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Chapter 1 Lessons 1-6 Coach Biology Unit Overview – pages 142-143 1.To study the variety of living things. Reasons to study biology: Life on Earth includes.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 Lessons 1-6 Coach Biology Unit Overview – pages 142-143 1.To study the variety of living things. Reasons to study biology: Life on Earth includes."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Chapter 1

3 Lessons 1-6 Coach Biology

4 Unit Overview – pages To study the variety of living things. Reasons to study biology: Life on Earth includes not only the common organisms you notice every day, but also distinctive life forms that have unusual behaviors. Intro

5 Reasons to study biology: 2. To develop general principles & rules to show that there is order to the world. Intro

6 Reasons to study biology: 3. To study the interactions between living things. Living things do not exist in isolation. They are all functioning parts in the delicate balance of nature. Intro

7 Section 1.1 Summary – pages 3-10 Living things interact with their environment and depend upon other living and nonliving things to aid their survival. Intro

8 Reasons to study biology: 4. To understand how living things supply us with food, raw materials, oxygen… Intro

9 Reasons to study biology: 5. To understand how food webs can affect the future health of our planet. Intro

10 Reasons to study biology: 6. To gain basic knowledge in order to make critical choices relevant to our future on Earth. Intro

11 Section 1.2 Summary – pages The common steps that scientists use to gather information and answer questions are known as scientific methods. The methods biologists use Usually begin with scientists identifying a problem to solve by observing the world around them. Lesson 1-2 Scientific Methods

12 Section 1.2 Summary – pages A hypothesis: is an explanation for a question. can be tested by conducting an experiment. is not a random guess. The methods biologists use Lesson 2 Scientific Methods Lesson 1-2

13 Section 1.2 Summary – pages An experiment is an investigation that tests a hypothesis by the process of collecting information under controlled conditions. Experimenting Scientific Methods Lesson 2 Lesson 1-2

14 Section 1.2 Summary – pages Some experiments involve two groups: the control group and the experimental group. What is a controlled experiment? The control group is the group in which all conditions are kept the same. The experimental group is the test group, in which all conditions are kept the same except for the single condition being tested. Scientific Methods Lesson 2 Lesson 1-2

15 Section 1.2 Summary – pages In a controlled experiment, only one condition is changed at a time. Designing an experiment The condition in an experiment that is changed is the independent variable, because it is the only variable that affects the outcome of the experiment. Scientific Methods Lesson 2 Lesson 1-2

16 Section 1.2 Summary – pages While changing the independent variable, the scientist observes or measures a second condition that results from the change. Designing an experiment This condition is the dependent variable, because any changes in it depend on changes made to the independent variable. Scientific Methods Lesson 2 Lesson 1-2

17 Section 1.2 Summary – pages Biologists use a variety of tools to obtain information in an investigation. Using tools Common tools include beakers, test tubes, hot plates, petri dishes, thermometers, balances, metric rulers, and graduated cylinders. Scientific Methods Lesson 2 Lesson 1-2

18 Section 1.2 Summary – pages More complex tools include microscopes, centrifuges, radiation detectors, spectrophotometers, DNA analyzers, and gas chromatographs. Using tools Scientific Methods Lesson 2 Lesson 1-2

19 Section 1.2 Summary – pages Information obtained from investigations is called data. Data gathering Often, data are in numerical form (numbers). Such data is called quantitative data. Lesson 1-2

20 Section 1.2 Summary – pages Data gathering Quantitative data may be measurements of time, temperature, length, mass, area, volume, or other factors. Lesson 1-2

21 Section 1.3 Summary – pages Quantitative data may be used to make a graph or table. Quantitative information Paramecium Survival Rates Temperature Number of paramecia surviving Lesson 1-2

22 Section 1.3 Summary – pages Graphs and tables communicate large amounts of data in a form that is easy to understand. Paramecium Survival Rates Temperature Number of paramecia surviving Quantitative information Lesson 1-2

23 Data gathering Qualitative data are expressed in verbal form, using words to describe observations. Written descriptions of what scientists observe—are just as important in the solution of a scientific problem as numerical data. Lesson 1-2

24 Section 1.2 Summary – pages After careful review of the results, the scientist must come to a conclusion: Thinking about what happened Was the hypothesis supported by the data? Was it not supported? Are more data needed? Lesson 3

25 Results and conclusions of investigations are reported in scientific journals, where they are available for examination by other scientists. Reporting results Lesson 1-2 Lesson 3

