2 The ExamQuestion 1a - Discuss your production journey in relation to one or more of the headings25 marks30 minutesQuestion 1b – Analyse ONE piece of work in relation to ONE key concept specified in the exam.
3 1(b)In this question you will be asked to apply one of the following theoretical concepts to either your AS or A2 coursework:RepresentationAudienceNarrativeGenreMedia LanguageFor this question you choose ONE piece of AS or A2 coursework to discuss.
4 You need to consider (write) the following about your production How the audience is represented in your productHow your product can be applied to audience theoriesHow the audience for your product was constructed and researched
5 Aims/Objectives To consider the way audiences are grouped and targeted To reinforce basic audience theoryTo have an understanding of how to evaluate your coursework against a consideration of your target audience.
6 Is your text popular for a mass audience? mass-produced - made for the 'mass' of people. There is a downside to this, of course, in that it can also be interpreted as 'commercial' or 'trashy'.niche - a small target audience that is highly specificalternative – outside of the mainstream. Going against dominant ideology includes minority groups, perhaps with subversive values
7 Gaining Feedback from your Audience You attempted to gain feedback from your target audience in order to get their opinions.What else did you do? Blogs – images and ideas? Polls to tailor the product better for your audience?
9 Message (institution) Audience theory is concerned with how audiences interpret messagesMediumAudience
10 Passive or active audiences Audiences accept media messagesAudiences easily influencedDo not make own use of texts or interpret in own wayAudiences are involved in their interpretations of media textsAudiences create their own meaningsAudiences question and respond to institutions
11 Ien Ang (1991) detailed that media producers have an imaginary entity in mind before the construction of a media product.What is she talking about?
12 Ang (1991) states that 'audiencehood is becoming an ever more multifaceted, fragmented and diversified repertoire of practices and experiences'.You must detail the social demographic of your target audience (gender, age, ethnicity, social class).
14 The Hypodermic Needle Model Dating from the 1920sOne of the first attempts to explain how audiences react to mass mediaSuggests that audiences passively receive information transmitted via a media textSuggests that audiences do not try to process or challenge the informationDeveloped when mass media was still fairly new
15 The Frankfurt School’s Hypodermic Theory (1930s) This Marxist theory, which was championed by theorists such as Theodore Adorno, assumes a direct stimulus-response relationship between audience reactions and the consumption of media texts.
16 The message is entirely accepted by the audience The audience has no role in interpreting the textIs considered mostly obsolete todayStill quoted during moral panics (computer games, violent films etc)
17 HintThis theory can relate directly to music videos – debate at the moment concerned with rap/gangster videos, Marylin Manson etc.
18 "These are bad people who did this. Kids out of control "These are bad people who did this. Kids out of control. When I was young it was all Pac-Man and board games. Now they're playing Grand Theft Auto and want to live it for themselves."This was said about the 2011 London riotsHow much do you agree with this statement?
19 “If Pac-Man had affected us as kids, we'd all be running around in dark rooms, munching pills and listening to repetitive electronic music.” – Marcus Brigstocke
20 Criticisms Of Hypodermic Theory Doesn’t allow for resistance or rejection of media messages.Elitist.Simplistic.
22 Look at these media texts What do you think consumers get from these texts? Do different texts offer different things to different people?
23 Uses & GratificationsUses and Gratifications Theory states that people use media texts in different ways, for different reasons. Blumler and Katz’s in ‘74 expanded on the 60s versionUnlike the Hypodermic needle model U and G theory argues that it’s:“...not what does the media do to people, but what do people do with the media”
24 4 Areas Entertainment/Diversion The media text is enjoyable; an escape from routine and problems; an emotional releaseInformation/SurveillanceThe media text is a source of information; a form of educationSocial RelationshipsThe media text is part of social life or is a replacement for a social life.Personal IdentityThe media product reflects your own values, ideals and hopes or “life”
25 TASKThink about which product you have made that Audience Theory could apply too and answer this: Which of these needs are likely to be satisfied by your product?7 Minutes – GO!
28 Reception Theory Stuart Hall, 1980 Encoding/decoding model of the relationship between text and audience - the text is encoded by the producer, and decoded by the readerThere may be major differences between two different readings of the same code created by situated culture - social class, gender, ethnicity etc.Using recognised codes and conventions and drawing upon audience expectations relating to aspects such as genre and use of stars, the producers can position the audience and thus create a certain amount of agreement on what the code means. This is known as a preferred reading
29 HintYou must think about the meanings behind your text and how you encoded them and they are decoded according to audience’s:Situated CultureSo people from different social groups will have knowledge of the codes of different types of media text
30 Stuart Hall (1980) analysed the readings within audiences as either: 1.Dominant or Preferred Reading: The meaning they want you to have is usually accepted.2.Negotiated Reading: The dominant reading is only partially recognised or accepted and audiences might disagree with some of it or find their own meanings.3.Oppositional Reading: The dominant reading is refused, rejected because the reader disagrees with it or is offended by it, especially for political, religious, feminist, reasons etc.
31 Reception TheoryHow might different people feel about this advert?
32 Preferred ReadingThe preferred reading is the reading media producers hope audiences will take from the text.In this example, it’s that a Big Mac is delicious and fills you up
33 Oppositional readingAudiences outside the intended target audience may have an oppositional reading.This is where the audience reject the preferred reading and supply their own meaning, in this example, an awareness of advertising and how the real burger looks different to the adverts
34 Negotiated Reading“I like Big Macs but I know they are unhealthy so I eat them rarely and as part of a balanced diet”Negotiated reading is when audiences acknowledge the preferred reading, but modify it to suit their own values and opinions.In this example, it’s that Big Mac’s aren’t healthy, but one every now and then is ok.
35 TASK – Answer these Q’s: What is your preferred reading?How do you encode it through your use of technical aspects (camerawork, editing, sound, mise en scene)?What different readings might the audience produce?7 Minutes – GO!
36 Bear’s Survival Guide Stronger answers do 3 things well: Outline the concept of Audience with reference to relevant x3 theoristsApply these ideas to a range of specific elements from ONE PIECE courseworkEmphasis is on examples from your product and how they support or challenge a theoryPoor answers will lack reference to theory and specific answers.Choice of text is important.Don’t forget your Target Audience – Surveys, socio-cultural background
37 Theory“People who watch things and read things are brainwashed by them and believe everything they say”“People watch things and read things because they get certain things out of it, like for entertainment or education”“Different people get different things out of media texts”
38 Terminology Checklist! EncodingDecodingDominantNegotiatedOppositionalSocio-cultural contextReceptionUses and Gratifications - surveillance, escapism, personal identity & relationshipsHypodermic Needlepassive audience/active audience
39 Web 2.0Allows audiences to be interactive through customisation of texts and platforms to express their own opinionsSpecifically refers to social networking sites and sites which rely on user generated content (blogs, web forums, YouTube…) or sharing content (torrents…)Challenge traditional models of audience as they place the power to create and influence in the hands of the audience rather than institutions
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