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AESTHETICS PART TWO: DEFINING & JUDGING ART. DEFINING & JUDGING ART Defining Art Objective Approaches Why Defining Art Matters Judging Art Objective Approaches.

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Presentation on theme: "AESTHETICS PART TWO: DEFINING & JUDGING ART. DEFINING & JUDGING ART Defining Art Objective Approaches Why Defining Art Matters Judging Art Objective Approaches."— Presentation transcript:

1 AESTHETICS PART TWO: DEFINING & JUDGING ART

2 DEFINING & JUDGING ART Defining Art Objective Approaches Why Defining Art Matters Judging Art Objective Approaches Why assessing Art Matters

3 THE ARTS & FINE ARTS Sean Le Rond DAlenbert Part One Reflective Knowledge Direct Ideas & Imitations Painting, Sculpture & Architecture Poetry Music

4 THE ARTS & FINE ARTS Arts Differentiation of the principal parts of knowledge. Liberal & Mechanical Arts Liberal Arts Knowledge First Sort of Feeling Second Sort of Feeling

5 THE PARADOX OF TASTE David Hume Language Variety of taste Language: art & science Morality & Language Example: Homer Example: Koran Precepts of ethics

6 THE PARADOX OF TASTE Standard of Taste Standard of taste Argument for the impossibility of a standard of taste. The nature of beauty The axiom Opposition to Axiom

7 THE PARADOX OF TASTE Rules & Criticism Rules of composition a posteriori not a priori Rules of art Faults Testing the Rules of Art Endurance & Foreign appeal as measures of influence

8 THE PARADOX OF TASTE Principles General principle Explanation of failures to please/displease Delicacy from Don Quixote Qualities in objects & delicacy of taste Critics

9 THE PARADOX OF TASTE Ascertaining Delicacy of Taste Intro Practice Multiple Perusals Comparisons Prejudice Purpose Reason

10 THE PARADOX OF TASTE Critics Principles of taste The True Standard Problem Aesthetics vs. the Sciences Distinguishing people of taste Time

11 THE PARADOX OF TASTE Factors Two sources of variation The general principles of taste are uniform in human nature Age & qualities Relativity Age & Country Ancient & modern learning Morality & aesthetics Moral principles Religion

12 WHAT IS ART? Leo Tolstoy Defining Beauty Two definitions of beauty No objective definition Taste Criticism of attempts to define taste Criticism of existing aesthetics Criticism of existing aesthetic standards

13 WHAT IS ART? Art, Pleasure & Beauty Defining human activity Pleasure & beauty Food analogy Food analogy continued: the problem of taking beauty to be the aim of art Problem with existing aesthetics: it is based on a conception of beauty

14 WHAT IS ART? Union & The Activity of Art Defining Art: words analogy What is not art Art & feeling The feelings All the following is art Art

15 WHAT IS ART? What Art is Not Definition of art & the activity of art Art is not Art is Analogy to words Importance of art The scope of art

16 WHAT IS ART? Art & Counterfeit Art Banishing & over acceptance Distinguishing art from counterfeit art The feeling & real art Infection & art Degree of infectiousness Sincerity Distinguishing art from counterfeit art

17 WHAT IS ART? Defining Good & Bad Art in Regards to Content Objectives Analogy to speech & quality of art Art & religious perception River analogy Religious perception & value Attack argument for religious perception Progress argument for religious perception Christian Art Two kinds of Christian art

18 WHAT IS ART? Assessment of Specific Works Examples of the highest art flowing from love of God and Man Examples of good universal art Details Novels Music Painting & Sculpture Universal Pictures & Statues Bad Painting

19 WHAT IS ART? Bad music & judging Beethoven Judging

20 OSCAR WILDE Background ( ) Life Poetry Plays Prose 20

21 NEW AESTHETICS First Part Vivian Position Mirror Cyrils Challenge to Vivian Nature & life imitate art Vivians Case Nature & Art Change in Londons climate is due to a school of art. Nature is our creation 21

22 NEW AESTHETICS Looking & Seeing Things are because we see them. Looking is different from seeing. One does not see anything until one sees its beauty Example: fog Natures Imitation of Art Effects Nature 22

23 NEW AESTHETICS What Art Expresses Cyril Temper of its age Spirit of its time Moral & social conditions Vivian Art never expresses anything but itself Vanity Art is not symbolic of any age 23

24 NEW AESTHETICS Imitative Art Vivian The more imitative art is, the less it represents the spirit of the age. The more abstract & ideal, the more it represents the spirit of the age. Cyril The spirit of the age. Arts of imitation reveal the spirit of the age. Vivian: Middle Ages Imitative arts Middle Ages No great artist ever sees things as they really are. 24

25 NEW AESTHETICS Vivian: Japan Japanese people as presented in art do not exist. See a Japanese effect Vivian: Ancient Greeks Greek art Art has never told us the truth 25

26 NEW AESTHETICS Vivian: Doctrines of the New Aesthetics First Doctrine: Art never expresses anything but itself To pass from the art of a time to the time itself is the great mistake all historians make. Second Doctrine: All bad art comes from returning to Life and Nature and elevating them into ideals. Realism is a complete failure Avoid modernity The only beautiful things 26

27 NEW AESTHETICS Third Doctrine: Life Imitates Art for more than Art imitates life. Fourth Doctrine: Lying, the telling of beautiful untrue things, is the proper aim of art. 27


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