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Modern Philosophy PART ONE. Historical & Conceptual Background of the Modern Era  Renaissance Humanism  Renaissance  Humanism  Rebirth of Interest.

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Presentation on theme: "Modern Philosophy PART ONE. Historical & Conceptual Background of the Modern Era  Renaissance Humanism  Renaissance  Humanism  Rebirth of Interest."— Presentation transcript:

1 Modern Philosophy PART ONE

2 Historical & Conceptual Background of the Modern Era  Renaissance Humanism  Renaissance  Humanism  Rebirth of Interest in Greek & Roman Literature  Technology  Other Trends  Protestant Reformation  The Church  Martin Luther ( )  Social & Political Changes  Religion  Commerce

3 Background  The Rise of Modern Science  Background  Copernican Revolution  Nicolaus Copernicus ( )  Galileo ( )  Implications of the New Science  Galileo  Primary Qualities  Secondary Qualities  Mechanical Explanations Replace Teleological Explanations  Elimination of Final Causes & Good

4 background  A New Approach to Philosophy  Sweeping Away the Past  The Search for a Perfect Philosophical Method  Rationalism  Empiricism

5 Argument Basics  Argument Concepts  Defined  General Assessment: Reasoning  General Assessment: Are the Premises True?

6 Deductive Arguments  Introduction to Deductive Arguments  Defined  Use  Assessment  Valid/Invalid, Sound/Unsound  Some Common Valid Deductive Arguments  Reductio Ad Adsurdum  Defined  Form #1/Form #2  Example

7 Inductive Arguments  Introduction to Inductive Arguments  Defined  Assessment  Strong & Weak Arguments

8 Analogical Argument  Introduction  Definition  Uses  Form  Informal  Strict Form  Premise 1: X has properties P, Q, and R.  Premise 2: Y has properties P, Q, and R.  Premise 3: X has property Z as well.  Conclusion: Y has property Z.

9 Analogical Argument  Assessment  The strength of the argument depends on  The number of properties X & Y have in common.  The relevance of the shared properties to Z.  Whether X & Y have relevant dissimilarities.  Example

10 Argument from/by Example  Introduction  Defined  Form  Informal  Form Premise 1: Example 1 is an example that supports claim P. Premise 2: Example 2 is an example that supports claim P. Premise n: Example n is an example that supports claim C. Conclusion: Claim P is true.

11 Argument from/by Example  Standards of Assessment  Standards  The more examples, the stronger the argument.  The examples must be relevant.  The examples must be specific & clearly identified.  Counter-examples must be considered.

12 Argument from Authority  Introduction  Defined  Use  Form  Premise 1: Person A is an authority on subject S.  Premises 2: Person A makes claim C about subject S.  Premises 3: Therefore, C is true.

13 Argument from Authority  Assessment  Standards  The person has sufficient expertise in the subject.  The claim is within the expert’s area of expertise.  There is an adequate degree of agreement among experts.  The expert is not significantly biased.  The area of expertise is a legitimate area or discipline.  The authority must be properly cited.

14 Thomas hobbes ( ) background  Background  Personal Information  Influence: Galileo’s Works  Influence: Euclidean Geometry  Influence: English Civil War  The Leviathan (1651)  Physics & Philosophy  Goal & Method  Empiricism  Metaphysical Materialism  God  Ontology

15 Thomas hobbes physics & Philosophy  Types of Philosophy  First Philosophy  Special Sciences  Political Science  Epistemology & Psychology  Thoughts  Sensations  Imagination & Memory  Association  Language  Humans  Nominalism & Reasoning

16 Thomas hobbes  Metaphysics  Determinism  Human Behavior  Voluntary Motions  Hobbes account of Deliberation  Ethics  Morality & Materialism

17 Thomas Hobbes physics & politics  View of Politics  Experience  Conclusions Drawn From Experience  Method  The State of Nature  State of Nature  Egoism  Natural Laws  The Laws  The Sovereign

18 Thomas hobbes Physics & politics  Social Contract  The Contract  The Sovereign  Rights & Morality  Reaction

19 Thomas hobbes impact & problems  Impact  Problems  Perception  Consciousness  Freedom, Purpose & Values

20 Rene Descartes ( ) background  Life & Works  Life  Works  Agenda  Motivation  Travel  Inward Focus  Goals

21 Rene descartes method  Methodology  Mathematics  Intuition  Deduction  The Meditations on First Philosophy

22 Rene descartes First Meditation  First Part  Start & Goal  Method  Doubting the Senses  Senses  Dream Problem  Painter Analogy  Math: Skeptical Pause  God & The Demon  God  The Demon

23 Rene Descartes Second Meditation  Skepticism & Certainty  Method  Skepticism  The Foundation of Certainty: I am, I exist  The Self  Goal  Rejected: The Body as Self  A Thing That Thinks  Rejected  Human Body  Air, Wind, Fire, Vapor, or Breath

24 Rene Descartes Second Meditation  Knowledge of His Existence is not via the Imagination  Certainty  The Wax Example  The Wax  How the Wax is Known  Language & Errors  Perception & Inference  The Wax Proves He Exists  Conclusion

25 Rene Descartes third meditation  Truth & God  Standard of Truth: Clear & Distinct  External Things  God & Deception  Does God Exist?  Is God a Deceiver?  Ideas  Division of Thoughts  Ideas& Truth  Source of Ideas  Ideas of External Objects

26 Rene Descartes third meditation  External Objects: Instructed by Nature  External Objects: Ideas do not Depend on His Will  External Objects: Resemblance  Ideas, Reality & Causes  Ideas & Reality  Objective Reality  Principle: The cause must contain at least as much reality as the effect.  Formal Reality  Eminent Containment  Causes of Ideas  Regress Argument for Archetypes

27 Rene Descartes third meditation  Method: Trying to find an idea he cannot be the cause of.  He could be the cause of his ideas of secondary qualities.  He could be the cause of his ideas of primary qualities.  God  Substance & Infinity Argument  Infinity, God and Comprehension  Descartes considers he might be the cause.  Why Descartes cannot be the cause.

28 Rene Descartes third meditation  More on God  Goal  He is lacking, so he cannot be the author of his own being.  Infinite Parts Argument  Regress Argument  Several Causes  Parents  Idea of God  God is not a deceiver/

29 Rene Descartes Fourth meditation  God & Reason  God is not a deceiver.  Reason  The Cartesian Circle  The Possibility of Error  Points of Certainty

30 Rene Descartes Fifth meditation  Third Proof of God  The Proof  Unique to God

31 Rene Descartes Sixth meditation  The External World  The Problem  Descartes as the cause.  God as the cause.  External objects cause the ideas.  Illusions  Nature of Objects

32 Rene Descartes Cartesian dualism  Dualism  Substance  Two Substances: Mental & Physical  Meditations: Doubt  Meditations: Different  Humans & Animals  Dualism  The Cartesian Compromise  Reconciliation  The Dualist Solution: The Body  The Dualist Solution: The Mind

33 Rene Descartes Cartesian dualism  Interactionism  Mind-Body Problem  Ship & Pilot Analogy  The Pineal Gland

34 Rene Descartes Problems & Impact  Problems  Natural Light  Principle & Doubt  Infinity  Contamination Problem  Interactionism: Arnold Geulincx ( )  Parallelism  Interactionism: Nicolas Malebranche ( )  Occasionalism  Blaise Pascal

35 Rene Descartes Problems & Impact  Impact  Certainty  Universal Science  Reconciling Science & Religion  Artificial Intelligence


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