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Environmental Sciences. Water Properties  Water has been called the universal solvent because as a material it dissolves or otherwise changes most other.

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Presentation on theme: "Environmental Sciences. Water Properties  Water has been called the universal solvent because as a material it dissolves or otherwise changes most other."— Presentation transcript:

1 Environmental Sciences

2 Water Properties  Water has been called the universal solvent because as a material it dissolves or otherwise changes most other materials  The water cycle is the cycling of water between water sources, atmosphere, and surface areas

3 Water cycle  Precipitation is the release of moisture as rain or snow  Evaporation is the process during the water cycle when water changes from a liquid to a gaseous state

4 Water Cycle

5 Water properties  Types of water:  Capillary water is water that plant roots can absorb or take up  Free water (gravitational) is water that drains out of a soil after it has been wet

6 Water properties  Permeability is the rate of movement of air and water through the soil  Saturation is the special condition that exists when water is added until all the spaces or pores are filled

7 Saturation  Usually happens after heavy rainfall over a period of time  Example: two or more inches of rainfall during a relatively short period of time (perhaps 3 hours)

8 Soil Horizon  There are several soil horizons and we are going to focus on three

9 Soil Horizon  A  Topsoil  Dark brown to yellow  Generally loose, crumbly, well broken up  Zone of leaching  Usually contains more organic matter

10 Soil Horizon  B  Subsoil  Brown, red, yellow, or gray  Generally larger chunks, may be dense or crumbly, can be cement like  Zone of accumulation

11 Soil Horizon  C  Parent material Weathering of parent material or rock

12 Surface and subsurface characteristics  Soil texture refers to the size of soil particles A. Sand – largest soil particle in soil A. Sand – largest soil particle in soil 1. Have a hard time holding water for good plant growth1. Have a hard time holding water for good plant growth 2. Individual particles can be seen with naked eye2. Individual particles can be seen with naked eye

13 Soil Texture  B. Silt – intermediate size soil particles that can’t be seen with the naked eye

14 Soil Texture  C. Clay – smallest soil particle Clayey soils hold lots of water but may be airtight, infertile for root growth, and associated with wet soils. Clayey soils hold lots of water but may be airtight, infertile for root growth, and associated with wet soils.

15 Soil Structure  Refers to the way soil particles cling together to form soil units or aggregates, while leaving pore space to store air, water, nutrients, and allow root penetration.

16 Types of Soil Structure  1. Single – grain is associated with sandy soil  2. Granular – particles cling together to form rounded units (aggregates)  3. Blocky – particles cling together in angular units (aggregates) Typical of soils with high clay content Typical of soils with high clay content

17 Soil classifications  Land capability maps are based on the physical, chemical, and topographical aspects of the land

18 Soil classifications  Are designated by Roman numerals I through VIII  Class I and II land is the best for the most intensive cultivation of field crops  Class VII land is very steep sloping and best used for planting trees  Class VIII land is best suited for wildlife and recreation

19 Soil conservation and enhancement  Two types of erosion Sheet Sheet Gully Gully  “ No-till” is a cropping technique used to reduce soil erosion Crops are planted directly into the residue of a previous crop without plowing or disking Crops are planted directly into the residue of a previous crop without plowing or disking Very effective erosion control Very effective erosion control

20 Soil conservation and enhancement  Conventional tillage- uses tillage system that disturbs the soil surface by plowing, disking, and/or harrowing  Conservation tillage- intermediate tillage system between conventional and no-till  Use fertilizer to add nutrients to the soil

21 Soil conservation and enhancement  Use lime as an amendment to raise soil pH Increases availability of nutrients Increases availability of nutrients Example: if soil pH is 5.5, lime may be added to raise soil pH to a more acceptable 7.0 level Example: if soil pH is 5.5, lime may be added to raise soil pH to a more acceptable 7.0 level

22 Careers for various education levels  Bachelor’s degree would be the minimum for: Soil scientist- classify soil according to the most appropriate use Soil scientist- classify soil according to the most appropriate use Soil conservation- assist landowners in implementing best land use practices Soil conservation- assist landowners in implementing best land use practices Wildlife biologist- do research on habitat and wildlife as part of career Wildlife biologist- do research on habitat and wildlife as part of career

23 Careers for various education levels  Less than 4 year college degree: Soil technician- uses soil auger/ soil tube to take soil samples and do field work Soil technician- uses soil auger/ soil tube to take soil samples and do field work Wildlife technician- works in the field tagging animals and gathering data Wildlife technician- works in the field tagging animals and gathering data

24 Forestry and It’s Importance in the US and the Environment

25 Softwoods- needle type evergreens  Southern pine Includes loblolly, longleaf, short leaf and slash pine. Includes loblolly, longleaf, short leaf and slash pine. Most commonly used for pulpwood and plywood Most commonly used for pulpwood and plywood - contents

26 Loblolly pine

27 Longleaf pine

28 Short leaf pine

29 Slash pine

30 Frazier fir  Used for commercial Christmas tree production  Grown in the mountains of NC /shop.asp

31 Douglas fir  Perhaps the most important species of tree in the US  Use for construction lumber and plywood struct/for241/con/spp/ dgfspp.html

32 Hardwoods- deciduous trees  Ash:  Used for handles, baseball bats  Resembles oak and has a high resistance to shock plants_pages/a/ash_tree.htm

