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Modern Philosophy Part One.

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Presentation on theme: "Modern Philosophy Part One."— Presentation transcript:

1 Modern Philosophy Part One

2 Historical & Conceptual Background of the Modern Era
Renaissance Humanism Renaissance Humanism Rebirth of Interest in Greek & Roman Literature Technology Other Trends Protestant Reformation The Church Martin Luther ( ) Social & Political Changes Religion Commerce

3 Background The Rise of Modern Science Implications of the New Science
Copernican Revolution Nicolaus Copernicus ( ) Galileo ( ) Implications of the New Science Galileo Primary Qualities Secondary Qualities Mechanical Explanations Replace Teleological Explanations Elimination of Final Causes & Good

4 background A New Approach to Philosophy Sweeping Away the Past
The Search for a Perfect Philosophical Method Rationalism Empiricism

5 Argument Basics Argument Concepts Defined
General Assessment: Reasoning General Assessment: Are the Premises True?

6 Deductive Arguments Introduction to Deductive Arguments
Defined Use Assessment Valid/Invalid, Sound/Unsound Some Common Valid Deductive Arguments Reductio Ad Adsurdum Form #1/Form #2 Example

7 Inductive Arguments Introduction to Inductive Arguments Defined
Assessment Strong & Weak Arguments

8 Analogical Argument Introduction Form Definition Uses Informal
Strict Form Premise 1: X has properties P, Q, and R. Premise 2: Y has properties P, Q, and R. Premise 3: X has property Z as well. Conclusion: Y has property Z.

9 Analogical Argument Assessment The strength of the argument depends on
The number of properties X & Y have in common. The relevance of the shared properties to Z. Whether X & Y have relevant dissimilarities. Example

10 Argument from/by Example
Introduction Defined Form Informal Premise 1: Example 1 is an example that supports claim P. Premise 2: Example 2 is an example that supports claim P. Premise n: Example n is an example that supports claim C. Conclusion: Claim P is true.

11 Argument from/by Example
Standards of Assessment Standards The more examples, the stronger the argument. The examples must be relevant. The examples must be specific & clearly identified. Counter-examples must be considered.

12 Argument from Authority
Introduction Defined Use Form Premise 1: Person A is an authority on subject S. Premises 2: Person A makes claim C about subject S. Premises 3: Therefore, C is true.

13 Argument from Authority
Assessment Standards The person has sufficient expertise in the subject. The claim is within the expert’s area of expertise. There is an adequate degree of agreement among experts. The expert is not significantly biased. The area of expertise is a legitimate area or discipline. The authority must be properly cited.

14 Thomas hobbes (1588-1679) background
Personal Information Influence: Galileo’s Works Influence: Euclidean Geometry Influence: English Civil War The Leviathan (1651) Physics & Philosophy Goal & Method Empiricism Metaphysical Materialism God Ontology

15 Thomas hobbes physics & Philosophy
Types of Philosophy First Philosophy Special Sciences Political Science Epistemology & Psychology Thoughts Sensations Imagination & Memory Association Language Humans Nominalism & Reasoning

16 Thomas hobbes Metaphysics Ethics Determinism Human Behavior
Voluntary Motions Hobbes account of Deliberation Ethics Morality & Materialism

17 Thomas Hobbes physics & politics
View of Politics Experience Conclusions Drawn From Experience Method The State of Nature State of Nature Egoism Natural Laws The Laws The Sovereign

18 Thomas hobbes Physics & politics
Social Contract The Contract The Sovereign Rights & Morality Reaction

19 Thomas hobbes impact & problems
Perception Consciousness Freedom, Purpose & Values

20 Rene Descartes (1596-1650) background
Life & Works Life Works Agenda Motivation Travel Inward Focus Goals

21 Rene descartes method Methodology Mathematics Intuition Deduction
The Meditations on First Philosophy

22 Rene descartes First Meditation
First Part Start & Goal Method Doubting the Senses Senses Dream Problem Painter Analogy Math: Skeptical Pause God & The Demon God The Demon

23 Rene Descartes Second Meditation
Skepticism & Certainty Method Skepticism The Foundation of Certainty: I am, I exist The Self Goal Rejected: The Body as Self A Thing That Thinks Rejected Human Body Air, Wind, Fire, Vapor, or Breath

24 Rene Descartes Second Meditation
Knowledge of His Existence is not via the Imagination Certainty The Wax Example The Wax How the Wax is Known Language & Errors Perception & Inference The Wax Proves He Exists Conclusion

25 Rene Descartes third meditation
Truth & God Standard of Truth: Clear & Distinct External Things God & Deception Does God Exist? Is God a Deceiver? Ideas Division of Thoughts Ideas& Truth Source of Ideas Ideas of External Objects

26 Rene Descartes third meditation
External Objects: Instructed by Nature External Objects: Ideas do not Depend on His Will External Objects: Resemblance Ideas, Reality & Causes Ideas & Reality Objective Reality Principle: The cause must contain at least as much reality as the effect. Formal Reality Eminent Containment Causes of Ideas Regress Argument for Archetypes

27 Rene Descartes third meditation
Method: Trying to find an idea he cannot be the cause of. He could be the cause of his ideas of secondary qualities. He could be the cause of his ideas of primary qualities. God Substance & Infinity Argument Infinity, God and Comprehension Descartes considers he might be the cause. Why Descartes cannot be the cause.

28 Rene Descartes third meditation
More on God Goal He is lacking, so he cannot be the author of his own being. Infinite Parts Argument Regress Argument Several Causes Parents Idea of God God is not a deceiver/

29 Rene Descartes Fourth meditation
God & Reason God is not a deceiver. Reason The Cartesian Circle The Possibility of Error Points of Certainty

30 Rene Descartes Fifth meditation
Third Proof of God The Proof Unique to God

31 Rene Descartes Sixth meditation
The External World The Problem Descartes as the cause. God as the cause. External objects cause the ideas. Illusions Nature of Objects

32 Rene Descartes Cartesian dualism
Substance Two Substances: Mental & Physical Meditations: Doubt Meditations: Different Humans & Animals The Cartesian Compromise Reconciliation The Dualist Solution: The Body The Dualist Solution: The Mind

33 Rene Descartes Cartesian dualism
Interactionism Mind-Body Problem Ship & Pilot Analogy The Pineal Gland

34 Rene Descartes Problems & Impact
Natural Light Principle & Doubt Infinity Contamination Problem Interactionism: Arnold Geulincx ( ) Parallelism Interactionism: Nicolas Malebranche ( ) Occasionalism Blaise Pascal

35 Rene Descartes Problems & Impact
Certainty Universal Science Reconciling Science & Religion Artificial Intelligence

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