2OBJECTIVES Understand sections and cutting-plane lines. 2. Apply correct section-lining practices.3. Recognize and draw section lining for 10 different materials.4. Draw a section view given a two-view drawing.5. Demonstrate correct hidden-line practices for section views.6. Identify seven types of sections.7. Apply section techniques to create clear, interpretable drawings.8. Demonstrate the proper techniques for sectioning ribs, webs, and spokes.9. Use hatching when using conventional breaks to show elongated objects.10. Interpret drawings that include section views.
3UNDERSTANDING SECTIONS Section views are used for three main purposes:• To document the design and manufacture of single parts that are manufactured as onepiece.• To document how multiple parts are to be assembled or built.• To aid in visualizing the internal workings of a design.When the part is cut fully in half, the resulting view is called a full section.
4The Cutting PlaneThe cutting plane appears edgewise as a thick dashed line called the cutting-plane line. The arrows at the ends of the cutting-plane line indicate the direction of sight for the sectional view.The Cutting Plane
5Visible Edges on Cutting Planes Newly visible edges cut by cutting plane are crosshatched with section lining.
6LABELING CUTTING PLANES Note that each section (A-A and B-B)is completely independent.
7RULES FOR LINES IN SECTION VIEWS Show edges and contours that arenow visible behind the cutting plane.Omit hidden lines in section views.A sectioned area is alwayscompletely bounded by a visibleoutline—never by a hidden line.A visible line can never crossa sectioned area in a viewof a single part.
8CUTTING-PLANE LINE STYLE It is made up of equal dashes, each about 6 mm (1/4“) long ending in arrowheads. This form works especially well for drawings. The alternative style, uses alternating long dashes and pairs of short dashes and ends with arrowheads. This style has been in general use for a long time, so you may still see it on drawings. Both lines are drawn the same thickness as visible lines. The arrowheads at the ends of the cutting plane line indicate the direction in which the cutaway object is viewed.Alternative Methods for Showing a Cutting PlaneA and B.
9Visualizing Cutting-Plane Direction Correct and Incorrect Cutting-Plane Line Placement
10SECTION-LINING TECHNIQUE • Uniformly spaced by an interval of about 2.5 mm• Not too close together• Uniformly thin, not varying in thickness• Distinctly thinner than visible lines• Neither running beyond nor stopping short of visibleoutlines
12Section-Lining Symbols Section-lining symbols may be used to indicate specific materials.These symbols represent general material types only, such as cast iron, brass, and steel.Symbols for Section Lining
13Section-Lining in CADCAD programs usually include libraries that allow you to select from a variety of section-lining patterns, making it easy to use different patterns, angles, and scales for the spacing of thepattern.
14HALF SECTIONSSymmetrical objects can be shown effectively using a special type of section view called a half section. A half section exposes the interior of half of the object and the exterior of the other half. This is done by removing one quarter of the object.Cutting planeHalf section
15BROKEN OUT SECTIONS It often happens that only a partial section of a view is needed to expose interior shapes.Such a section, limited by a break line, iscalled a broken out section.
16REVOLVED SECTIONSThe shape of the cross section of a bar, arm, spoke, or other elongated object can be shown in the longitudinal view by using a revolved section.To create a revolved section, first imagine a cutting plane perpendicular to the centerline or axis of the object. Next, revolve the plane 90° about a centerline at right angles to the axis.90°
17REMOVED SECTIONSA removed section is one that is not in direct projection from the view containing the cutting plane — that is, it is not positioned in agreement with the standard arrangement of views.
18OFFSET SECTIONSIn sectioning complex objects, it is often desirable to show features that do not lie in a straight line by “offsetting” or bending the cutting plane. These are called offset sections.Note the offset cutting plane line
19RIBS IN SECTIONTo avoid giving a false impression of thickness and solidity, ribs, webs, gear teeth, and other similar flat features are not hatched with section lining even though the cutting plane slices them.Thin features are not hatched even though the cutting plane passes lengthwise through them.
20ALIGNED SECTIONSWhen parts with angled elements are sectioned, the cutting plane may be bent to pass through those features. The plane and features are then imagined to be revolved into the original plane.The angle of revolution should always be less than 90° foran aligned section.Aligned Section
21PARTIAL VIEWSIf space is limited on the paper or to save time, partial views may be used with sectioning.Another method of drawing a partial view is to break out much of the circular view, retaining only those features that are needed for minimum representation.
22INTERSECTIONS IN SECTIONS Whenever an intersection is small or unimportant in a section, it is standard practice to disregard the true projection of the figure of intersection.Larger intersectionsmay be projectedNote that the larger hole K is the same diameter as the vertical hole. In such cases the curves of intersection (ellipses) appear as straight lines.
23CONVENTIONAL BREAKS AND SECTIONS Conventional breaks are used to shorten the view of an object that is too long to show clearly at one scale on the drawing sheet.
24ASSEMBLY SECTIONSSection views are often used to create assembly drawings.Notice that the hatching on different parts has different hatch patterns or hatch at different angles. When used on the same part, the hatching is always at the same angle to help you recognize the parts easily.
