Presentation on theme: "Gender and Women Health"— Presentation transcript:
1Gender and Women Health Pinar Okyay, MD,PhDEnglish version at 34821Department of Public Health, School of MedicineAdnan Menderes University, Aydin Turkey
2“Have a son and your name continues! My presentation, renowned author Malouf'un Amen "after the first century Beatricen" I want to start with his bookSkarabe , a folk figure for fertility.A popular drug that ensures women will give birth only to boys has sharply reduced the world's female population and cut fertility rates. The industrialized nations, seeking to curb Third World population growth, have encouraged the drug's use in poorer countries, which. Here it (skarabe) has inspired and pharmaceutical firms, a similar drug produced in the beginning of the century then released it. The birth of female children in the world decrease and population balance is distorted. The result is a disaster. Migration from South to North, rebellion and civil wars, the rape ... unforeseen chaos! Men everywhere, frustrated sexually and deprived of normal family life, turn to violence and delinquency.
3"Peasants of China discover new way to weed out girls." “Last year only one girl child was born in our village. All other families had sons”Kristof, Nicholas D"Peasants of China discover new way to weed out girls."The New York Times, 21 July, 1.Two years later, this science-fiction novel of Maloouf’ signed by New York Times Nicholas Kristof is a special news broadcast.The news on families in China to have a male child with the sex selection practices.In paper, a peasant with pride "in our village last year, only one girl child was born. All other families had sons. “
4Today, the vast majority in Asia, I in different populations, 60 million girls at least, otherwise expected to be alive,are missing due to gender selective abortion, infanticide or neglect .
51980: Ultrasound usageOomman N, Ganatra BR., Sex selection: the systematic elimination of girls. Reprod Health Matters May;10(19):184-8.
6In CHINA:21 of 31 (%67.7) provinces have higher ratio than (expected sex ration at birth)40 million single men by 2020This is a very important issue in China. The expected sex ratio at birth in China has largely distorted. The expected sex ratio at birth of 21 of the 31 provinces is great. Since 2020 with projections for Structured single men will be 40 million. The first century is about to come after Beatrice.Gu B, Roy K. Sex ratio at birth in China, with reference to other areas in East Asia: what we know. Asia Pac Popul J Sep;10(3):17-42.
7Gender and Women Health In many societies, women systematically fail to achieve or fail to use some basic human rights according to men.Most of the time, women's health status and problems related to affect:morbiditydisabilitymortalityDISCRIMINATION ALL THROUGH THE LIFE OF WOMEN
8NeglectCannot benefit from the servicesViolenceSocial pressureIncrease in morbidityADOLESENT/ADULTUnwanted pregnancies, STDsSexuel harassment/abuseTurnpike sexSmoking and substanve abuseOLDERSIncrease in morbidity /problems on quality of lifeCHILDHOODSex selective abortionFemale mutilationNutrition problems
9Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) An estimated 100 to 140 million girls and women worldwide are currently living with the consequences of FGM.Each year 2 million girls at risk!Female genital mutilation (FGM) includes procedures that intentionally alter or injure female genital organs for non-medical reasons.An estimated 100 to 140 million girls and women worldwide are currently living with the consequences of FGM.In Africa, about three million girls are at risk for FGM annually.The procedure has no health benefits for girls and women.Procedures can cause severe bleeding and problems urinating, and later, potential childbirth complications and newborn deaths.It is mostly carried out on young girls sometime between infancy and age 15 years.FGM is internationally recognized as a violation of the human rights of girls and women.WHO, Female Genital MutilationThe prevention and the managementof the health complicationsPolicy guidelines for nurses and midwives, 2001.
10FGM / Problems Obstetric Menstruel Phychological Urinary Other problems..WHO, A systematic review of the health complications of female genital mutilationincluding sequelae in childbirth, 2001.
11Violence and WomenWorld scale: Today one of every 3 women are subjected to different forms of violence.(Heise, Ellsberg, Gottemoeller, 1999).