26 Section 1.2 Summary – pages After results of an investigation have been published, other scientists can try to verify the results by repeating the procedure. Verifying results When a hypothesis is supported by data from additional investigations, it is considered valid and is generally accepted by the scientific community. Lesson 1-2 Lesson 3

27 Section 1.2 Summary – pages In science, a hypothesis that is supported by many separate observations and investigations, usually over a long period of time, becomes a theory. Theories and laws A theory is an explanation of a natural phenomenon that is supported by a large body of scientific evidence obtained from many different investigations and observations. Lesson 4

28 Section 1.2 Summary – pages In addition to theories, scientists also recognize certain facts of nature, called laws or principles, that are generally known to be true. Ex. Law of Gravity Theories and laws Lesson 4

29 Section 1.3 Summary – pages Ethics (right or wrong) refers to the moral principles and values held by humans. Society (not scientists) must take responsibility for the ethical use of scientific discoveries. Science and Society Lesson 4

30 Section 1.3 Summary – pages Scientific research that is carried out mainly for the sake of knowledge —with no immediate interest in applying the results to daily living—is called pure science. Can technology solve all problems? Lesson 4

31 Section 1.3 Summary – pages Other scientists work in research that has obvious and immediate applications for daily living –applied science. Can technology solve all problems? Technology is the application of scientific research to society’s needs and problems –trying to solve our problems. Lesson 4

32 Section 1.3 Summary – pages Science and technology will never answer all of the questions we ask, nor will they solve all of our problems. Can technology solve all problems? Lesson 4

33 Section 1.2 Summary – pages Safety is another important factor that scientists consider when carrying out investigations. Sharp Object Safety This symbol appears when a danger of cuts or punctures caused by the use of sharp objects exists. Clothing Protection Safety This symbol appears when substances used could stain or burn clothing. Eye Safety This symbol appears when a danger to the eyes exists. Safety goggles should be worn when this symbol appears. Chemical Safety This symbol appears when chemicals used can cause burns or are poisonous if absorbed through the skin. Maintaining safety Lesson 5

34 Section 1 Check "Biology" comes from two Greek words, "bios" meaning life, and "logos" meaning study. Biology is the study of life. What is Life?

35 Section 1.1 Summary – pages 3-10 Characteristics of Living Things Anything that possesses all of the characteristics of life is known as an organism. What is Life?

36 Section 1.1 Summary – pages 3-10 Characteristics of Living Things 1. Have an Orderly Structure Living things are organized. They must organize chemicals into cells  cells into tissues  tissues into organs  and organs into organ systems. What is Life?

37 Section 1.1 Summary – pages Produce Offspring Characteristics of Living Things What is Life? One of the most obvious of all the characteristics of life is reproduction, the production of offspring.

38 Section 1.1 Summary – pages 3-10 Reproduction is not essential for the survival of an individual organism, but it is essential for the continuation of the organism’s species. Otherwise, the species will become extinct. What is Life? Characteristics of Living Things

39 Section 1.1 Summary – pages Grow and Develop Characteristics of Living Things What is Life? Growth causes an increase in the amount of living material and the formation of new structures. All of the changes that take place during the life of an organism are known as its development.

40 Section 1.1 Summary – pages 3-10 All of the changes that take place during the life of an organism are known as its development. Living things change during their lives What is Life?

41 Section 1.1 Summary – pages Adapt to changes in the environment Characteristics of Living Things What is Life?

42 Section 1.1 Summary – pages 3-10 Any structure, behavior, or internal process that enables an organism to respond to survive in it’s environment is called an adaptation. Adaptations are inherited from previous generations. Living things adapt and evolve What is Life?

43 Section 1.1 Summary – pages 3-10 The gradual change in a species through adaptations over time is evolution. Living things adapt and evolve What is Life?

44 Section 1.1 Summary – pages Respond to Stimuli Characteristics of Living Things What is Life?

45 Section 1.1 Summary – pages 3-10 Anything in an organism’s external or internal environment that causes the organism to react is a stimulus. A reaction to a stimulus is a response. Living things adjust to their surroundings What is Life?

46 Section 1.1 Summary – pages Maintain Homeostasis Characteristics of Living Things Regulation of an organism’s internal environment to maintain conditions suitable for its survival is called homeostasis. What is Life?

47 Section 1.1 Summary – pages Use Energy Characteristics of Living Things Energy is the ability to cause change. What is Life?

48 Section 1.1 Summary – pages 3-10 –maintaining Metabolism (chemical interactions that provide the nutrients and energy needed to sustain life) –Digestion (breaking down food) –Circulation (transportation of materials throughout their cell or body) –Excretion (getting rid of wastes) Living things use energy for What is Life?


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