25COMPUTER TECHNIQUES FOR SECTIONS 2D and 3D sectional views are created using CAD. Most CAD systems have a “hatch” command to generate the section lining and hatch patterns to fill an area automatically.(Courtesy of PTC.)(Courtesy of PTC.)
27OBJECTIVES 1. Create an auxiliary view from orthographic views. 2. Draw folding lines or reference-plane lines between any twoadjacent views.3. Construct depth, height, or width auxiliary views.4. Plot curves in auxiliary views.5. Construct partial auxiliary views.6. Create auxiliary section views.7. Produce views to show the true length of a line, point view of aline, edge view of a surface, and true-size view of a surface.8. Show the true size of the angle between two planes (dihedralangle).9. Construct the development of prisms, pyramids, cylinders, andcones.10. Use triangulation to transfer surface shapes to a development.11. Create the development of transition pieces.12. Graphically solve for the intersection of solids.13. Apply revolution to show true-length edges and true-sizesurfaces.
28UNDERSTANDING AUXILIARY VIEWS Auxiliary views are useful for both design and documentation. Many objects are shaped so that their principal faces are not parallel to the standard planes of projection.To show the true circular shapes, use a direction of sight perpendicular to the plane of the curve, to produce an Auxiliary View.
29The Auxiliary PlaneTo show the inclined surface (P) true size, the direction of sight must be perpendicular to the inclined plane.The auxiliary plane in this case is perpendicular to the frontal plane of projection andhinged to it. It is angled to the horizontal (top) and profile (side) viewing planes.
30Primary Auxiliary Views A primary auxiliary view is projected onto a plane that is perpendicular to one of the principal planes of projection and is inclined to the other two.
31Depth Auxiliary ViewsAll these views show the object’s depth and therefore are all depth auxiliary views.
32Height Auxiliary Views The front view and all these auxiliary views show the height of the object. Therefore, all these auxiliary views are height auxiliary views.
33Width Auxiliary ViewsThe front view and all these auxiliary views are width auxiliary views.
34Successive Auxiliary Views From a primary auxiliary view , a secondary auxiliary view can be drawn, then from it a third auxiliary view, and so on.Successive Auxiliary Views
35Secondary Auxiliary Views A secondary auxiliary view is projected from a primary auxiliary viewonto a plane that is inclined to all three principal projection planes.Second Auxiliary View, showing the True Size of the Top Oblique Surface
36Reference PlanesInstead of using one of the planes of projection, you can use a reference plane parallel to the plane of projection that touches or cuts through the object.If you are using 2D CAD, you can draw half of the view and then mirror the object.
37USING TRIANGLES TO SKETCH AUXILIARY VIEWS You can use two triangles to quickly draw parallel and perpendicular lines for “accurate” sketches.• Place two triangles together so that the 90° cornersare on the outside.• Slide them on your drawing until the outer edge ofone triangle is along the line to which you want tosketch parallel.• Hold down the triangle and slide the other along it.• Draw parallel lines along one edge of the triangle.Draw perpendicular lines along the other edge.
38CIRCLES AND ELLIPSES IN AUXILIARY VIEWS Circular shapes appear elliptical when viewed at an angle other than 90° (straight on to the circular shape). This is frequently the case when constructing auxiliary views.
39HIDDEN LINES IN AUXILIARY VIEWS Generally, hidden lines should be omitted in auxiliary views, unless they are needed to clearly communicate the drawing’s intent.Your instructor may ask you to show all hidden lines for visualization practice, especially if the auxiliaryview of the entire object is shown. Later, when you are familiar with drawing auxiliary views, omit hiddenlines when they do not add needed information to the drawing.
40PARTIAL AUXILIARY VIEWS Using an auxiliary view often makes it possible to omit one or more regularviews, but auxiliary drawings are time consuming to create and may even beconfusing because of the clutter of lines. Partial views are often sufficient andeasier to read.
41AUXILIARY SECTIONSAn auxiliary section is simply an auxiliary view in section.Note thecutting-plane line and the terminating arrows that indicate the directionof sight for the auxiliary section. In an auxiliary sectiondrawing, the entire portion of the object behind the cutting planemay be shown, or the cut surface alone may be shown.
42VIEWING-PLANE LINES AND ARROWS When the drawing sheet is too crowded to show the auxiliary view in direction projection you can use a viewing-plane line or a viewing direction arrow to indicate the direction of sight for the auxiliary view.
43DIHEDRAL ANGLESThe angle between two planes is called a dihedral angle. Auxiliary views oftenneed to be drawn to show dihedral angles true size, mainly for dimensioningpurposes.
44AXIS OF REVOLUTIONRevolution, like auxiliary view projection, is a method of determining the true length and true size of inclined and oblique lines and planes.The axis of revolution appears as a point in this view. The object revolves but does not change shape in this view. In the adjacent views in which the axis of revolution, if it were drawn, would show as a line in true length, the dimensions of the object that are parallel to the axis of revolution do not change.