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4Table of Contents The ECM Textbook Constant Airflow ECM History of ECMConstant Airflow ECMConstant Torque ECMConstant Speed ECMThis power point contains images that are not in the printed version. This was done to keep the size of the printed text short and improve the concepts that are being taught in the classroom.
6History of ECM Technology Page 11987General Electric introduces first ECM to residential HVAC2004Regal Beloit purchases the ECM, PSC and Capacitor divisions from GE with permission to brand as:
7Regal-Beloit Corporation Background History of ECM TechnologyPage 1Regal-Beloit Corporation BackgroundPublic Corporation established inHistory50s to 70s - Special Cutting Tools80s to 90s – Mechanical Power Transmission90s to 00s – Motors and GeneratorsLargest Non-Captive Motor supplier globally#1 Commercial and Industrial and #1 HVACRecognized Motor BrandsNYSE – RBCDefine Non-Captive (part used by a manufacturer in a product that is not produced by the manufacturer)
8History of ECM Technology Page 1History in the Making2009Regal Beloit introduces a new brand for all of the GE _______ by REGAL BELOIT divisions.
9History of ECM Technology Page 2New Name, same reputation for innovative, premium comfort and electrical componentsProven reputation for high quality, highly reliable products and strong customer relationshipsA wealth of information at your fingertips
10Overview of ECM Technology Page 3ECM (Electronically Commutated Motor)Brushless DC, permanent magnet rotorMore efficient than PSC (Permanent Split Capacitor) motorsUsed throughout HVACRProgrammableDirect drive fractional horse power motorsECMPSC
11Overview of ECM Technology Page 3Mid 1900’s PSC replaces shaded pole as standardBetter starting torque and efficiencyLow cost and simpleLimited operation due to fixed motor poles, fixed supplied frequency (60 Hz), 3-5 speedsSlave to airside resistancePSC
12Overview of ECM Technology Page 4PSC Motor ChartSynchronous speed = Frequency x 120 / PolesRated Speed = Synchronous speed minus electrical and mechanical losses in the motor and loadOperation range = The range the motor will typically operate at under load
13Overview of ECM Technology Page 4PSC peak efficiency is 60% at design rated speed and loadEfficiency degrades by load and speed changesEfficiency loss of the rotorBasic A/C motor design, rotor follows the rotating field (magnetic effect) in the statorPSC
14Overview of ECM Technology Page 5ECM – Basic electric motor operated by a microprocessor based controlLine voltage powers control, control operates motor from communication and programmingAbility to control Torque, Speed or bothIncreased range of operation and efficiencyMore precise control than speed tapsAbility to compensate for airside restrictions
15Overview of ECM Technology Page 5Old definitionICM (Integrated Control Module)Current definitionECM (Electronically Commutated Motor)Commutate – change or reverse the direction of an electric current (the means by which all electric motors rotate)
16Overview of ECM Technology Page 5The Genteq™ motor, currently used by most residential HVAC systems is a brushless DC, three-phase motor with a permanent magnet rotor.Motor phases are sequentially energized by the electronic control, powered from a single-phase supply.Made of two componentsMotor Control (control module)Motor (motor control)Motor Control3-Phase Motor
17Overview of ECM Technology Page 5Motor Control and Motor as separate componentsMotor Control integrated into the motor shellMotorMotorMotor ControlMotor Control
18Overview of ECM Technology Page 6The Motor ControlConnected to single phase (1Ø) 120, 240 or 460vac 50 or 60 cycle power (Hz)AC power is converted to DC power to operate the electronicsDC power is converted to a three phase (3Ø) signal to drive motorMicroprocessor controls frequency (RPM) and torque (power) delivered to motor.MotorPermanent magnet rotorMotorControl
19Overview of ECM Technology Page 6The Motor ControlMicroprocessor operates motor by program and communication from HVAC systemAC or DC voltage, PWM or DSIUnique features by program specific to each motorConstant Airflow, Constant Torque, Constant SpeedAbility to monitor and control current and frequencyTypical operating range of rpmMotorPermanent magnet rotorMotorControl
22Overview of ECM Technology Page 7Genteq ECM motor typesConstant Airflow (Variable Speed) indoor blower motorCurrent OEM models include Think Tank 2.3 & 3.0, out of production models include 1.0, 2.0 and 2.5Constant Torque indoor blower motorOEM model X13 and aftermarket retrofit model EvergreenConstant SpeedCurrent outdoor fan motor OEM model 142R, out of production model 142Current commercial refrigeration models ARKTIC/ICE 59, ARKTIC SSC, and ARKTIC/ICE 142, out of production models include 44/64 frame, 58mm, 84mm, SSC and SSC2
24Overview of ECM Technology Page 8Benefit of TechnologyElectrical EfficiencyProgram more precise and controlled operationWider range of operationEnhance consumer comfortDehumidificationConstant FanSoft Start/StopImproved AirflowPermanent magnet rotorMotorControl