12Discrimination against women "...any distinction, exclusion or restriction made on the basis of sex which has the effect or purpose of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by women, irrespective of their marital status, on a basis of equality of men and women, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field."(UN, CEDAW-1994)
13Violence Pandemia depends on gender Researches from various countries between the years: women within the percentage of 16-41, were physically attacked by men with whom they had close relations.Violence exposed is the 10th cause of death in the age group women.7% of all women deaths in the world are associated with violence.WHO,1998A gender-based violence is a pandemia today. In every community in the world, society, country or region it can be found. The problem is really too large.
14CEDAW Report of Turkey-1993 Domestic violenceOf women;84% slap70% being punched43% being beated hard55% threatened with deathHome is the place violence most experienced.In the violence acts, the aggresive is mostly husband or the man with close emotional relationships.CEDAW Report of Turkey-1993
15Turkey Turkey Demographic and Health Survey 2003: The percentage of justification of the thusband in hitting or beating his wife is 39%.Rural 57%Lower education level 62%Reasons of the violence:Şiddet nedenleri:If she;Burns the foodArgues with himRefuses to have sex with himRecent years have witnessed an increasing interest in violence against women, inparticular domestic violence. Domestic violence against women is acknowledged worldwideas a violation of the basic human rights of women. Tolerance and experience of domesticviolence form significant barriers to the empowerment of women and women’s autonomy inall spheres of social life and have adverse consequences for women’s health, health-seekingbehavior, and the health of their children. In the TDHS-2003, women were asked a number ofquestions on their attitudes regarding especially physical violence, which is one of the specialtypes of domestic violence, with regard to whether they viewed physical violence as justifiedunder given circumstances.Women were asked whether a husband would be justified in beating his wife for eachof the following reasons separately: if she burns the food, if she argues with him, if she spendstoo much money, if she neglects the children, and if she refuses to have sex with him. Table3.6 gives the percentages of ever-married women who agree with the specified reasons forwife beating by background characteristics.Thirty-nine percent of women accept at least one reason as a justification for wifebeating. Women are most likely to think that wife beating would be justified in cases whenthe woman argues with the husband (29 percent), spends too much money (27 percent) andneglects the children (23 percent). Only 6 percent of women agree that wife beating would bejustified if the woman burns the food. Younger women, currently married women, andwomen with high fertility are more likely than their counterparts to think that wife beating isjustified for at least one of the reasons.
16Pablo Picasso/The Rape of the Sabin Women Kadına yönelik şiddet, en acımasız yüzünü cinsel şiddet olarak göstermektedir.Pablo Picasso/The Rape of the Sabin Women
17In the WorldCompleted rape at least once during the life of women completed rapeUSA 14-20%Canada: 40%12-25 percent of all adult women have been specified that they were victims of rape or attempted rape.Koss et al.,1997; Killpatrick et al.,1992; Randall and Haskell, 1995
18A systematic weapon : Rape In South Africa every 83 second one woman is rapedA report by the U.N. (1996)Special Rapporteur on Rwanda estimated that at least women were raped during the genocide.During the conflict in Bosnia-Herzegovina between and women were raped“The militia at the barriers said they would protect me, butinstead they kept me and raped me in their homes. Onemilitia member would keep me for two or three days andthen another would choose me… I managed to flee Kigaliand when I returned, I learnt that my husband had beenkilled.” (Survivor of the Rwandan genocide, HIV positivewoman from Kigali)In conflict situations, women and girls are at greatlyincreased risk of physical and sexual violence. Manywomen and girls are subjected to rape including gangrape, forced marriages with enemy soldiers, sexualslavery, and other forms of violence (being forced towitness others being raped, mutilations, etc.). Manyhave fled their homes, have lost their families and livelihoods,and may have little or no access to health care.All these factors create conditions in which womenand girls’ vulnerability to HIV is disproportionatelyincreased. This information bulletin is the second in aseries highlighting the intersections of violence againstwomen and HIV/AIDS and it focuses on sexual violenceagainst women in conflict settings and their risksfor acquiring HIV.Violence against women and girls has been a featureof all recent conflicts. In many of these conflicts, someof which have been regarded as ethnic cleansing, rapehas been and is used as a deliberate strategy to brutalizeand humiliate civilians and as a weapon of war orpolitical power. It is also likely that all forms of violenceagainst women, including intimate partner violence,increase during conflicts and this may be linked to aready availability of weapons, high levels of frustrationamong men, and a general breakdown in law and order.Integrated Regional InformationNetworks (IRIN)WHO, Sexuel violence in conflict setting and the risk of HIV, 2004.
