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Mediterranean Marine Environmental Awareness Course Exchange of Ballast Water at Sea and Onboard Treatment.

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Presentation on theme: "Mediterranean Marine Environmental Awareness Course Exchange of Ballast Water at Sea and Onboard Treatment."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mediterranean Marine Environmental Awareness Course Exchange of Ballast Water at Sea and Onboard Treatment

2 Mediterranean Marine Environmental Awareness Course Contents  The environmental problem  Ballast water exchange  The transition to ballast water treatment onboard  Systems’ installation criteria  Current technologies

3 Mediterranean Marine Environmental Awareness Course Ballast water is important for a vessel’s stability and her structural integrity in the ballasted condition

4 Mediterranean Marine Environmental Awareness Course The scale of the problem Source: UNEP/GRID-Arendal Maps and Graphics Library The problem of marine invasive species is nothing new. For hundreds of years, species have traveled around the world through international shipping via ballast water and bio-fouling and in other ways having the same effect such as aquaculture and canals.

5 Mediterranean Marine Environmental Awareness Course Dinoflagellate Gymnodium catenatum Asterias Amurensis Mnemiopsis leidyi Vibrio Cholerae Dreissena Polymorpha Round Goby The scale of the problem

6 Mediterranean Marine Environmental Awareness Course Source: ISSG Zebra Mussel was introduced in lake St. Claire in 1991 and within 10 years has been expanded to all Great Lakes of the United States.

7 Mediterranean Marine Environmental Awareness Course In February 2004, the International Maritime Organization adopted the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships Ballast Water and Sediments aiming to prevent and minimize the risks to the environment, to human health, property and resources caused by the transfer of marine invasive species

8 Mediterranean Marine Environmental Awareness Course Exchange Standard: D-1 Exchange Standard: D-1 Sequential method with at least 95% volumetric exchange Flow-through method with at least three times volumetric exchange Performance Standard: D-2 Number of viable organisms of a certain size … Less than 10 viable organisms per 1 m³ greater than 50  m Less than 10 viable organisms per 1 ml smaller than 50  m and greater than 10  m Limited number of indicator microbes  1 CFU Vibrio cholera per 100 ml  250 CFU eschericia coli per 100 ml  100 CFU enterocci per 100 ml BWM Standards

9 Mediterranean Marine Environmental Awareness Course Ballast Water Exchange Ballast Water Exchange should be undertaken: at least 200 nm from the nearest land and in water at least 200 m in depth, or if not possible at 50 nm and 200 m depth, or if not possible in areas designated by the Port State Neither deviation nor delay of the ship shall be required and exchange should only be undertaken when safety of the ship is guaranteed

10 Mediterranean Marine Environmental Awareness Course Plans & Documents on Board Each ship shall have on board a:  Ballast Water Management Plan (approved)  Ballast Water Record Book

11 Mediterranean Marine Environmental Awareness Course Sequential method Flow-through method Initial quantity of ballast Empty tankInsert new ballast Initial quantity of ballast 1 st exchange2 nd exchange3 rd exchange BW Exchange Methods

12 Mediterranean Marine Environmental Awareness Course How effective is ballast water exchange?  The need for prompt action and control of the introduction of unwanted marine species, required the maritime industry to adopt Ballast water exchange methods without any previous efficiency tests.  Studies of exchange method’s efficiency with the help of pigments has shown that, a small percentage of these organisms remain at ballast tanks, which under certain circumstances may survive.

13 Mediterranean Marine Environmental Awareness Course Some vessels accumulate tonnes of sediments that contain their own living organisms. Great concern is the transfer of phytoplankton cysts in sediments from ships: 65% out of 343 ships inspected in Australia were found with these sediments. BWE may provide additional oxygen and food to organisms that remain in the ballast tank. It is considered to be more effective when there is a big difference in salinity. MEPC 46/3 2000: ΙΜΟ characterize BW Exchange as a temporary measure and brings forward ballast water treatment as an alternative solution to the problem, a solution possibly more effective and safe. Sediment accumulation in a double botton tank How effective is ballast water exchange?

14 Mediterranean Marine Environmental Awareness Course In the period of 1996 – 1997 surveys have been conducted on container ships that travelled from Oakland, California, Kobe and Yokohama in Japan, with final destination in Hong Kong, a trip that lasted 16 days. On average, the abundance of harmful plant organisms measured on board at the port of destination after ballast exchange was reduced by 87% compared with the ships that arrived with the original ballast (from 4235 to 550 organisms per liter ballast). How effective is ballast water exchange?

15 Mediterranean Marine Environmental Awareness Course Ballast water management timetable Res. A.1005 (25 Res. A.1005 (25) Ratification status: 33 countries and 26,46% of world tonnage (per March Requested: 30/35)

16 Mediterranean Marine Environmental Awareness Course An example of a process cycle with a) treatment upon ballasting and b) neutralization of treated ballast water upon de- ballasting Onboard ballast water treatment

17 Mediterranean Marine Environmental Awareness Course Installation criteria of a ballast water treatment system

18 Mediterranean Marine Environmental Awareness Course Current Technologies Filtration Environmentally friendly treatment technique of ballast water. 1 st phase of many treatment systems in order to retain the larger organisms and solid particles.

19 Mediterranean Marine Environmental Awareness Course Hydrocyclones Separate solid particles from water using centrifugal forces. Effective for organisms > 50 micrometers. Current Technologies

20 Mediterranean Marine Environmental Awareness Course Ultraviolet radiation Affixed to the outer membrane of organisms and destroys the cell structure. The effectiveness of this method depends on the turbidity of the ballast and the arrangement of UV radiation tubes. Current Technologies

21 Mediterranean Marine Environmental Awareness Course Addition of stored chemicals They are dosed to ballast water to kill organisms (chlorine gas, chlorine dioxide, sodium hypochlorite and ozone). Current Technologies

22 Mediterranean Marine Environmental Awareness Course Deoxygenation Remove the dissolved oxygen in the ballast and replaces it with inert gas, usually nitrogen. Eliminates the aerobic bacteria and helps prevent corrosion of the tanks. Current Technologies

23 Mediterranean Marine Environmental Awareness Course Cavitation With the help of hydrodynamic forces or ultrasonic waves the cell walls are effectively destroyed. Current Technologies

24 Mediterranean Marine Environmental Awareness Course Electrolytic Chlorination Electric current is applied directly to the ballast in electrolytic cells, producing chlorine as the major active substance and other chemical compounds. Current Technologies

25 Mediterranean Marine Environmental Awareness Course Number of approved ballast water treatment systems About 2/3 of all technologies make use of active substances Around. 20 type approved systems are currently available (forecast end of 2012: > 30)

26 Mediterranean Marine Environmental Awareness Course Estimated number of vessels which need to be fitted with BW treatment systems in the near future

27 Mediterranean Marine Environmental Awareness Course Thank you for your attention! Questions


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