Presentation on theme: "Modern Philosophy PART ONE. Historical & Conceptual Background of the Modern Era Renaissance Humanism Renaissance Humanism Rebirth of Interest."— Presentation transcript:
Modern Philosophy PART ONE
Historical & Conceptual Background of the Modern Era Renaissance Humanism Renaissance Humanism Rebirth of Interest in Greek & Roman Literature Technology Other Trends Protestant Reformation The Church Martin Luther ( ) Social & Political Changes Religion Commerce
Background The Rise of Modern Science Background Copernican Revolution Nicolaus Copernicus ( ) Galileo ( ) Implications of the New Science Galileo Primary Qualities Secondary Qualities Mechanical Explanations Replace Teleological Explanations Elimination of Final Causes & Good
background A New Approach to Philosophy Sweeping Away the Past The Search for a Perfect Philosophical Method Rationalism Empiricism
Argument Basics Argument Concepts Defined General Assessment: Reasoning General Assessment: Are the Premises True?
Deductive Arguments Introduction to Deductive Arguments Defined Use Assessment Valid/Invalid, Sound/Unsound Some Common Valid Deductive Arguments Reductio Ad Adsurdum Defined Form #1/Form #2 Example
Inductive Arguments Introduction to Inductive Arguments Defined Assessment Strong & Weak Arguments
Analogical Argument Introduction Definition Uses Form Informal Strict Form Premise 1: X has properties P, Q, and R. Premise 2: Y has properties P, Q, and R. Premise 3: X has property Z as well. Conclusion: Y has property Z.
Analogical Argument Assessment The strength of the argument depends on The number of properties X & Y have in common. The relevance of the shared properties to Z. Whether X & Y have relevant dissimilarities. Example
Argument from/by Example Introduction Defined Form Informal Form Premise 1: Example 1 is an example that supports claim P. Premise 2: Example 2 is an example that supports claim P. Premise n: Example n is an example that supports claim C. Conclusion: Claim P is true.
Argument from/by Example Standards of Assessment Standards The more examples, the stronger the argument. The examples must be relevant. The examples must be specific & clearly identified. Counter-examples must be considered.
Argument from Authority Introduction Defined Use Form Premise 1: Person A is an authority on subject S. Premises 2: Person A makes claim C about subject S. Premises 3: Therefore, C is true.
Argument from Authority Assessment Standards The person has sufficient expertise in the subject. The claim is within the expert’s area of expertise. There is an adequate degree of agreement among experts. The expert is not significantly biased. The area of expertise is a legitimate area or discipline. The authority must be properly cited.
Thomas hobbes ( ) background Background Personal Information Influence: Galileo’s Works Influence: Euclidean Geometry Influence: English Civil War The Leviathan (1651) Physics & Philosophy Goal & Method Empiricism Metaphysical Materialism God Ontology
Thomas hobbes physics & Philosophy Types of Philosophy First Philosophy Special Sciences Political Science Epistemology & Psychology Thoughts Sensations Imagination & Memory Association Language Humans Nominalism & Reasoning
Thomas hobbes Metaphysics Determinism Human Behavior Voluntary Motions Hobbes account of Deliberation Ethics Morality & Materialism
Thomas Hobbes physics & politics View of Politics Experience Conclusions Drawn From Experience Method The State of Nature State of Nature Egoism Natural Laws The Laws The Sovereign
Thomas hobbes Physics & politics Social Contract The Contract The Sovereign Rights & Morality Reaction
Rene Descartes ( ) background Life & Works Life Works Agenda Motivation Travel Inward Focus Goals
Rene descartes method Methodology Mathematics Intuition Deduction The Meditations on First Philosophy
Rene descartes First Meditation First Part Start & Goal Method Doubting the Senses Senses Dream Problem Painter Analogy Math: Skeptical Pause God & The Demon God The Demon
Rene Descartes Second Meditation Skepticism & Certainty Method Skepticism The Foundation of Certainty: I am, I exist The Self Goal Rejected: The Body as Self A Thing That Thinks Rejected Human Body Air, Wind, Fire, Vapor, or Breath
Rene Descartes Second Meditation Knowledge of His Existence is not via the Imagination Certainty The Wax Example The Wax How the Wax is Known Language & Errors Perception & Inference The Wax Proves He Exists Conclusion
Rene Descartes third meditation Truth & God Standard of Truth: Clear & Distinct External Things God & Deception Does God Exist? Is God a Deceiver? Ideas Division of Thoughts Ideas& Truth Source of Ideas Ideas of External Objects
Rene Descartes third meditation External Objects: Instructed by Nature External Objects: Ideas do not Depend on His Will External Objects: Resemblance Ideas, Reality & Causes Ideas & Reality Objective Reality Principle: The cause must contain at least as much reality as the effect. Formal Reality Eminent Containment Causes of Ideas Regress Argument for Archetypes
Rene Descartes third meditation Method: Trying to find an idea he cannot be the cause of. He could be the cause of his ideas of secondary qualities. He could be the cause of his ideas of primary qualities. God Substance & Infinity Argument Infinity, God and Comprehension Descartes considers he might be the cause. Why Descartes cannot be the cause.
Rene Descartes third meditation More on God Goal He is lacking, so he cannot be the author of his own being. Infinite Parts Argument Regress Argument Several Causes Parents Idea of God God is not a deceiver/
Rene Descartes Fourth meditation God & Reason God is not a deceiver. Reason The Cartesian Circle The Possibility of Error Points of Certainty
Rene Descartes Fifth meditation Third Proof of God The Proof Unique to God
Rene Descartes Sixth meditation The External World The Problem Descartes as the cause. God as the cause. External objects cause the ideas. Illusions Nature of Objects
Rene Descartes Cartesian dualism Dualism Substance Two Substances: Mental & Physical Meditations: Doubt Meditations: Different Humans & Animals Dualism The Cartesian Compromise Reconciliation The Dualist Solution: The Body The Dualist Solution: The Mind
Rene Descartes Cartesian dualism Interactionism Mind-Body Problem Ship & Pilot Analogy The Pineal Gland