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Part two: Defining & judging art

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1 Part two: Defining & judging art
Aesthetics Part two: Defining & judging art

2 Defining & judging art Defining Art Judging Art Objective Approaches
Why Defining Art Matters Judging Art Why assessing Art Matters

3 The arts & fine arts Sean Le Rond D’Alenbert Part One
Reflective Knowledge Direct Ideas & Imitations Painting, Sculpture & Architecture Poetry Music

4 The arts & fine arts Arts Knowledge
Differentiation of the principal parts of knowledge. Liberal & Mechanical Arts Liberal Arts Knowledge First Sort of Feeling Second Sort of Feeling

5 The paradox of taste David Hume Language Variety of taste
Language: art & science Morality & Language Example: Homer Example: Koran Precepts of ethics

6 The paradox of taste Standard of Taste Standard of taste
Argument for the impossibility of a standard of taste. The nature of beauty The axiom Opposition to Axiom

7 The paradox of taste Rules & Criticism
Rules of composition a posteriori not a priori Rules of art Faults Testing the Rules of Art Endurance & Foreign appeal as measures of influence

8 The paradox of taste Principles General principle
Explanation of failures to please/displease Delicacy from Don Quixote Qualities in objects & delicacy of taste Critics

9 The paradox of taste Ascertaining Delicacy of Taste Intro Practice
Multiple Perusals Comparisons Prejudice Purpose Reason

10 The paradox of taste Critics Principles of taste The True Standard
Problem Aesthetics vs. the Sciences Distinguishing people of taste Time

11 The paradox of taste Factors Two sources of variation
The general principles of taste are uniform in human nature Age & qualities Relativity Age & Country Ancient & modern learning Morality & aesthetics Moral principles Religion

12 What is Art? Leo Tolstoy Defining Beauty Two definitions of beauty
No objective definition Taste Criticism of attempts to define taste Criticism of existing aesthetics Criticism of existing aesthetic standards

13 What is Art? Art, Pleasure & Beauty Defining human activity
Food analogy Food analogy continued: the problem of taking beauty to be the aim of art Problem with existing aesthetics: it is based on a conception of beauty

14 What is Art? Union & The Activity of Art Defining Art: words analogy
What is not art Art & feeling The feelings All the following is art Art

15 What is Art? What Art is Not Definition of art & the activity of art
Analogy to words Importance of art The scope of art

16 What is Art? Art & Counterfeit Art Banishing & over acceptance
Distinguishing art from counterfeit art The feeling & real art Infection & art Degree of infectiousness Sincerity

17 What is Art? Defining Good & Bad Art in Regards to Content Objectives
Analogy to speech & quality of art Art & religious perception River analogy Religious perception & value Attack argument for religious perception Progress argument for religious perception Christian Art Two kinds of Christian art

18 What is Art? Assessment of Specific Works
Examples of the highest art flowing from love of God and Man Examples of good universal art Details Novels Music Painting & Sculpture Universal Pictures & Statues Bad Painting

19 What is Art? Bad music & judging Beethoven Judging

20 Oscar Wilde Background ( ) Life Poetry Plays Prose

21 New Aesthetics First Part Vivian’s Case Vivian
Position Mirror Cyril’s Challenge to Vivian Nature & life imitate art Vivian’s Case Nature & Art Change in London’s climate is due to a school of art. Nature is our creation

22 New Aesthetics Looking & Seeing Nature’s Imitation of Art
Things are because we see them. Looking is different from seeing. One does not see anything until one sees its beauty Example: fog Nature’s Imitation of Art Effects Nature

23 New Aesthetics What Art Expresses Cyril Vivian Temper of its age
Spirit of its time Moral & social conditions Vivian Art never expresses anything but itself Vanity Art is not symbolic of any age

24 New Aesthetics Imitative Art Vivian Cyril Vivian: Middle Ages
The more imitative art is, the less it represents the spirit of the age. The more abstract & ideal, the more it represents the spirit of the age. Cyril The spirit of the age. Arts of imitation reveal the spirit of the age. Vivian: Middle Ages Imitative arts Middle Ages No great artist ever sees things as they really are.

25 New Aesthetics Vivian: Japan Vivian: Ancient Greeks
Japanese people as presented in art do not exist. See a Japanese effect Vivian: Ancient Greeks Greek art Art has never told us the truth

26 New Aesthetics Vivian: Doctrines of the New Aesthetics
First Doctrine: Art never expresses anything but itself To pass from the art of a time to the time itself is the great mistake all historians make. Second Doctrine: All bad art comes from returning to Life and Nature and elevating them into ideals. Realism is a complete failure Avoid modernity The only beautiful things

27 New Aesthetics Third Doctrine: Life Imitates Art for more than Art imitates life. Fourth Doctrine: Lying, the telling of beautiful untrue things, is the proper aim of art.

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