Presentation on theme: "Engineering Design. Engineering vs. Science Engineering: Steps Define the Problem Do Background Research Specify Requirements Brainstorm Solutions Choose."— Presentation transcript:
Engineering: Steps Define the Problem Do Background Research Specify Requirements Brainstorm Solutions Choose the Best Solution Do Development Work Build a Prototype Test and Redesign
Define the Problem What is the problem or need? Who has the problem or need? Why is it important to solve? The format for writing a problem statement uses your answers to the questions and follows these guidelines: Who need(s) what because why. _____ need(s) _________ because ________.
Define the Problem Example Design a bicycle that can be assembled using affordable and easily available parts for 3 rd world environments What: A cheap, easy to assemble bicycle. Who: People in poverty in non-industrial settings. Why: Mobility can assist in educational, health, and economic opportunities. The format for writing a problem statement uses your answers to the questions and follows these guidelines: Who need(s) what because why. People in poverty need a cheap easy to assemble bicycle to allow them to reach opportunities that exist at a distance.
Background Research Do Background Research: Learn from the experiences of others — this can help you find out about existing solutions to similar problems, and avoid mistakes that were made in the past. So, for an engineering design project, do background research in two major areas: Users or customers Existing solutions
Specify Requirements Specify Requirements: Needed: What features are necessary? Feasible: What features are reasonable? Adjustable: Some requirements may need adjustment or even elimination based on prototyping and testing.
Specify Requirements Example Specify Requirements: Needed: Low Cost, <$30. Durable. Made from easily available materials. Can be assembled with available tools. Feasible: What features are reasonable? Adjustable: If the materials are cheap enough, durability can be sacrificed.
Trade-offs It is impossible to engineer a perfect product. Features like low cost and durability are frequently in conflict. When designing a project, you must decide which features are more important. Less critical features can be modified in order to preserve more important features.
Trade-offs: example Commonly available materials in third world environments include strong but heavy materials like steel pipes, and light but weak materials like plastic. (Strength vs. weight.) Strong and light materials like aluminum are relatively expensive. (Cost vs. weight/strength.) Cheap connecting parts limit possible shapes. Welding allows many shapes, but require expensive skilled labor and equipment.. (Cost vs. ideal structure.)
Brainstorm solutions Generate a list of possible ways to meet the requirements. Discard any that don’t meet all requirements. Prioritize the remainder based on how well the requirements are met, and select the best one.
Development Drawing Sketches, Pictorals, Technical Model Scale models, computer models Storyboard Create a series of images, descriptions or models to show how the design will change over time. Analyze/Troubleshoot Examine and test to determine what problems may or will need to be solved and if the design requirements are met.
Prototype, Test, Redesign Create a working version of the product. Use simple and cheap materials Allow users to interact with and utilize the product or experience. Function – does it work properly? If not, why? Ease of use – Does it require additional explanation to use, or need simplification? Does it meet all design requirements? Return to the development stage to correct issues raised during testing.
Communicate results Use data tables and graphs to display information from the development and testing phases. Write an abstract that presents an overview of the design goal, process, and any background research. Create a poster or presentation to demonstrate in a simple and appealing way the focus and outcome of the design process.
Your task Deaths related to food safety are a major source of fatalities worldwide. Simple and reliable methods of preserving food are critical in high poverty environments. To ensure safety and minimize the use of materials, design an acidity test kit that is cheap (<$0.50), durable and reliable to indicate if an acidic preservative liquid has the correct pH to preserve food.