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Modern Philosophy PART TWO. Baruch Spinoza  Background  Early years  The road to excommunication  Lenses & philosophy  Works.

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Presentation on theme: "Modern Philosophy PART TWO. Baruch Spinoza  Background  Early years  The road to excommunication  Lenses & philosophy  Works."— Presentation transcript:

1 Modern Philosophy PART TWO

2 Baruch Spinoza  Background  Early years  The road to excommunication  Lenses & philosophy  Works

3 Spinoza: Goals & Methods  Goal: Freedom  Ethics  Method  Ethics  Foundation  Assumptions

4 Spinoza: Epistemology  Truth  Necessity  Appearance of contingency  Ideas  Opinion/Imagination  Reason  Intuition

5 Spinoza: Metaphysics  Substance  Defining substance  Infinity  Defining God  Ontological Argument for God’s existence  God  Argument for one substance  Pantheism  Is God a Person

6 Spinoza: Metaphysics  Atheist or Mystic  Labels  False Dilemma  Freedom & necessity  Apparent contradiction  Creation & Necessity  Two types of events  Free Will

7 Spinoza: Metaphysics  Mind-Body problem  God’s attributes  Mind-Body

8 Spinoza: Ethics  Freedom  Overview  Method  Self Preservation  Self-awareness  The Mind  Comprehensive understanding

9 Spinoza: Ethics  Good & Evil  Self-preservation  Love & Immortality  Intellectual love of God  Immortality

10 Spinoza: Criticism/Impact  Conclusion  The Wise man  Criticism  Desirable  Coherent  Impact  18 th Century  19 th Century  20 th Century

11 Leibniz: Background  German Culture  Stagnant  Background for Leibniz  Early years  Professional career  Diplomacy  Works

12 Leibniz: Goal & Method  Goal  Unified  Logical Method  Logic  Method  Application of the method  Assumptions

13 Leibniz: Epistemology  Innate Ideas  Against Locke  The Mind  Against the empiricists

14 Leibniz: Epistemology Necessity & Contingency  Truths of Reason & Truths of Fact  Truths of reason  Truths of fact  Necessary & contingent truths  Deduction

15 Leibniz: Metaphysics God  God  Proofs for God’s existence  Proof of God’s existence by possibility & necessity  God  Perfection  Existence  Cosmological Argument  Two principles  Two kinds of truth  Sufficient Reason  God

16 Leibniz: Metaphysics Problem of Evil  Best of All Possible Worlds  The best world  God’s choice  Diversity  No Better Possible World  Intellectualist view  The Problem & Reply  The Best  Denial of pantheism

17 Leibniz: Metaphysics Problem of Evil  Evil as Privation  The question  Origin of evil-the ancients  Origin of evil-intellectualist view  Understanding & necessity  Analogy of the Boats  Boats  The Analogy  Defects

18 Leibniz: Metaphysics Metaphysical Points  Problems & Solutions  Introduction  Problems with Cartesian matter  Problems with Spinoza  Rejection of materialism  Phenomenology  Metaphysical Points

19 Leibniz: Metaphysics Monads  Nature of Monads  Introduction  Minds  Perception  Continuity  The identity of indiscernibles

20 Leibniz: Metaphysics Monads  Windowless Monads  Windowless  Pre-Established harmony  Inner World  One World  Space & Time  Extended Things  Space & Time

21 Leibniz: Metaphysics Monads  Mind-Body Problem  Bodies  Interaction  Teleology & Mechanism  Reconciliation  Two Realms  Freedom & Determinism  Freedom  Compatibilism

22 Leibniz: Metaphysics Monads  The City of God  Souls  Why did God create the world?  Harmony, reward & punishment  Machinery of Justice

23 Leibniz: Metaphysics Problems & Impact  Problems  The best of all possible worlds  Freedom  Collapse to Spinoza  Impact  Dominant  Lost potential  Universal, logically perfect language


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