33 Birch  Used for furniture, plywood, paneling  Made into veneer orest/tidtsim.htm#rb

34 Oak (white and red)  Flooring, furniture, fencing  Very strong wood forest/tidlob.htm

35 Replacing Trees That Have Been Harvested  The least expensive method to replace harvested trees is “natural seeding”  A surer method of replacing harvested trees is to plant seedlings

36 Managing Growing Timber  A “Prescribed burn” is used to reduce the risk of wild fires by eliminating forest litter  “Prescribed thinning” is recommended to remove some trees when competition slows the growth of all trees

37 Harvesting timber  “Selection cutting” is the harvesting method recommended in a mixed forest of trees consisting of different ages and species  “Clear cutting” is a system of cutting timber where all of the trees in an area are removed

38 Careers in Equipment in Forestry  Foresters provide assistance in managing forest for the family as well as the commercial grower  Foresters may recommend reseeding a harvested tract with the most appropriate seedlings

39 Careers in Equipment in Forestry  Foresters may use or recommend the following tools: Increment borer to determine the age of trees within a stand Increment borer to determine the age of trees within a stand Planting bar for planting seedlings Planting bar for planting seedlings Tree scale stick to estimate tree volume Tree scale stick to estimate tree volume Tree tape: circumference Tree tape: circumference

40 Tools Increment borer ntories/increment_borer.ht m Planting bar procedure s/DD0481.html#pm

41 Careers in Equipment in Forestry  Timber cruisers are hired by private landowners and companies to estimate the tree volume on a tract of land Do outdoor work that requires physical stamina Do outdoor work that requires physical stamina Requires a high school diploma and special training in estimating tree volume Requires a high school diploma and special training in estimating tree volume

42 Wildlife Management Practices and It’s Relationship to Environmental Sciences

43 Wildlife Management Practices  Usually a by-product of the family operation  Suitable habitat and food are essential to increase the number of wildlife on a farm Habitat: brush piles Habitat: brush piles Food: crop residue Food: crop residue

44 Wildlife Management Practices  Proper wildlife management includes managed hunting and fishing Removes excess wildlife that would otherwise be lost due to natural causes Removes excess wildlife that would otherwise be lost due to natural causes Prevents overpopulation, which results in malnutrition, disease and a reduction in reproduction which will result in decreased wildlife population Prevents overpopulation, which results in malnutrition, disease and a reduction in reproduction which will result in decreased wildlife population

45 Wildlife Management Practices  Carrying capacity is the number of wildlife each habitat can support throughout the year Managed hunting and fishing will help maintain Managed hunting and fishing will help maintain More wildlife than the habitat can support will result in problems More wildlife than the habitat can support will result in problems

46 More wildlife than habitat can support  Wildlife are affected by malnutrition, disease, and a reduction in the reproductive cycle  Habitat quality goes down. Example, water quality of a stream with a carrying capacity of 20 fish will decrease if 50 fish are in the stream

47 Careers in Wildlife Management  Ecologists study the effects of the environment on animal life  Wildlife biologists advise government agencies in establishing fish/game laws and habitat improvement programs

48 Careers in Wildlife Management  Game warden (wildlife officer) Enforces hunting and fishing regulations as means of wildlife management Enforces hunting and fishing regulations as means of wildlife management Should enjoy working outdoors Should enjoy working outdoors In NC- government employee under NC Wildlife Commission In NC- government employee under NC Wildlife Commission NC Wildlife Commission is responsible for controlling the harvest of wildlife NC Wildlife Commission is responsible for controlling the harvest of wildlife

49 Aquacultures Importance to Environmental Science

50 Aquaculture and Management of Fish Production  Hatcheries supply fry or larvae to units for fingerling production  Cage culture contains the aquatic animals or plants in a small area of a pond Fish can be monitored better for growth rates and feeding purposes Fish can be monitored better for growth rates and feeding purposes Water quality must be monitored to insure that the fish are not stressed or killed since fish cannot move to other sections of the pond during stressful weather conditions Water quality must be monitored to insure that the fish are not stressed or killed since fish cannot move to other sections of the pond during stressful weather conditions

51 Aquaculture and Management of Fish Production  Roll over is a condition where a pond’s water quality suddenly changes during certain weather conditions  During roll over, less oxygenated water is brought to the surface and low levels of dissolved oxygen cause fish to die

52 Aquaculture and Management of Fish Production  The difficulty in managing an aquaculture production system is directly related to the density of fish, etc in the system

53 Aquaculture and Management of Fish Production  Dissolved oxygen levels in any fish system can become so low that fish die. Dissolved oxygen levels are lowest in early morning Dissolved oxygen levels are lowest in early morning Aerators are used to improve oxygen levels during dry hot periods Aerators are used to improve oxygen levels during dry hot periods

54 Aquaculture and Management of Fish Production  Water quality must be closely monitored when recirculation tanks are used to raise fish Recirculation tanks process waste water through a biological filter and return it to the growing area. Recirculation tanks process waste water through a biological filter and return it to the growing area.

55 Aquaculture and Management of Fish Production  Many types of fish are adapted to aquaculture systems  Trout are adapted to systems in cold, running water  Catfish, Striped Bass, and Tilapia also are important species

56 THE END


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