeasement.Giving into demands in hopes of preserving peace
24Q13. How did Hitler gain control of Austria? Union of Germany and Austria (Anschluss)Rome-Berlin axis created in 1936Mussolini would renege on its treaty with Austria guaranteeing independenceHitler would provide Italy support who had invaded Abyssinia (Ethiopia)Anschluss forbidden under the Treaty of Versailles
25Austrian Chancellor Kurt Von Schuschnigs creates a national referendum (unification with Germany or independence)Germany sends forces to border in a pre-invasion positionSchuschnig resignsNazi Party assumes powerGerman army invited inGerman Austrian union proclaimed
26Q14. Chart and Map: Munich Agreement Chamberlain/ Britain, Daladier / France, Hitler / GermanyMussolini / ItalyChamberlain & Daladier concerned about German expansion – not prepared for a war.Czechoslovakia was forced to give up the Sudetenland in return for no more German AggressionGermany ignores pact sends troops into Czechoslovakia & occupies the country without a shotGermany was allowed to move into the Sudetenland & areas that had more than 50% German populationCzechs would give up their western defenses & withdraw army
27Q15. Why did Britain and France allow Germany to annex the Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia? Major example of appeasementTo prevent a potential warFrance was committed to supporting Czechs if attackedBritain not interested in fighting a European war.Inscription in the flag:“ On towards the East!"Soviet poster of 1930-s by Kurkryniksy
28Q16. Give the terms and the significances of the Nazi Soviet Pact. Reasons for signing Nazi-Soviet PactA belief by Russia that the democracies could not be trustedDisappointed that France and Great Britain did not get involved in the Spanish Civil WarBecause of the Purge of military officers by Stalin France and Great Britain hostile to communism. They did not feel Russia to be dependable allies.Russia was not asked to participate in the Munich ConferenceRussia wanted assurance that its troops would have “free Passage” across Poland and Rumania to Czechoslovakia.
29Stalin wants territories lost in 1918 Treaty of Versailles Stalin does not want a 2 front war (Germany and Japan)Germany invades Poland---Russia will not give aid to PolandNeither would attack the otherNeither would help a “belligerent” third powerNeither would join a group armed at the otherHitler make sure the USSR would not join Britain and France against Germany.Russo-German Pact – gave Hitler the “green light” for aggression
30APPEASEMENTThis policy is based on three assumptions:Pacifism – war was to be avoided at all costs.Treaty of Versailles was to harsh, therefore German grievances were legitimate.Anti-communist – a strong Germany might be useful against the Soviet dictatorship and communismThis policy went against collective security and assured the League of failure. It only served to postpone the war and give both sides more time to prepare.
31Q17. Why did Hitler invade Poland? Germany wants back Free Port City (Danzig) and the Polish Corridor which had cut East Prussia off from the rest of Germany.Hitler want to re-unite the German people of East Prussia.