2Laws versus Theories Scientific Law Scientific Theory A law is a statement that describes actions or a set of actions that occurs consistently.Example: Law of Conservation of MassScientific TheoryA theory is a model that explains why experiments give certain results.Example: Kinetic Molecular Theory
3Postulates of the Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases All gases particles are in constant and random motion.There are no sources of attractions or repulsion among gas particles.The collision of these gas particles with an object results in gas pressure.The average kinetic energy of these gas particles is directly related to their absolute temperature.
4Table for Data Collection Page 2 Name of Demonstration or ExperimentObservationsAn Explanation Using the Kinetic Molecular TheoryUniversal Indicator ExperimentSquirt BottleCan CrushingCandles in a Beaker
6Kinetic Molecular Theory Experiment BTBAcidic Solutions: Red or Yellow/OrangeBasic Solutions: Blue or PurpleSafetyWear your safety goggles!
7Explanation of Kinetic Molecular Theory Experiment Postulate #1 & 2 The universal indicator changed colors in every direction because gas particles are in constant and random motion, which means the gas should go in every direction.
8Crushing Can Postulate #3 & 4 As the water boils, the can becomes full of steam.When the can is inverted into the cold water bath, the temperature of the gas inside the can drops and some of the water condenses.Since the temperature drops and there are fewer gas particles, the pressure inside the can decreases.Since the pressure outside the can is now much greater, this higher pressure crushes the can.
9Squirt Bottle Postulate #3 Dry ice is changing from a solid to a gas. This creates more gas particles inside the water bottle.Since there are more gas particles, there will be more collisions of gas particles with the walls of the container.Since there are more collisions of gas particles with the walls of the container, the pressure inside the bottle increases.The higher pressure pushes the water up and out of the water bottle. (Remember pressure is a force, which is a push or a pull!)
10The Crushing Can in Real Life The tanker truck was steam cleaned. It was then sealed. This is the site that the workers saw the following morning.
11Candles in a Beaker I want you to record your observations. explain why your observations are occurring using the kinetic molecular theory.Wear safety goggles!
12Candles in a Beaker Postulate #3 & 4 When the candles go out, the temperature begins to drop.The gas particles slow down, which causes the pressure inside the beaker to drop.The higher pressure on the outside of the beaker pushes the water into the beaker.
13Pressure What is pressure? A Force Exerted by a Gas over a Given Area What causes pressure?Collisions of the Gas Particles with the Walls of the ContainerThat’s Pressure!Walls of theContainerGas Particle
14Units of Pressure atmospheres = atm millimeters of mercury = mmHg kilopascals = kPapounds per square inch = psi1 atm = 760mmHg = 101.3kPa = 14.7psi
15Sample Problem #1How many kilopascals are equivalent to 880mmHg?
16Sample Problem #2Calculate the number of psi that are in 2.60atm.
18Graph for Charles’s Law Equation for Charles’s Law What is held constant?PressureNumber of Gas ParticlesGraph for Charles’s LawVTEquation for Charles’s LawDirectInverse or Direct?Charles’s LawTemperature must be in Kelvin.
19On the Back of Your Index Card Summarize Charles’s Law in a single, complete sentence.
20Example ProblemsThe temperature of a 0.65L sample of carbon dioxide gas is 580K. If the pressure remains constant, what is the new volume of the gas if the temperature increases to 1300K?A balloon has a volume of 5.6L at a temperature of 98oC. If the volume of balloon increases to 9.5L, what will be the temperature of the gas in Celsius? Assume that the pressure remains constant.
21Temperature must be in Kelvin. What is held constant?VolumeNumber of ParticlesGraph for G-L’s LawPTEquation for G-L’s LawDirectInverse or Direct?Gay-Lussac’s LawTemperature must be in Kelvin.
22On the Back of Your Index Card Summarize Gay-Lussac’s Law in a single, complete sentence.
