5 What is the kinetic theory? The theory explains the behavior of particles that make up gas, liquids and solids- particles are in constant motion.
6 1. Gas particles do not attract or repel each other. Briefly summarize each assumption about gas behaviors (pg )1. Gas particles do not attract or repel each other.2. Gas particles are much smaller than the distances between them.3. Gas particles are in constant, random motion4. No kinetic energy is lost when gas particles collidewith each other or container.5. All gases have the same average kinetic energy at agiven temperature.
7 1. Number of gas particles. What are the four factors is the basis of the kinetic theory?1. Number of gas particles.2. Temperature3. Pressure4. Volume
8 Pressure and volume are the two factors affected. Assuming that the number of particles and temperature is constant, what happens to the gas in a plastic balloon if you squeeze it? Provide the two factors that are affected? What is the relationship between the two?Pressure and volume are the two factors affected.As one increases the other decreases (inverse relationship)
9 State Boyles LawIts states that the volume of a given amount of gas held at a constant temperature varies inversely with the pressure.
11 1. The volume of a gas at 99. 0 kPa is 300 ml 1. The volume of a gas at 99.0 kPa is 300 ml. If the pressure is increased to 188 kPa, what will be the new volume?P1 = 99.0 kPaV1 = 300 mLP2 = 188 kPaV2 = X(99.0 kPa) (300 mL) = (188 kPa) (X)29700 mL = X188158 ml = X
12 2. The pressure of a sample of helium in a 1. 99 –L container is 0 2. The pressure of a sample of helium in a 1.99 –L container is atm. What is the new pressure if the sample is placed in a 2.00 L container?P1 = atmV1 = 1.99 LP2 = XV2 = 2.00 L(0.988 atm) (1.99 L) = (X) (2.00 L)1.966 atm = X2.000.983 atm = X
13 3. Air trapped in a cylinder fitted with a piston occupies 145 3. Air trapped in a cylinder fitted with a piston occupies ml at 1.08 atm pressure. What is the new volume of air when the pressure is increased to 1.43 atm by applying force to the piston?P1 = 1.08 atmV1 = mLP2 = 1.43 atmV2 = X(1.08 atm) (145.7 mL) = (1.43 atm) (X)mL = X1.431.10 x102 mL = X
14 4. If it takes L of oxygen gas kept in a cylinder under pressure to fill an evacuated 4.00 L reaction vessel in which the pressure is atm, what was the initial pressure of the gas in the cylinder?P1 = X atmV1 = LP2 = atmV2 = 4.00 L(X) ( L) = (0.980 atm) (4.00L)X= 3.92 atm0.50007.84 atm = X
15 5. A sample of neon gas occupies 0. 220 L at 0. 860 kPa 5. A sample of neon gas occupies L at kPa. What will be its volume at 29.2 kPa pressure?P1 = kPaV1 = LP2 = 29.2 kPaV2 = X L(0.860 kPa) (0.220 L) = (29.2 kPa) (X L)L = X29.26.00 x10-3 L= X
16 State Charles LawIts states that the volume of a given mass of a gas is directly proportional to its kelvin temperature at constant pressure.
18 After graphing temperature verses volume, and extrapolating temperature verses volume to zero volume, what is the temperature that would match this volume?˚C
19 -273.15 ˚C or 0 Kelvin, is absolute zero What is the temperature of absolute zero? ___________ Define what IS the theory behind absolute zero?˚C or 0 Kelvin, is absolute zeroThe kinetic energy is 0, no motion!
20 6. A gas at 89 C ˚ occupies a volume of 0. 67 L 6. A gas at 89 C ˚ occupies a volume of 0.67 L. At what Celsius temperature will the volume increase to 1.12 L?T1 = = 362 KV1 = 0.67 LT2 = XV2 = 1.12 L362KX=0.67 L1.12 L= (X) (0.67 L)K = X0.67605 – 273 = 332 ˚C
21 7. The Celsius temperature of a 3 7. The Celsius temperature of a 3.00 L sample of gas is lowered from 80.0 ˚C to 30.0˚C. What will be the resulting volume of gas?T1 = = 353 KV1 = 3.00 LT2 = = 303 KV2 = X L353 K303 K=3.00 LX909 = (X) (353 K)909 L = X3532.58 L
22 8. What is the volume of the air in a balloon that occupies 0 8. What is the volume of the air in a balloon that occupies L at 25˚C if the temperature is lowered to 0.00˚C?T1 = = 298 KV1 = LT2 = = 273 KV2 = X L298 K273 K=0.620 LX169 = (X) (298 K)169 L = X2980.568 L
23 State Gay-Lussac’s Law Its states that the pressure of a given mass of gas varies directly with the kelvin temperature when the volume remains constant.
25 9. A gas in a sealed container has a pressure of 125 kPa at a temperature of 30.0 ˚C. If the pressure in the container is increased to 201 kPa, what is the new temperature- in Celsius?P1 = 125 kPaT1 = = 303KP2 = 201 kPaT2 = X125 kPa201 kPa=303 KX= (X) (125 kPa)60903 K = X125487 – 273 = 214 ˚C
26 10. The pressure in an automobile tire is 1. 88 atm at 25 ˚C 10. The pressure in an automobile tire is 1.88 atm at 25 ˚C. What will be the pressure if the temperature warms up to 37.0 ˚C?P1 = 1.88 atmT1 = = 298KP2 = XT2 = = 310K1.88 atmX=298 K310 K583 = (X) (298K)583 atm = X2981.96 atm or 2.0 atm
27 11. Helium gas in a 2.00 L cylinder is under 1.12 atm pressure. At 36.5 ˚C, that same gas sample has a pressure of 2.56 atm. What was the initial temperature of the gas cylinder?P1 = 1.12 atmT1 = XP2 = 2.56 atmT2 = = 309.5K1.12 atm2.56 atm=X K309.5 K347 = (X) (2.56 atm)347 K = X2.56135 K- 273 = -138 ˚C
28 12. A gas sample has a pressure of 30. 7 kPa at 0 12. A gas sample has a pressure of 30.7 kPa at 0.00˚C, by how much does the temperature have to decrease to lower the pressure to 28.4 kPa?P1 = 30.7 kPaT1 = = 273 KP2 = 28.4 kPaT2 = X30.7 kPa28.4 kPa=273 KX= (X) (30.7 kPa)7753 K = X30.7253 K- 273 = -20 ˚C
29 13. A ridged plastic container holds 1 13. A ridged plastic container holds 1.00 L methane gas at 660 torr pressure when the temperature is 22.0˚C. How much more pressure will the gas exert if the temperature is raised to 44.6˚C?P1 = 660 torrT1 = = 295KP2 = XT2 = = 317.6K660 torrX torr=295 K317.6 K= (X) (295 torr)K = X295711 torr- 660 = 51 torr