Presentation on theme: "Revision Session The Coal Industry: problems & solutions."— Presentation transcript:
Revision Session The Coal Industry: problems & solutions
Short Answer Questions A typical question could be:- Why was there a demand for coal in the C18th. ? Can you give more than 1 reason ? Note that the date is the C18th not the C19th.
Remember to include the word because in your answer; There was a demand for coal because the population of Britain was growing and they needed coal for their fires at home. Abraham Darby I discovered that he could smelt iron using coal and the iron industry moved to areas where there was plenty of coal.
Thomas Newcomen had developed an engine in 1709 and James Watt invented a steam engine in 1763; both these engines used coal as a fuel. These 3 reasons would give you a good answer !
To meet the demand for coal mines had to be dug deeper; this meant that adit mines and bell-pits were replaced by deep mines with vertical shafts. These deeper mines caused problems for the mine-owners & the miners; flooding, gas, ventilation & transport.
Which problem did these inventions solve ? Thomas Newcomen`s engine was invented in 1709; about 300 were in use by 1800. It used a lot of coal and was clumsy but it was successful. James Watt invented his engine in 1763 and improved it in 1781 with the Sun & Planet Gear.
Newcomen`s engine could pump out 1 tonne of water with every stroke of the piston. Watt`s engine was a better pump but could also be used for lifting. Answer: they solved the problem of …
Which problems did these inventions solve ? To try to force the air into all of the galleries, trap-doors were installed in every one. These were only opened when coal trucks were passing. For fresh air, two shafts were dug, a down-shaft and an up-shaft. A fire was lit at the bottom of the up-shaft and the hot air above it rose.
Which problem did these inventions solve ? A steam fan was invented by John Buddle in 1784. William Fourness invented an exhaust fan. Answer
Which problems did these techniques / inventions solve ? Miners took canaries down with them. Miners took off their jackets and waved them about. Miners watched for the candle to flicker. Answer
How was this problem solved ? Methane gas could explode without warning; it could be ignited from a spark or a naked flame. Give the various strategies the miners tried. 1.……. 2.……. 3.…….
What invention solved the problem of methane gas ? Name …………. Date ………………. Did it always work well ?
How was the problem of transport solved ? Women worked as slubbers. They pushed the corves (trucks) of coal along the galleries and carried coal in baskets up ladders to the surface. Children were also employed to work the lifting gear that lowered miners down the shafts and brought coal back up. Solved by …..
What Act improved conditions in the mines ? Name ……. Date ………. What did it say ? 1.……. 2.……. 3.……..
Essay Questions A typical question might look like this : In what ways did new technology and techniques improve conditions in the mines from 1760 to 1900 ? You may use the following information to help you with your answer. Trappers Thomas Newcomen`s Engine Sir Humphrey Davy`s Lamp Wire Cables
Remember: 1: The four points in the box will always be in the correct order. 2: Use the four points as a plan. 3: You do not have to use all four points if you cannot remember anything about one of them. 4: The four points are not a complete answer. If you stick to them, you will only get a Level 2 mark. 5: If you want to reach Level 3, you will need to include own knowledge and explain how the events are linked together. 6: Use the four points in the box as a plan and add some own knowledge on the question paper.
Look at the 4 things in the box; what problem does each one refer to ? What other inventions or techniques would you mention ? How can you link these 4 together ? Can you make a judgement about how far these conditions improved ?
Short Answer Questions Questions on coal could focus on conditions in the mines, so you will need to include details of the hardships that workers suffered. As mining grew more people were employed; women and children were employed as part of a family group. A Royal Commission reported in 1842 and the Mines Act was passed in the same year. In 1852 a Mines Inspectorate was set up that had the power to close any unsafe mine.
Typical Short Answer Questions 1.Give one reason why women were employed in the mines. (3) 2.Describe the work done by women and children in the mines. (4) 3.Why did some people object to the passing of the Mines Act ? (6) 4.In what ways did working conditions for women & children improve between 1760 & 1900 ? (7)
Sample Answers Give ONE reason why women were employed in the mines. Level 1 : Simple statements supported by some knowledge, e.g. women were paid less than men. (1) Level 2 : Developed statements supported by relevant knowledge, e.g. women were easier to manage and worked hard so mine-owners were keen to use them, especially as they were cheaper to employ. They often worked in the mines supporting their husbands and worked as a team. (2-3)
Sample Answers Describe the work done by women and children in the mines. Level 1 : Simple statements supported by some knowledge, e.g. women pulled carts and children acted as trappers. (1-2) Level 2 : Developed statements supported by relevant knowledge, e.g. women worked pulling wagons full of coal with a belt or chain around their waist. They often had to climb ladders out of the mine carrying heavy bags of coal. Children were employed to open and close trap doors so that fresh air circulated around the mines. They pushed carts and sieved the coal; they operated the winding mechanism on top of the mine. Both women and children did labouring jobs that did not require the same skill as the miners. (3-4)
Sample Answers Why did some people object to the passing of the Mines Act of 1842 Level 1 : Simple statements supported by some knowledge, e.g. they did not want to stop women and children from working in the mines as they needed them. (1-2) Level 2 : Developed statements supported by relevant knowledge, e.g. women and children were cheap to employ so if they were prevented from working the cost to the mine-owner would increase. Some mine-owners argued that Britain`s economy depended on a successful coal industry and without cheap labour it would decline. Some mine-owners argued that the work in mines was not difficult for children. (3-4)
Sample Answers Level 3 : Developed statements supported by selected knowledge, e.g. shows awareness of the fact that mine-owners resented the interference of the government as they thought it was not their business. Shows understanding of the plight of some women who had to help support their families and might have no alternative work available – there might be no factories in their area. Can see that there is not a stereotypical view – not all women wanted to be prevented from working in the mines. (5-6)
Sample Answers In what ways did working conditions for women and children improve between 1760 & 1900 ? Level 1 : Simple statements supported by some knowledge, e.g. women under 18 and boys under 10 were prevented from working in the mines. (1-3) Level 2 : Developed statements supported by relevant knowledge, e.g. conditions improved because women & children could not work in the mines; makes the distinction between girls & boys and shows understanding of the government`s wish to protect females, so they are banned up to the age of 18, while boys can work over 10. Could include other relevant knowledge such as the introduction of rails in the mines that made it possible for pit ponies to be used to drag carts rather than use women. (4-5)
Sample Answers Level 3 : Developed explanation supported by selected knowledge, e.g. shows how a range of measures improved conditions for women & children, such as: - the use of railways, the introduction of 2 shafts, the use of steam power for winding, increased use of inspectors for checking up on conditions; all helped improve things. Mention could also be made of any other technical improvements that helped conditions generally, as well as the introduction of birth certificates in 1836 which allowed inspectors to monitor the employment of boys. (6-7)