Presentation on theme: "Political Parties: What do they do? Promote a political agenda to influence government policy and action Select candidates for election Educate voters."— Presentation transcript:
Political Parties: What do they do? Promote a political agenda to influence government policy and action Select candidates for election Educate voters Finance election campaigns Fill government positions
2 “Big Tent” Parties Both Republicans and Democrats are considered “Big Tent” parties because there are many different groups that support unrelated issues who associate with the same party. For example, African Americans, environmentalists, pro-choice Americans and gay Americans all are special interest groups whose members typically vote for the Democrat party. Often in American politics third parties limit their interests to a single issue. For example, the Green Party is a political party that puts environmentalism at the center of its agenda.
Role of Political Parties RoleDescription Select candidatesParties select candidates, present them to voters and work to win elections Educate votersParties inform people by presenting information about issues or beliefs through pamphlets, newspapers, rado, tv, speeches, conventions
Roles, continued… GovernThose who govern are chosen on the basis of party; appointments are made with an eye to the party of the potential officeholder Finance campaigns Parties raise funds to ensure that candidates have financial support to run their campaigns
Roles, continued… WatchdogThe party that is not in power criticizes the policies of the party in power. This party plays the role of the “loyal opposition.”
Question: Which role of a political party do you think most influences the political process?
Political Parties: Who are they? What do they want? Democrats and Republicans
The History of Democrats The first two presidents of the US, George Washington and John Adams were Federalists. They believed in a strong central government. Both were wealthy men who owned property and were very concerned with improving commerce and ensuring property rights. The Anti-Federalists evolved into the Democrat- Republican party. Thomas Jefferson, the third President of the United States was the first Democrat-Republican to be elected President. They were mostly supported by working class small farmers from the South who valued their liberties, resented big business and possessed a general suspicion of government.
George Washington and John Adams were both Federalists who believed in a strong central government.
Thomas Jefferson and James Monroe, the 3 rd and 5 th Presidents of the United States signed the Constitution in support of a strong federal government, but came to distrust an all powerful central government. They called themselves Democratic- Republicans and openly sympathized with the Anti- Federalists. To learn more about each click on: Thomas Jefferson James Monroe Thomas Jefferson James Monroe
Andrew Jackson was the first Democrat elected President! Andrew Jackson, the 7th President of the US was an war hero who as a general defeated the British at the Battle of New Orleans during the War of He was the first presidential candidate to run as a Democrat. History knows him as the first President to frequently veto laws passed in Congress. Jackson was responsible for enfranchising all white males (giving them the right to vote), large Indian removal projects and the distribution of land to white southern farmers. Jackson’s Democrats were also considered the party in favor of slavery and as a result typically won elections in southern states. For more information click on l l
Andrew Jackson used a donkey to symbolize his working class roots and ever since the Democrats have been known as the part of the donkey.
Democrat History Continued Democrats evolved into the party that represented mainly the working classes of cities in the North and predominantly white agricultural workers in the South until Famous Democrats of this time period included James Polk, Andrew Johnson, and Woodrow Wilson.James PolkAndrew Johnson Woodrow Wilson
Franklin Delanor Roosevelt transformed the Democrat party into what it is today. FDR captured the White House in 1932 and led the United States out the Great Depression by expanding government services like welfare, social security, jobs programs and to a lesser extent supporting civil rights laws. John F. Kennedy and Lyndon Baines Johnson continued the tradition set by FDR in pushing forward civil rights laws such as the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and expanding the welfare state (a type of government designed to take care of its citizens, rather than ask them to take care of themselves) government’s role in society with the creation of Medicare, Medicaid and the expansion of welfare.
Democrats Today Today the Democrats are commonly perceived as the party of big government, civil rights, women’s rights, environmentalism, the poor and pacifism (slow to go to war). Currently three major candidates are running in the Democrat primary in search of their party’s nomination for the 2008 election: Hillary Clinton Barak Obama John Edwards
History of the Republicans The Republicans were born in 1854 with support of abolitionists (people against slavery) and those who supported a strong federal government. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican to be elected President. The Radical Republicans were responsible for pushing for Reconstruction efforts after the Civil War in the South. Later, in the late 1880s Republicans became known as the party of big business.Abraham Lincoln
The Republican Party was born amidst tensions between slave and free states in 1850s. They tended to find more support in northern states.
