Presentation on theme: "INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IN THE DIGITAL ECONOMY Dr. Kristina Janušauskaitė WIPO TOT Program for SMEs Damascus, Syria January 16-20, 2011."— Presentation transcript:
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IN THE DIGITAL ECONOMY Dr. Kristina Janušauskaitė WIPO TOT Program for SMEs Damascus, Syria January 16-20, 2011
Outline: What will we know after this session? What impact e-commerce makes on IP… What challenges e-commerce brings to IP… How to create a website for a company… How to protect website effectively… How to choose a right domain name for a company…
IP plays a big role in online trade of products and services. Impact of E-Commerce on IP
IP became an important tool in developing new digital technologies. Impact of E-Commerce on IP
Online branding became very important for current businesses. Impact of E-Commerce on IP
Patent licensing is relevant in e-commerce. Impact of E-Commerce on IP
Protection of Software: different IP rights can protect different components of software Challenges raised by the impact of e-commerce Copyright most used form, protects e.g. object code, literal components Patents in most countries, only computer- related inventions are protected (which present new technical contributions) Designs protect certain features such as icons on computer screen, graphic user interfaces (GUIs), etc. Trade secrets source code can be protected as a trade secret
Online content distribution Challenges raised by the impact of e-commerce Illegal downloads are widespread illegal music, movies, arts, photos, software, etc. E-commerce businesses should consider: To protect IP rights on the Internet; Do not allow downloads of any content that belongs to third parties and not to a company; To build up certain programs, policies, guidelines which ensure that a companys employees understand IP protection-related rules.
Issues related to jurisdiction and applicable law World wide web = international element Which court has jurisdiction over e-commerce disputes? Which law applies? Challenges raised by the impact of e-commerce
Enforcement-related issues Finding an infringer Enforcing IP rights that are violated on the Internet Enforcing IP rights internationally Challenges raised by the impact of e-commerce
Domain name issues Domain name must be available Conflicts between domain names and third parties trademarks or personality rights Challenges raised by the impact of e-commerce
Creating website 1 - Outsourcing website development 2 - Creating a website on your own by using material owned by others
Outsourcing website development Website components: content aspects 1 - Website design (layout) 2 – Various website elements Texts, images, logotypes, software, music, videos, trademarks, graphics, databases, website engine tools, etc. Computer-generated symbols, screen displays, user interfaces, etc. 3 – Hidden components Source code, data flow charts, algorithms
Outsourcing website development Website components: ownership aspects 4 – Which existed before and were owned by: By the company By the developer By the third persons 5 – Specially created for website Ownership should be defined By an employee of the company: if website is created as a part of the job, in most countries a company would own copyright over website; By an outside developer: the outside developer would own copyright over website, unless otherwise agreed in a contract.
Outsourcing website development Written contract with an outside developer: Topics to be included Scope of work Ownership of the material used and developed Warranties Maintenance and update Confidentiality Liability and disclaimers Fees and payments Jurisdiction and applicable law
Case Study: Using material owned by others A company produces sport shoes. In its website, the company would like to use some photos of its shoes, as well as the photos or images, and logos of the shoes produced by other companies. The company is also eager to start marketing a new model of its shoes to young people who are into sports, particularly, into football. Therefore, the company wants to add a photo of David Beckham in its website.
