Presentation on theme: "Environmental Science"— Presentation transcript:
1Environmental Science Essential Standard 5.00: Understand the environmental science industry (water, soils, wildlife and forestry).
2Objective 5.01Remember careers in the environmental science industry.
3Major career areas of Environmental Science Water resourcesan essential nutrient for all plant and animal lifeSoil resourcesthe top layer of the Earth’s surface, which is suitable for the growth of plant life
4Examples of careers in Environmental Science Soil conservationist – assists landowners in implementing best land use practicesSoil scientist– classify soil according to the most appropriate use. Requires bachelor’s degree (4 yr)Soil technician – uses soil auger/soil tube to take soil samples and do technical field work
5Objective 5.03Understand basic environmental science principles and practices.
6Water Resources Potable Water Universal solvent Drinkable-free from harmful chemicals and organismsMost of the Earth’s water is not fresh waterUniversal solventit dissolves or otherwise changes most other materials
7Water Resources Water Cycle Watershed Water Table cycling of water between water sources, atmosphere, and surface areasPrecipitation – moisture from rain or snowEvaporation – changing from a liquid to a gasWatershedlarge area in which water is absorbed from rain or melting snow and from which water drainsacts as a storage systemabsorbs excess water and releasing it slowly throughout the yearWater Tablelevel below which soil is saturated with water
9Water Resources Types of Groundwater Capillary Free (gravitational) water that plant roots can absorbFree (gravitational)water that drains out of a soil after it has been wettedHygroscopicwater that is held too tightly for plant roots to absorb
10Water Resources Conserving Water and Improving Water Quality Ask the right questionsHow can we reduce water pollution?How can soil erosion be reduced?
11Water ResourcesWhat is the most productive use of water and soil without polluting or losing these essential resources?Good practices:Save clean waterturn off water faucet while brushing teethDispose of household products carefully and appropriately.never pour paint down the drain as it will eventually enter the water supplyCare for lawns, gardens and farmland carefullyonly till soil that will not erode excessively and don’t over fertilize
12Soil Soil Profile A Horizon- topsoil B Horizon – subsoil Surface layer of soil approximately 6” deep.Organic mattertypically darker colorGreatest influence on cropsB Horizon – subsoilSubsurface layerIncrease in clay contentGreatest influence on urban uses (building sites, septic systems, etc.)C Horizon – parent material (bedrock)Releases water to the upper soil layersContains larger soil particles
13Soil Texture Refers to the size of soil particles Sand Silt Clay Largest soil particleProblems holding enough water for good plant growthIndividual particles can be seen with the naked eyeDrain wellSiltIntermediate size soil particleCan’t be seen with naked eyeClaysmallest soil particleholds lots of watermay be airtight, infertile for root growth, and associated with wet soils
14Soil StructureRefers to the tendency of soil particles to cluster togetherSingle grainsandy soilsGranularparticles cling together to form rounded aggregatesvery desirable for all soil usesBlockyparticles cling together in angular aggregatestypical of soils with high clay content
16Soil ClassificationLand capability maps are based on the physical, chemical, and topographical aspects of the landLand Capability classes are designated by Roman Numerals I – VIII.Class I and II landbest land for the most intensive cultivation of field cropsfewest limitations and can be planted year after yearClass VIIvery steeply slopingbest used for planting treesClass VIIIland is best suited for wildlife and recreation
17Soil Conservation Two types of erosion “No till” Conventional Tillage Sheet – removal of layers of soil from the land.Gully – removal of soil that leaves trenches.“No till”Crops are planted directly into the residue of a previous cropAn effective means of erosion controlConventional Tillagedisturbs the soil surface by plowingConservation Tillageintermediate tillage system conventional and no-till
18Objective 5.04Remember tools and their safety practices related to the environmental science industry.
19Examples of tools used in Environmental Science Soil augerBoring into soil to get samplesSecchi discmeasures turbidity of water