2Historical & Conceptual Background of the Modern Era Renaissance HumanismRenaissanceHumanismRebirth of Interest in Greek & Roman LiteratureTechnologyOther TrendsProtestant ReformationThe ChurchMartin Luther ( )Social & Political ChangesReligionCommerce
3Background The Rise of Modern Science Implications of the New Science Copernican RevolutionNicolaus Copernicus ( )Galileo ( )Implications of the New ScienceGalileoPrimary QualitiesSecondary QualitiesMechanical Explanations Replace Teleological ExplanationsElimination of Final Causes & Good
4background A New Approach to Philosophy Sweeping Away the Past The Search for a Perfect Philosophical MethodRationalismEmpiricism
5Argument Basics Argument Concepts Defined General Assessment: ReasoningGeneral Assessment: Are the Premises True?
6Deductive Arguments Introduction to Deductive Arguments DefinedUseAssessmentValid/Invalid, Sound/UnsoundSome Common Valid Deductive ArgumentsReductio Ad AdsurdumForm #1/Form #2Example
7Inductive Arguments Introduction to Inductive Arguments Defined AssessmentStrong & Weak Arguments
8Analogical Argument Introduction Form Definition Uses Informal Strict FormPremise 1: X has properties P, Q, and R.Premise 2: Y has properties P, Q, and R.Premise 3: X has property Z as well.Conclusion: Y has property Z.
9Analogical Argument Assessment The strength of the argument depends on The number of properties X & Y have in common.The relevance of the shared properties to Z.Whether X & Y have relevant dissimilarities.Example
10Argument from/by Example IntroductionDefinedFormInformalPremise 1: Example 1 is an example that supports claim P.Premise 2: Example 2 is an example that supports claim P.Premise n: Example n is an example that supports claim C.Conclusion: Claim P is true.
11Argument from/by Example Standards of AssessmentStandardsThe more examples, the stronger the argument.The examples must be relevant.The examples must be specific & clearly identified.Counter-examples must be considered.
12Argument from Authority IntroductionDefinedUseFormPremise 1: Person A is an authority on subject S.Premises 2: Person A makes claim C about subject S.Premises 3: Therefore, C is true.
13Argument from Authority AssessmentStandardsThe person has sufficient expertise in the subject.The claim is within the expert’s area of expertise.There is an adequate degree of agreement among experts.The expert is not significantly biased.The area of expertise is a legitimate area or discipline.The authority must be properly cited.
14Thomas hobbes (1588-1679) background Personal InformationInfluence: Galileo’s WorksInfluence: Euclidean GeometryInfluence: English Civil WarThe Leviathan (1651)Physics & PhilosophyGoal & MethodEmpiricismMetaphysical MaterialismGodOntology
20Rene Descartes (1596-1650) background Life & WorksLifeWorksAgendaMotivationTravelInward FocusGoals
21Rene descartes method Methodology Mathematics Intuition Deduction The Meditations on First Philosophy
22Rene descartes First Meditation First PartStart & GoalMethodDoubting the SensesSensesDream ProblemPainter AnalogyMath: Skeptical PauseGod & The DemonGodThe Demon
23Rene Descartes Second Meditation Skepticism & CertaintyMethodSkepticismThe Foundation of Certainty: I am, I existThe SelfGoalRejected: The Body as SelfA Thing That ThinksRejectedHuman BodyAir, Wind, Fire, Vapor, or Breath
24Rene Descartes Second Meditation Knowledge of His Existence is not via the ImaginationCertaintyThe Wax ExampleThe WaxHow the Wax is KnownLanguage & ErrorsPerception & InferenceThe Wax Proves He ExistsConclusion
25Rene Descartes third meditation Truth & GodStandard of Truth: Clear & DistinctExternal ThingsGod & DeceptionDoes God Exist?Is God a Deceiver?IdeasDivision of ThoughtsIdeas& TruthSource of IdeasIdeas of External Objects
26Rene Descartes third meditation External Objects: Instructed by NatureExternal Objects: Ideas do not Depend on His WillExternal Objects: ResemblanceIdeas, Reality & CausesIdeas & RealityObjective RealityPrinciple: The cause must contain at least as much reality as the effect.Formal RealityEminent ContainmentCauses of IdeasRegress Argument for Archetypes
27Rene Descartes third meditation Method: Trying to find an idea he cannot be the cause of.He could be the cause of his ideas of secondary qualities.He could be the cause of his ideas of primary qualities.GodSubstance & Infinity ArgumentInfinity, God and ComprehensionDescartes considers he might be the cause.Why Descartes cannot be the cause.
28Rene Descartes third meditation More on GodGoalHe is lacking, so he cannot be the author of his own being.Infinite Parts ArgumentRegress ArgumentSeveral CausesParentsIdea of GodGod is not a deceiver/
29Rene Descartes Fourth meditation God & ReasonGod is not a deceiver.ReasonThe Cartesian CircleThe Possibility of ErrorPoints of Certainty
30Rene Descartes Fifth meditation Third Proof of GodThe ProofUnique to God
31Rene Descartes Sixth meditation The External WorldThe ProblemDescartes as the cause.God as the cause.External objects cause the ideas.IllusionsNature of Objects
32Rene Descartes Cartesian dualism SubstanceTwo Substances: Mental & PhysicalMeditations: DoubtMeditations: DifferentHumans & AnimalsThe Cartesian CompromiseReconciliationThe Dualist Solution: The BodyThe Dualist Solution: The Mind