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Use of Trademarks in Domain Names & Domain Name Disputes.

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Presentation on theme: "Use of Trademarks in Domain Names & Domain Name Disputes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Use of Trademarks in Domain Names & Domain Name Disputes

2 What Is a Domain Name? A domain name is the user-friendly form of an Internet Protocol (IP) address that points an Internet user’s computer to the website the user wants to view Each IP address is a string of numbers The domain name is made of characters that are easier to remember Example: is easier to remember than its corresponding IP address,

3 Domain Name System (DNS) Basically, DNS is a global addressing system DNS allows users to go to a specific website by entering its corresponding domain name DNS locates and translates domain names into IP addresses

4 Components of Domain Names Second-level domain Top-level domain

5 Components of Domain Names: Top-Level Domains Highest level in the DNS hierarchy –Generic Top-Level Domains (gTLDs),.net,.org Also, gTLDs for business or interest groups (e.g.,.gov for the U.S. government, etc.) NEW gTLDs (e.g.,.brand,.community,.geographical area) –Country-Code Top-Level Domains (ccTLDs) for Australia,.mx for Mexico –Internationalized Domain Names (IDNs) Contain local language characters such as accents and may include non-Latin scripts Examples: 香港 (Hong Kong), рф (Russian Federation)

6 Components of Domain Names: Second-Level Domains Second-level domain names: –Follows “www.” and precedes the top-level domain name –Chosen by registrant –Must be: (1) unique term not previously used as a second-level domain name, and (2) registered

7 New gTLD Names Examples of new gTLD names: –by brand (.amazon,.dunlop), music and arts community (.theater,.band), cause (.eco,.charity), geographic/cultural area (.nyc,.irish), etc. Companies and organizations will be able to create and operate a registry business for the new gTLD The use of non-Latin characters (such as Cyrillic, Arabic, Chinese, etc.) will also be allowed in gTLDs The initial application process closed on May 30, 2012 The time period for a second round of applications has not yet been established, but it will likely be at least a couple of years after the close of the initial round of applications

8 New gTLD Names: Trademark Owners’ Remedies The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is the exclusive provider of dispute resolution services for trademark-based “Legal Rights Objections” for the new gTLDs (More info:

9 Timeline for New gTLDs For the most up-to-date information, see: aspx aspx

10 How Are Domain Names Registered? Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) manages domain name system (More info: ICANN-Accredited Registrars handle the actual registration of gTLDs National Registry or Local Registrars handle the actual registration of ccTLDs

11 Domain Name Disputes Cybersquatting refers to when a party registers, without permission, a domain name that is confusingly similar to a third-party trademark with the intention of seeking to reap some type of commercial or financial benefit, often in an effort to block the trademark owner from using the domain until the owner agrees to pay an exaggerated sum for the domain.

12 Domain Name Disputes Typosquatting Domain Name Testing

13 Reactions to Cybersquatting Uniform Domain-Name Dispute-Resolution Policy (UDRP): Anticybersquatting Consumer Protection Act 1999 (ACPA):

14 Uniform Domain-Name Dispute-Resolution Policy (UDRP) International arbitration process for resolution of domain name disputes adopted by ICANN Incorporated into domain name registration agreements of accredited registrars –Also, registrants make certain representations regarding their domain names (e.g., domain name registration will not infringe third-party rights, etc.) Only administrative alternative to going to courts

15 UDRP Service Providers World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) National Arbitration Forum (NAF) Asian Domain Name Dispute Resolution Centre The Czech Arbitration Court Arbitration Center for Internet Disputes (More info:

16 UDRP: Applicable to the Following All ICANN-Accredited Registrars for,.asia,.biz,.cat,.com,.coop,.info,.jobs,.mobi,.museum,.name,.net,.org,.pro,.tel,.travel Some ccTLDs, such (Australia)

17 UDRP Rules Proceedings are governed by: The Uniform Domain-Name Dispute- Resolution Policy (UDRP), AND Supplemental rules issued by the dispute resolution service provider

18 UDRP Procedure: WIPO Example Complaint filed Formal commencement Response due (within 20 days) 1 or 3 panelist(s) appointed Decision due to WIPO (within 14 days) WIPO forwards decision to parties, ICANN and registrar (within 3 days) Decision implemented by registrar (More info:

19 UDRP Policy Complaint requirements: (a) Same or confusingly similar trademarks (b) No legitimate interest in the domain name (c) Bad faith registration and use of the domain name

20 UDRP: Same or Confusingly Similar Trademarks Domain name is identical or confusingly similar to a trademark in which the complainant has rights Different panelists may have different views with regard to trademark + terms (sucks, love, my, hate, …) (e.g., (the content will generally determine the relevance of the term) Different panelists may also have different views with regard to “generic” trademarks (the content and respondent’s rights will likely determine the outcome) (More Info:

21 UDRP: No Legitimate Interests Registrant/respondent does not have any rights or legitimate interests in the domain name at issue Complainant must establish prima facie case that respondent lacks rights (More Info:

22 UDRP: Demonstrating Rights & Legitimate Interests Use of (or demonstrable preparations to use) the domain name in connection with a bona fide offering of goods/services Commonly known by the domain name (even if no trademark rights) Legitimate noncommercial or fair use (e.g., in some cases, criticism and fan sites) (More info:

23 UDRP: Bad Faith Registrant registered and is using the domain name in bad faith Bad faith is determined at the time of registration (not renewal) Offers to sell a domain name (even during settlement discussions) can show bad faith (More Info:

24 UDRP: Evidence of Registration and Use in Bad Faith Registration of the domain name to: –Sell, rent or transfer the domain name for valuable consideration in excess of the out-of- pocket costs directly related to the domain name –To prevent the owner of the trademark from obtaining the domain name, or a pattern of such conduct –Disrupt business of a competitor –Attract users to a website for commercial gain by creating confusion with trademark owner’s mark

25 UDRP Remedies Cancellation of the domain name Transfer of the domain name to the trademark owner

26 Other Jurisdictions Many countries have their own policies and procedures Examples: Mexico —Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (LDRP): Israel—Procedures for Alternative Dispute Resolution under ccTLD by Dispute Resolution Panels (IL-DRP): (More Info: WIPO Arbitration & Mediation Center ccTLD Database:

27 Anticybersquatting Consumer Protection Act (ACPA) United States law that provides trademark owners with a civil remedy against cybersquatting Cybersquatting is defined as “registering, trafficking in, or using a domain name with bad faith intent to profit from the goodwill of a trademark belonging to someone else” One portion of ACPA relates to famous individuals

28 ACPA Requirements The mark is valid The owner registered the domain name in bad faith in order to profit from the mark The mark was distinctive when the domain name was registered The domain name is identical or confusingly similar to the mark

29 ACPA Remedies A court order requiring that the domain name be transferred to the mark owner Monetary damages

30 Summary—UDRP vs. ACPA ACPAUDRP ExpensiveInexpensive Lengthy proceedingsQuick proceedings UncertainMajority of decisions in favor of complainant Limited to the United StatesIncorporated globally for certain domains (e.g.,.com) DamagesDamages are not available

31 Recommendations to Trademark Owners Use watch services Proactively register a few basic variations of your company name or brand name for defensive purposes (also known as defensive registrations)

32 INTA Resources Internet Topic Portal Domain Names Fact SheetDomain Names Differences Between Trademarks and Domain Names Fact SheetDifferences Between Trademarks and Domain Names The UDRP: Alternative Dispute Resolution For Domain Name Disputes Fact SheetThe UDRP: Alternative Dispute Resolution For Domain Name Disputes

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