History of Republicans In the 1920s Republicans such as Calvin Coolidge and Herbert Hoover were known for laissez faire economics (free market) and isolationism (the US should mind its own business and stay out of world affairs). They favored small government, were against taxes and thought that the economy could take care of itself if left to its own devises. Calvin Coolidge Herbert Hoover
Republicans came to be associated with elephants due to the political cartoons of Thomas Nast in 1874.
The Republican Party transformed itself from a political party of the North to one of the South and West in The modern Republican Party was born out of Richard Nixon’s Southern Strategy in which Nixon appealed to southern white voters by proclaiming his support of states rights and promised to make the US safer. Today the Republican party stands for many of the issue Richard Nixon supported such as lower taxes, small government, the rights to carry arms, pro-life policies, a strong military and a smaller welfare state.Richard Nixon’s
Republicans Today! The Republican party today tends to support public policies that limit the size of government and cut taxes. Typically, they also support the War on Terror, are generally opposed to the legalization of abortion (pro- life) and vote against programs to increase the size of the welfare state. Rudy Guiliani Mitt Romney Fred Thompson John McCain
The map below shows the states that were won by the Democrat Presidential nominee Al Gore and the Republican Presidential nominee George Bush in 2000.
What are the differences between Republicans and Democrats today?
The Economy and Taxes Democrats Are generally in favor of large government and a progressive tax system in which the wealthy pay a larger share than the poor Tend to be against international free trade agreements because they claim that such trade agreements hurt American workers and in particular unions Tend to believe in a balanced budget and are willing to raise taxes if needed Tend to make laws to protect American businesses from international competition Republicans Are generally in favor of a smaller government Generally for free market agreements with other countries, like NAFTA- North American Free Trade Agreement. Vehemently against raising taxes even if it means a budget deficit Tend to believe in global trade and don’t tend to protect US businesses from international competition
National Defense and Security Democrats Tend to cut the military budget Generally want to avoid American military intervention unless supported by the United Nations Tend to believe in diplomacy and are slow to go to war Republicans Believe in a strong military and are willing to pay for it with government money Believe in confronting American enemies with or without UN support Believe in using military intervention when American interests or security is threatened more quickly than Democrats
Entitlements- Welfare, Medicaid, Social Security, Health Care Democrats Generally think that the government should provide a broad safety net (health care, education, welfare, food stamps) for the poor and others. They generally think these policies help the common good and are compassionate Republicans Generally think the government should limit or reduce the safety net for the poor. They believe that private businesses and non-profit charities can provide the same services
Crime and Punishment Democrats Tend to focus on rehabilitation programs over long prison sentences for convicted criminals Usually against the death penalty Focus on rights of the accused Republicans Tend to focus on prison sentences as a deterrent to crime Usually for the death penalty Usually for stiffer penalties for convicted criminals
Environmental Protection Democrats Favor stricter regulations on businesses to protect the environment Believe global warming is a real threat Republicans Favor fewer restrictions on businesses in the hopes that wealthier companies will be able to be more environmental Many do not believe global warming is a real threat
Abortion and Stem Cell Research Democrats Tend to be pro- choice- believe that a woman should always have the right to choose to have an abortion Tend to favor stem- cell research Republicans Tend to be pro-life- do not believe that women have a right to have an abortion and instead call abortion a form of murder Tend to be against stem-cell research
Energy Policy Democrats Focus on researching alternative energy sources for the future Republicans Focus on securing existing energy sources for the present and future
Values- Same Sex Marriage and Civil Rights Laws Democrats Tend to support the right for same-sex couples to marry Republicans Tend to oppose the right for same-sex couples to marry
Education Democrats Oppose using tax money for school choice (vouchers and charters) Republicans Favor using tax money for school choice (vouchers and charters)
Immigration Democrats Favor looser immigration laws Some favor “Amnesty” for illegals already in the country Republicans Favor stricter immigration laws Some favor punishment or deportation for illegals already in the country
Check Out How Each Party Feels About Issues That Are Important to You? Which Candidate Do You Agree With? Which Candidate Do You Agree With? DemocratsRepublicans