19Sexually Transmitted Disease Young women know very little information on STDs and because of the fear of being branded as sexual active they hardly try to learn information.Woman equipping less power as a decision maker has resulted with late diagnosis and treatment.
20Sex trade/tourism..4 million people in sex abuse traffic is estimated in the world.The revenue / year of organized criminal organizations is 7 billion dollars500,000 women and children for the sex trade is estimated to infiltrate into European Union countries in 1995.
21Older Ages and WomenThe expected duration of life in our country, the birth (DIE-2000) years for women years for menAt least 35 countries in the world in the birth of the expected life span for women has reached 80 years. Women live average 6-8 years more than men. (WHO)
22Older Ages and WomenA long way with diseases Health care access problems In our country, all illiterate population over 65 years is 24% and 74% are women. Elderly women than elderly men are poor and lack social protection.Long live all the time does not mean a healthy life. Women than men for a long time are living with health problems to have, especially cardiovascular diseases and cancer. And access to health services for the elderly woman is problematic. This in front of some obstacles are linked to gender. Women's education, especially in the elderly, according to men is significantly low. According to State Institute of Statistics 2000 data 19.4% of women in our country is not literate, the rate of 6.1% for men in this case. All illiterate population over age 65 is not 24% or 74% that are women. At the same time, old women than old men are poor and lack social protection. “Feminization of poverty”.The feminization of poverty is a change in the levels of poverty biased against women or female headed households. More specifically, it is an increase in the difference in the levels of poverty among women and men or among female versus male and couple headed households. It can also mean an increase of the role that gender inequalities have as a determinant of poverty, which would characterize a feminization of the causes of poverty.
23BlindnessThe most important reason for blindness is cataracts, and according to the results of studies in five countries, 53-72% of all with cataracs are women.Blindness connected to cataract may be reduced at a rate of 12.5% if only women and men have the same operation rates.Dünya üzerinde milyon kişiyi etkilemektedir. Önümüzdeki 25 yılda bu durum kontrol önlemleri geliştirilmezse ikiye katlanacaktır.Tüm dünyada kadınlar bu resmin yaklaşık üçte ikisini oluşturmaktadırlar.Bu ülkelerde körlüğün en önemli nedeni kataraktdır; ve beş ülkedeki çalışmaların sonuçlarına göre kataraktlıların %53-72’sini kadınlar oluşturmaktadır.Daha da önemlisi, kadınlar erkeklere benzer ameliyat hızlarına sahip değillerdir. Bir tahmine göre katarakta bağlı körlük sadece kadınların erkeklerle aynı ameliyat hızlarına sahip olmaları ile %12.5 oranında azaltılabilir.Abou-Garaeb, Lewallen, BassettCourtright.Gender and Blindness: a metaanalysis of population based prevalence surveys.Ophthalmic epidemiology 2001; 8:39-56.
24In DisasterWomen, with lower rates of education and years of education, more work at home,at disaster their preparedness and education are less,they have little information about the preparation and risk approach.
27Equity in HealthThe Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)-1979 / Turkey1985Madrid-2001Political and technical processHealth systems should be settled identfying of men and women biological differences and genderGender-related evaluation indicators should be identified and data shoul be collectedResearch on gender must be supportedIn September 14, 2001, 28 European countries talked how they might integrate the gender perspective to the country's master plan.
28What we know about gender on the women health Key word: “gender”Turkish MEDLINE: 14Ulaknet National Medicine dizini: 3Key words: “gender identity AND women”PubMed: 1019METHOD:Gender Analysis
29Atatürk, Founder of the Modern Turkey; Thank you..