Using material owned by others A permission (assignment, license agreements, click-wrap licenses, shrink-wrap licenses) from the owner of IP rights is first required. Copyrighted Works Trademarks Personal Information, Others Likeness Technical Tools/Software Finding info from CMOs Moral rights aspects Specifics of using photos Public domain material Infringing material take-down Metatagging, Linking Marketing & Advertising online Privacy treatment Personal information protection Database protection Checking license-based Terms&Conditions Getting permissions
What are protected elements? New technological systems Search engines Other technical internet tools Software Database Website design Website content Business names, domain names Product names, logos, other signs Computer-generated graphic symbols, screen displays, GUIs, webpages Confidential graphics Source code, object code, algorithms Data flow charts, database contents user manuals, data structures, etc. Protecting website
Type of protection (different IP rights involved) New technological systems Search engines Other technical internet tools Software Database Website design Website content Business names, domain names Product names, logos, other signs Computer-generated graphic symbols, screen displays, GUIs, webpages Confidential graphics Source code, object code, algorithms Data flow charts, database contents user manuals, data structures, etc. Protecting website Patents/Utility Models Copyright Sui Generis/Database Laws Trademarks Designs Trade secrets
How to protect website Precautionary measures: 1 - To protect IP rights By registering trademarks By registering domain names By registering website and copyright (in case such possibility is provided) Patenting online business methods (in countries where it is available) 2 - To let people know that the content is protected By using symbols By using watermarks for copyright content By giving notices that website or business method is patented 3 - To let people know what use they can make from the content What they can do with the page Whom to contact to a get a copyright clearance related to website components
How to protect website Precautionary measures: 4 - To control access and use of website content By using online agreements to allow access By using encryption (keys, etc.) By using access control & conditional access systems 5 – To detect infringements on website By taking random snippets of text from website and searching for the snippets using search engines By using spider programs to detect illegal use
Taking actions against violators: Steps 1 - Make screen shots or prints of relevant pages 2 - Print the source code from the infringing website 3 - Assure that you can prove your prior ownership over website content and its originality 4 - Send cease & desist letter to the owner of infringing website 5 - If no response received, send: (a) a notice about infringement to any search engine and (b) a request to ISP with a demand to remove the infringing site
Whats a domain name? Choosing a domain name for a company
There are two parts in domain name: Top-level domain (TLD)Second-level domain (SLD) Generic TLD (gTLD) Country-code (ccTLD) Domain names: Basics Domain name is a user friendly form of Internet address that is used to find websites on the Internet.
Choosing the first level domain There can be business-related criteria which are linked with a certain country, a region, etc. Some are open:.com,.info,.net,.org Some are restricted:.int Note that there is no big functional difference between gTDLs и ccTDLs: access is worldwide in both cases. Register your domain name and expose your domain name by registering it with search engines
Choosing the second level domain Easy to identify and find a companys website on the Internet Same or similar to a companys business name or/and trademark Distinctive of a companys business or products Not identical or similar to business names or trademarks of others Not controversial in terms of geography, personal names, generic drugs, IGO titles, etc. Preferably shorter
Domain Names vs. Trademarks Domain NamesTrademarks Internationally availableNational/Regional IP rights One domain name within one first level domain Possible coexistence of similar or identical TMs Registration on first-comes first- serves basis without examination Examination (formal and/or substantive) Private contract with a registerRegistration by state/regional authorities Less expensive and quickerMore expensive and longer
UDRP Rules adopted in 1999 Reasons: –Protection of trademark owners and legitimate domain name registrants –Effective fight and prevention against cybersquatting (with less cost, shorter duration, etc.) Limited to cases of abusive registration of trademarks as domain names More on UDRP procedure: http://www.wipo.int/amc/en/domains/ Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP)
Abusive registration criteria Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP) 1 – Domain name is identical or confusingly similar to the trademark. 2 – Trademark owner has a right or legitimate interest in domain name, and a registrant of domain name does not. 3 – Registrant registered or is using domain in bad faith.
UDRP does not cover: Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP) 1 – Disputes regarding registrations which violate business (trade) names, geographical indications or personality rights. 2 – Situations which per se do not fall under the definition of abusive registration under UDRP.
IP in the Digital Economy: Checklist If you want to use protected content in your website (art works, photos, paintings), you need to get permission from their creators or owners. If you commission to create a website for you, then the company which created that website owns the rights to it, unless it is contractually agreed otherwise. A registration of anothers trademark as domain name is not a violation of trademark rights. Domains are unique. Two companies can own and use the same trademark. However, only one company can own a particular domain name. UDRP is an administrative procedure to solve all disputes between trademarks and domain names.