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Society’s Reaction to the Industrial Revolution. New Philosophies  Socialism – economic system that supports the ownership and control of production.

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Presentation on theme: "Society’s Reaction to the Industrial Revolution. New Philosophies  Socialism – economic system that supports the ownership and control of production."— Presentation transcript:

1 Society’s Reaction to the Industrial Revolution

2 New Philosophies  Socialism – economic system that supports the ownership and control of production and distribution of the goods produced  Everything belongs to society – no private ownership, people share work and goods produced (no investors who sit and make $$)  Karl Marx – The Communist Manifesto – predicted that the workers would overthrow the capitalists (private owners making $$)  Communism (political system that supports extreme socialism) and the Russian Revolution in the 20 th century Check out this video! (stop at interview!!!)

3 Rise of Labor Unions  Labor union – groups of workers formed organizations to protest working conditions and demand reform (shorter hours, age limit for workers, safety measures)  Strikes - stopping work… put pressure on employers

4 Child Labor Laws  Britain was the first to pass laws regulating child labor.  1802 to 1878 - a series of laws gradually shortened the working hours, improved the conditions, and raised the age at which children could work.  United States took many years to outlaw child labor.  By 1899 a total of 28 states had passed laws regulating child labor.

5 Minimum Wage Laws  Minimum Wage – the lowest amount a business can legally pay a worker  Meant to prevent unfair workplace  Changes over time with cost of living  Minimum wage in the US info minimumwage.htm

6 Literary Movement  Realism - philosophy of seeing the world as is really is, focus on everyday life and individuals

7 Literary Movement  Naturalism  individual human beings are at the mercy of uncontrollable larger forces that originate both inside and outside of them  Often a grim outlook  often political

8 Important Figures  Emile Zola – French novelist and playwright  Founder of the naturalist movement Quick video!! atch?v=Kl1gt_uMbgY&saf e=active **What events in the Industrial Revolution might have inspired Naturalism?

9 Important Figures  Charles Dickens  great urban novelist in England  used fiction effectively to criticize economic, social, and moral abuses in the Victorian era

10 Some of Dickens’ Famous Works  Oliver Twist  A Christmas Carol  The Pickwick Papers

11 “Oliver Twist” can be read as a textbook of Victorian child abuse and a social document about early Victorian slum life. The evening arrived; the boys took their places. The master, in his cook’s uniform, stationed himself at the copper; his pauper assistants ranged themselves behind him; the gruel was served out; and a long grace was said over the short commons. The gruel disappeared; the boys whispered each other, and winked at Oliver; while his next neighbours nudged him. Child as he was, he was desperate with hunger, and reckless with misery. He rose from the table; and advancing to the master, basin and spoon in hand, said: somewhat alarmed at his own temerity: ‘Please, sir, I want some more.’ [15] Some houses which had become insecure from age and decay, were prevented from falling into the street, by huge beams of wood reared against the walls, and firmly planted in the road; but even these crazy dens seemed to have been selected as the nightly haunts of some houseless wretches, for many of the rough boards which supplied the place of door and window, were wrenched from their position, to afford an aperture wide enough for the passage of a human body. The kennel was stagnant and filthy. The very rats, which here and there lay putrefying in its rottenness, were hideous with famine. (Ch. 5, 44)

12 The following passage from The Pickwick Papers anticipates Dickens’s lifelong concern with the effects of industrialization on English society. It was quite dark when Mr. Pickwick roused himself sufficiently to look out of the window. The straggling cottages by the roadside, the dingy hue of every object visible, the murky atmosphere, the paths of cinders and brick-dust, the deep-red glow of furnace fires in the distance, the volumes of dense smoke issuing heavily forth from high toppling chimneys, blackening and obscuring everything around; the glare of distant lights, the ponderous wagons which toiled along the road, laden with clashing rods of iron, or piled with heavy goods — all betokened their rapid approach to the great working town of Birmingham. As they rattled through the narrow thoroughfares leading to the heart of the turmoil, the sights and sounds of earnest occupation struck more forcibly on the senses. The streets were thronged with working people. The hum of labour resounded from every house; lights gleamed from the long casement windows in the attic storeys, and the whirl of wheels and noise of machinery shook the trembling walls. The fires, whose lurid, sullen light had been visible for miles, blazed fiercely up, in the great works and factories of the town. The din of hammers, the rushing of steam, and the heavy clanking of engines was the harsh music which arose from every quarter. [632-33]

13 Important Figures  Stephen Crane  one of America's foremost realistic writers  works have been credited with marking the beginning of modern American Naturalism  The Red Badge of Courage (1895) - realistically depicts the psychological complexities of fear and courage on the battlefield during the Civil War

14 Important Figures  Henrik Ibsen  Norwegian playwright and poet  Founder of modern theatre  Common themes: Societal breakdown, stereotypes, class struggle, and issues of morality

15 Cinema and Photography Quick Videos com/watch?v=BKJ qeJ48CPs com/watch?v=Z9I D_A1ixUk EQ: How were the arts of photography and cinema both evidence and a reflection of the Industrial Revolution?

16 European Revolutions of 1848

17 Where did it happen? Most important places:  France  Germany  Italy  Austrian Empire

18 European Revolutions of 1848  Represent a widespread appearance of situations, across much of Europe, people sought changes in society that were: 1. constitutional 2. liberal 3. nationalist 4. socialistic Known as the “Springtime of Nations”

19 European Revolutions of 1848  Liberals sought: 1. Representative government 2. Civil liberties 3. Improved conditions for working class … We’ve heard all of this before, right?

20 Trends and Problems 1. Often occurred in cities with liberal thinkers 2. Driven by the middle class 3. Temporary unification with urban workers (middle class could not identify with workers) 4. 2 groups could overthrow government, but could not share in the effort of creating a new government = unsuccessful revolution

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