Presentation on theme: "Culture- and Industry Studies M-international students 25.04.14 Introduction to the course; What is the concept of ”rhythmic music”?"— Presentation transcript:
Culture- and Industry Studies M-international students 25.04.14 Introduction to the course; What is the concept of ”rhythmic music”?
Culture- and Industry Studies Goals and requirements. - Knowledge of Danish and Nordic music and culture industry. -Critical concepts of thinking about music and music culture.
Course overview April 25 th : Introduction; and what is the concept of "rhythmic music"? (Mikkel) May 5 th : The music industry in Denmark and the Nordic countries (Torben) May 23 rd : Popular music in Denmark and the Nordic countries I (Mikkel) May 30 th : Popular music in Denmark and the Nordic Countries II (Henrik)
A (general) model for analysis: Music and culture
”Rytmisk musik”? “We offer the highest education in the country in rhythmic contemporary music, a term that encompasses forms of music from jazz over rock and pop to the newest musical kinds of expression, like hip hop and electronica. Furthermore, our task is to research in and develop our field and contribute to the promotion of music culture in Denmark.” http://www.rmc.dk/om_konservatoriet/ (visited 04.09.13, my translation)
”Rytmisk musik”? A Danish concept. (You do not have ”rhythmic music”, ”rytmische Musik” or ”musique rythmique”). ”It can only be translated indirectly, e.g. as the more ’serious’ or ’authentic’ part of popular music.” (Michelsen 2001, s. 26; my trans.) Function of dicotomy: Rhythmic >< classical; and division between ”serious” popular music and entertainment music. The concept is used as a way of legitimising the music. Destabilising (or reproduction?) of the highbrow/lowbrow dicotomy (high art/bourgeois >< mass culture).
”Rytmisk musik”? Highbrow/lowbrow in 20th Denmark: -“I do not per se have anything against e.g.jazz music, when it just is at the right place and the right moment. Another thing is, I think, that jazz music will wither and die by itself. For it has no content, and it has no roots in our culture. It is dangerous when it spreads and gains power, so people will not wish to listen to anything else. [...] But one must consider jazz music as a very little part [of modern music], that must remain in place! It is spreading and will settle as putrefying bacteria in higher music. Against this process all musicians, both conservative and the most progressive, will react.” (Carl Nielsen 1925; my translation) -”Classical music is simply more complex and demands more thought than rhythmic music.” (college at DR to MV) -Examples from your experience?
”Rytmisk musik”? Roots in ”cultural radicalism” in 20ies and 30ies: -Jazz reception: Mix of ideas of modernity and (ethnic/cultural) origin. -Music education: B. Christensen, Sv. Møller Kristensen (”Rhythmic music is among other things primitive music, jazz, often folk music and compositions for children.” (1938; my trans.)), and Astrid Gøssel (”Our dematerialised, bloodless, abstract music is thirsty for the lush, bloodfilled body of negro jazz, its core being the flowing, rhythmic sounding material.” (1930; my trans.)) NB. This ideology is not exclusive to Denmark: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JvLkt_0dPP 8 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JvLkt_0dPP 8 B. Christensen (1983)
An example of cultural radicalism PH: “Her mind’s repertoire seems inexhaustable. If we admire a branch, a deer, a lake, it is called pleasure of nature [Naturglæde]. Why must it then be a sign of perversity in our time, when we are uplifted in the meeting with a deeply natural human being?” (1928) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wmw5eGh8 88Y
”Rytmisk musik”? -”Rytmisk musik” defined as the ”real”, ”pure” jazz (ie. black). -Jazz is theorised and aesthicised. Becomes art. At the same time the contrast to Western art music is stressed. (”Bad” popular music is denounced as mere entertainment (Kristensen 1937).) -Fifties: Intellectuals distance themselves form ”cultural radicalism”. Instead arguments of modernism and musical autonimy is used (jazz as l’art pour l’art). -Fifties/sixties: Rock’n’roll, pop, ”pigtråd” and beat. -Against mass culture: ”We meet pop all day long. It is spead through radio and tv, via weeklies and papers, via cheap books and magazines; strong powers of capital and syndicats are behind it – and in reality it is a giant industry, which in the long run is dangerous, because it poisons our mind.” (Bækkelund, 1964; my trans.) -But also examples of bridging the gap (but only the best ”beat music” is good enough).
”Rytmisk musik”? -Seventies: The concept of ”rytmisk musik” returns. -Fusion: Experimental jazz and ”good” beat united (e.g. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zy3vomk 2eww) … a term that spans both is needed. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zy3vomk 2eww -The ”alliance” between beat and jazz:”Jazz and rock has approached each other […] nearly all rhythmix music [has] become a middleground area.” (Rytmisk musik – historie, miljø og vilkår, 1978; my trans.) -”Rytmisk musik” is now a parallel to ”classical”. An art form like classical, but different. -Independent discourse of ”rytmisk musik”.
”Rytmisk musik”? Institutionalising: -The music law 1973 (rev. 1981, 1985 and later): ”Rytmisk musik” is used as a concept towards eg. politicians with regards to policy and subsidies. -(Attempts at definition. Eg. Ole Mathiessen style/essentialism; or Meyer culturally, ”rytmisk” >< ”international spekulationsmusik [music of speculation]”). -Rytmisk Musikkonservatorium og rhythmic basis ensembles (”The strength of the Danish concept of “rytmisk musik” is it collective [samlende] character.” (Slumpstrup & Malmros, 1985; my trans.).) -Interest groups/organizations: DJBFA, FAJABEFA, ROSA etc. -De rytmiske vækstlag. Rapport med anbefalinger, (Kulturministeriet, 2007) -Styrkelse af den rytmiske musik, (Kulturministeriet, 2010) [probably best definition of the concept]
”Rytmisk musik”? Read more: Michelsen, M.: ”’Rytmisk musik’ mellem høj og lav”, Musik & Forskning 26 (2001), s. 62-81 Pedersen, Peder Kaj: ”’Rhythmic Music’ in Danish Education”, (conference paper, Leading Music Education International Confernece, London, 2011)
Similar concepts Germany: E-Musik: Ernste Musik, serious music. U-Musik: Unterhaltungsmusik, entertainment music, popular music. F-Musik: Funktionsmusik (Gebrauchsmusik), functional music
Questions of cultural hierarchies How are cultural hierarchies constructed and constituted in your home countries? Cultural hierarchies in global popular music? Power relations in the music industry? Signs of high art in popular music? Divisions within the field of popular music?