23Example ProblemA certain gas has a pressure of 56.0kPa at a temperature of 56.1oC. If the volume remains constant, what would be the new pressure if the temperature was increased to 78.2oC?
24Complete pg. 10 & 12 in your booklet. HomeworkComplete pg. 10 & 12 in your booklet.
25Equation for Boyle’s Law What is held constant?TemperatureNumber of Gas ParticlesGraph for Boyle’s LawPVP1V1 = P2V2Equation for Boyle’s LawInverseInverse or Direct?Boyle’s Law
26On the Back of Your Index Card Summarize Boyle’s Law in a single, complete sentence.
27Example ProblemsThe pressure of a 3.5L balloon was determined to be 1.5atm. Assuming that the temperature remained constant, what would be the volume of the balloon if the pressure was decreased to 0.45atm? At 45oC, a certain container of gas has the volume of 580mL and a pressure of 980mmHg. What would be the new volume of the gas at 250 mmHg and 45oC?
28Complete pg. 14 in your booklet. HomeworkComplete pg. 14 in your booklet.
29Combined Gas Law Temperature must be in Kelvin. Remember STP = 1 atm and 0oC
30Example ProblemsA hot air balloon has a volume of 7500L at 270K and a pressure of 1.2atm. What will be the volume of the balloon if the pressure changed to 0.90atm and the temperature decreases to 230K?The volume of a gas at STP is 22.4L. At 12oC, the volume of the balloon changes to 55.0L. What is the new pressure?
31Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures What is held constant?TemperatureVolumeNumber of Gas ParticlesPicture of Dalton’s LawPtotal = P1 + P2 + P3…Equation for Dalton’s LawThis law only applies to a mixture of gases.Important Reminder+=Dalton’s Law of Partial PressuresA partial pressure is the pressure a gas would have or would exert if it were alone in the container.
32Example ProblemsAir contains oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and trace amounts of other gases. What is the partial pressure of oxygen (Poxygen) at 101.3kPa if the partial pressures of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and other gases are 79.10kPa, 0.040kPa, and 0.94kPa, respectively?A mixture of gases contains oxygen, nitrogen, and helium. The partial pressure of oxygen is 2.1atm. The partial pressure of nitrogen in 0.21atm, and the partial pressure of helium is 7.80atm. Determine the total pressure of this mixture.
33Ideal Gas Law Describing the Behavior of Ideal Gases P V = n R TP = pressureV = volume in LITERSn = molesR = gas constantT = temperature in KELVINThe value of R that you use is based on your units of pressure.R = or or 8.314
34Ideal Gases We assume that all gases behave ideally. Most gases are not 100% ideal.Gases tend to be the most ideal at high temperatures and low pressures!
35Don’t forget about your diatomic elements! Example ProblemsA 5.60 L sample of an ideal gas contains moles at 742 mmHg. Calculate the temperature.What volume is occupied by 19.6g of methane, CH4, at 27oC and 1.59atm?What mass of 2250mL chlorine gas at 45oC and 120kPa?Don’t forget about your diatomic elements!H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2
36Tips for the Ideal Gas Law Problems with Stoichiometry The volume will always need to be in liters and the temperature in Kelvin.Always have a balanced chemical equation!You can only use 22.4 L = 1 mol at STP.For most problems, you will do one of two ways.Solving for Volume: You will use stoichiometry to solve for moles and then use the ideal gas law to solve for volume.Solving for Moles or Mass: You will use the ideal gas law to solve for moles and then use stoichiometry to solve for moles or mass.
37More Challenging Gas Law Problems Nitrogen and hydrogen gases react to produce ammonia. Determine the mass of ammonia that would be produce if you reacted 4.0L of nitrogen gas at 298K and 1.5 atm.Water decomposes to form oxygen and hydrogen. If 3.4g of water decomposes, what volume of oxygen gas would be formed at 56oC and 2.3 atm?